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Ceasefire agreement

Princely state
Princely state
of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
acceded to India UN Ceasefire Line of 1949 (later becomes Line of Control
Line of Control
after the Simla Agreement
Simla Agreement
of 1972)

Territorial changes Pakistan
Pakistan
controls roughly a third of Kashmir
Kashmir
(Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
and Gilgit–Baltistan), whereas India
India
controls the rest ( Kashmir
Kashmir
valley, Jammu
Jammu
and Ladakh).[8]

Belligerents

Dominion of India

Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir

Dominion of Pakistan

Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
irregular forces Indian National Army
Indian National Army
(retired officers) Muslim League National Guard[1] Pashtun tribal militias[2] Kurram Militia[3] Frontier Scouts[3] Swat Army[3] Furqan Force[4][5] Gilgit
Gilgit
Scouts[6][7]

Commanders and leaders

Gov. Gen. Lord Mountbatten PM Jawaharlal Nehru Gen. Rob Lockhart[9] Gen. Roy Bucher[9] Air Marshal
Air Marshal
Thomas Elmhirst[9] Lt. Gen. Dudley Russell[9] Lt.Gen. K. M. Cariappa[9] Lt.Gen. S. M. Shrinagesh[10][11] Maj.Gen. K. S. Thimayya[9] Maj.Gen. Kalwant Singh[9] Maharaja
Maharaja
Hari Singh PM Mehr Chand Mahajan Interim Head Sheikh Abdullah Brig. Rajinder Singh Lt. Col. Kashmir
Kashmir
Singh Katoch[12] Gov. Gen. Mohammad Ali Jinnah PM Liaquat Ali Khan Gen. Frank Messervy[9] Gen. Douglas Gracey[9] Col. Akbar
Akbar
Khan[13] Col. Sher Khan[13] Maj. Khurshid Anwar[14] Maj. Gen. Zaman Kiani[14] Brig. Habibur Rehman[15] Sardar Ibrahim[13] Mirza Mahmood Ahmad[5][16] Major
Major
William Brown[6] Major
Major
Mohammad Aslam[6][7]

Casualties and losses

1,104 killed[17][18][19][20] 3,154 wounded[17][21] 6,000 killed[21][22][23] ~14,000 wounded[21]

Conflict started when Pashtun tribal forces, and later Indian and Pakistani Army regulars, entered the princely state of Kashmir
Kashmir
and Jammu.

v t e

Indo-Pakistani conflicts

Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict

War of 1947 War of 1965 War of 1971 Siachen conflict Kargil War 2001–02 standoff 2008 standoff Border skirmishes

2011 2013 2014–15 2016–present confrontation

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir
Kashmir
War, was fought between India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
over the princely state of Kashmir
Kashmir
and Jammu
Jammu
from 1947 to 1948. It was the first of four Indo- Pakistan
Pakistan
Wars fought between the two newly independent nations. Pakistan
Pakistan
precipitated the war a few weeks after independence by launching tribal lashkar (militia) from Waziristan,[24] in an effort to secure Kashmir, the future of which hung in the balance. The inconclusive result of the war still affects the geopolitics of both countries. The Maharaja
Maharaja
faced an uprising by his Muslim subjects in Poonch, and lost control of the western districts of his kingdom. On 22 October 1947, Pakistan's Pashtun tribal militias crossed the border of the state.[25][26] These local tribal militias and irregular Pakistani forces moved to take Srinagar, but on reaching Baramulla, they took to plunder and stalled. Hari Singh
Hari Singh
made a plea to India
India
for assistance, and help was offered, but it was subject to his signing an Instrument of Accession to India.[26] The war was initially fought by the Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
State Forces[27] and by tribal militias from the Frontier Tribal Areas adjoining the North-West Frontier Province.[28] Following the accession of the state to India
India
on 26 October 1947, Indian troops were air-lifted to Srinagar, the state capital. The British commanding officers initially refused the entry of Pakistani troops into the conflict, citing the accession of the state to India.[26] However, later in 1948, they relented and the Pakistani armies entered the war after this.[28] The fronts solidified gradually along what came to be known as the Line of Control. A formal cease-fire was declared at 23:59 on the night of 31 December 1948.[29]:379 The result of the war was inconclusive. However, most neutral assessments agree that India
India
was the victor of the war as it was able to successfully defend[30] about two-thirds of the Kashmir
Kashmir
including Kashmir
Kashmir
valley, Jammu
Jammu
and Ladakh.[31][32][33][34]

Contents

1 Background 2 Partition of India 3 Developments in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
(August–October 1947)

3.1 Operation Gulmarg plan 3.2 Rebellion in Poonch 3.3 Pakistan's preparations, Maharaja's manoeuvring 3.4 Operations in Poonch
Poonch
and Mirpur

4 Accession of Kashmir 5 Stages of the war

5.1 Initial invasion 5.2 Indian operation in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley 5.3 Attempted link-up at Poonch
Poonch
and fall of Mirpur 5.4 Fall of Jhanger and attacks on Naoshera and Uri 5.5 Operation Vijay: counterattack to Jhanger 5.6 Indian spring offensive 5.7 Operations Gulab and Eraze 5.8 Operation Bison 5.9 Operation Easy; Poonch
Poonch
link-up 5.10 Moves up to cease-fire

6 Military awards

6.1 Battle honours 6.2 Gallantry awards

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 Further reading

Background[edit] Further information: History of Kashmir Prior to 1815, the area now known as " Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir" comprised 22 small independent states (16 Hindu and six Muslim) carved out of territories controlled by the Amir (King) of Afghanistan, combined with those of local small rulers. These were collectively referred to as the " Punjab
Punjab
Hill States". These small states, ruled by Rajput kings, were variously independent, vassals of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
since the time of Emperor Akbar
Akbar
or sometimes controlled from Kangra state in the Himachal area. Following the decline of the Mughals, turbulence in Kangra and invasions of Gorkhas, the hill states fell successively under the control of the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh.[35]:536 The First Anglo-Sikh War
First Anglo-Sikh War
(1845–46) was fought between the Sikh Empire, which asserted sovereignty over Kashmir, and the East India Company. In the Treaty of Lahore of 1846, the Sikhs were made to surrender the valuable region (the Jullundur Doab) between the Beas River and the Sutlej River
Sutlej River
and required to pay an indemnity of 1.2 million rupees. Because they could not readily raise this sum, the East India
India
Company allowed the Dogra
Dogra
ruler Gulab Singh
Gulab Singh
to acquire Kashmir
Kashmir
from the Sikh kingdom in exchange for making a payment of 750,000 rupees to the Company. Gulab Singh
Gulab Singh
became the first Maharaja of the newly formed princely state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir,[36] founding a dynasty, that was to rule the state, the second-largest principality during the British Raj, until India
India
gained its independence in 1947. Partition of India[edit] Main article: Partition of India

Partition of India
India
and the movement of refugees

The years 1946–1947 saw the rise of All- India
India
Muslim League and Muslim nationalism, demanding a separate state for India's Muslims. The demand took a violent turn on the Direct Action Day
Direct Action Day
(16 August 1946) and inter-communal violence between Hindus and Muslims became endemic. Consequently, a decision was taken on 3 June 1947 to divide British India
India
into two separate states, the Dominion of Pakistan comprising the Muslim majority areas and the Union of India
India
comprising the rest. The two provinces Punjab
Punjab
and Bengal
Bengal
with large Muslim-majority areas were to be divided between the two dominions. An estimated 11 million people eventually migrated between the two parts of Punjab, and possibly 1 million perished in the inter-communal violence. Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, being adjascent to the Punjab
Punjab
province, was directly affected by the happenings in Punjab.

Field Marshal Claude Auchinleck, Supreme Commander of Indian and Pakistani armed forces

The original target date for the transfer of power to the new dominions was June 1948. However, fearing the rise of inter-communal violence, the British Viceroy Lord Mountbatten
Lord Mountbatten
advanced the date to 15 August 1947. This gave only 6 weeks to complete all the arrangements for partition.[37] Mountbatten's original plan was to stay on the joint Governor General
General
for both the dominions till June 1948. However, this was not accepted by the Pakistani leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah. In the event, Mountbatten stayed on as the Governor General
General
of India, whereas Pakistan
Pakistan
chose Jinnah as its Governor General.[38] It was envisaged that the nationalisation of the armed forces could not be completed by 15 August.[a] Hence British officers stayed on after the transfer of power. The service chiefs were appointed by the Dominion governments and were responsible to them. The overall administrative control, but not operational control, was vested with Field Marshal Claude Auchinleck, who was titled the 'Supreme Commander', answerable to a newly formed Joint Defence Council of the two dominions. India appointed General
General
Rob Lockhart as its Army chief and Pakistan appointed General
General
Frank Messervy.[43] The presence of the British commanding officers on both sides made the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
a strange war. The two commanding officers were in daily telephone contact and adopted mutually defensive positions. The attitude was that "you can hit them so hard but not too hard, otherwise there will be all kinds of repercussions."[44] Both Lockhart and Messervy were replaced in the course of war, and their successors Roy Bucher
Roy Bucher
and Douglas Gracey tried to exercise restraint on their respective governments. Roy Bucher
Roy Bucher
was apparently successful in doing so in India, but Gracey yielded and let British officers be used in operational roles on the side of Pakistan. One British officer even died in action.[45] Developments in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
(August–October 1947)[edit]

Maharaja
Maharaja
Hari Singh
Hari Singh
of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir

With the independence of the Dominions, the British Paramountcy over the princely states came to an end. The rulers of the states were advised to join one of the two dominions by executing an Instrument of Accession. Maharaja
Maharaja
Hari Singh
Hari Singh
of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, along with his prime minister Ram Chandra Kak, decided not to accede to either dominion. The reasons cited were that the Muslim majority population of the State would not be comfortable with joining India, and that the Hindu and Sikh minorities would become vulnerable if the state joined Pakistan.[46] In 1947, the princely state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
had a wide range of ethnic and religious communities. The Kashmir
Kashmir
province consisting of the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley and the Muzaffarabad district
Muzaffarabad district
had a majority Muslim population (over 90%). The Jammu
Jammu
province, consisting of 5 districts, had a roughly equal division of Hindus and Muslims in the eastern districts (Udhampur, Jammu
Jammu
and Reasi) and Muslim majority in the western districts (Mirpur and Poonch). The mountainous Ladakh
Ladakh
district (wazarat) in the east had a significant Buddhist presence with a Muslim majority in Baltistan. The Gilgit Agency
Gilgit Agency
in the north was overwhelmingly Muslim and was directly governed by the British under an agreement with the Maharaja. Shortly before the transfer of power, the British returned the Gilgit Agency
Gilgit Agency
to the Maharaja, who appointed a Dogra
Dogra
governor for the district and a British commander for the local forces.

Sheikh Abdullah, Leader of the National Conference

The predominant political movement in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley, the National Conference led by Sheikh Abdullah, believed in secular politics. It was allied with the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
and was believed to favour joining India. On the other hand, the Muslims of the Jammu province supported the Muslim Conference, which was allied to the All- India
India
Muslim League and favoured joining Pakistan. The Hindus of the Jammu
Jammu
province favoured an outright merger with India.[47] In the midst of all the diverging views, the Maharaja's decision to remain independent was apparently a judicious one.[48] Operation Gulmarg plan[edit]

Muzaffarabad

Poonch

Bhimber

Abbottabad

Swat

Dir

Chitral

Bannu

Wanna

Kohat

Thall

Nowshera

Operation Gulmarg locations

According to Indian military sources, the Pakistani Army prepared a plan called Operation Gulmarg and put it into action as early as 20 August, a few days after Pakistan's independence. The plan got accidentally revealed to an Indian officer, Major
Major
O. S. Kalkat serving with the Bannu
Bannu
Brigade.[b] According to the plan, 20 lashkars (tribal militias), each consisting of 1000 Pashtun tribesmen, were to be recruited from among various Pashtun tribes, and armed at the brigade headquarters at Bannu, Wanna, Peshawar, Kohat, Thall
Thall
and Nowshera by the first week of September. They were expected to reach the launching point of Abbottabad
Abbottabad
on 18 October, and cross into Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
on 22 October. Ten lashkars were expected to attack the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley through Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
and another ten lashkars were expected to join the rebels in Poonch, Bhimber
Bhimber
and Rawalakot
Rawalakot
with a view to advance to Jammu. Detailed arrangements for the military leadership and armaments were described in the plan.[50][51] The regimental records show that, by the last week of August, the Prince Albert Victor's Own Cavalry (PAVO Cavalry) regiment was briefed about the invasion plan. Colonel
Colonel
Sher Khan, the Director of Military Intelligence, was in charge of the briefing, along with Colonels Akbar Khan and Khanzadah. The Cavalry regiment was tasked with procuring arms and ammunition for the 'freedom fighters' and establishing three wings of the insurgent forces: the South Wing commanded by General Kiani, a Central Wing based at Rawalpinidi and a North Wing based at Abbottabad. By 1 October, the Cavalry regiment completed the task of arming the insurgent forces. "Throughout the war there was no shortage of small arms, ammunitions, or explosives at any time." The regiment was also told to be on stand by for induction into fighting at an appropriate time.[52][53][54] Scholars have noted considerable movement of Pashtun tribes during September–October. By 13 September, armed Pashtuns drifted into Lahore and Rawalpindi. The Deputy Commissioner of Dera Ismail Khan noted a scheme to send tribesmen from Malakand to Sialkot, in lorries provided by the Pakistan
Pakistan
Government. Preparations for attacking Kashmir
Kashmir
were also noted in the princely states of Swat, Dir, and Chitral. Scholar Robin James Moore states there is "little doubt" that Pashtuns were involved in border raids all along the Punjab
Punjab
border from the Indus to the Ravi.[55] Pakistani sources deny the existence of any plan called Operation Gulmarg. However, Shuja Nawaz does list 22 Pashtun tribes involved in the invasion of Kashmir
Kashmir
on 22 October.[56] Rebellion in Poonch[edit] Main article: 1947 Poonch
Poonch
Rebellion Sometime in August 1947, the first signs of trouble broke out in Poonch, about which diverging views have been received. Poonch
Poonch
was originally an internal jagir (autonomous principality), governed by an alternative family line of Maharaja
Maharaja
Hari Singh. The taxation is said to have been heavy. The Muslims of Poonch
Poonch
had long campaigned for the principality to be absorbed into the Punjab
Punjab
province of British India. In 1938, a notable disturbance occurred for religious reasons, but a settlement was reached.[57] During the Second World War, over 60,000 men from Poonch
Poonch
and Mirpur districts enrolled in the British Indian Army. After the war, they were discharged with arms, which is said to have alarmed the Maharaja.[58] In June, Poonchis launched a 'No Tax' campaign.[59] In July, the Maharaja
Maharaja
ordered that all the soldiers in the region be disarmed.[c] The absence of employment prospects coupled with high taxation drove the Poonchis to rebellion.[58] The "gathering head of steam", states scholar Srinath Raghavan, was utilised by the local Muslim Conference
Muslim Conference
led by Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan
Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan
(Sardar Ibrahim) to further their campaign for accession to Pakistan.[61] According to state government sources, the rebellious militias gathered in the Naoshera-Islamabad area, attacking the state troops and their supply trucks. A battalion of state troops was dispatched, which cleared the roads and dispersed the militias. By September, order was reestablished.[62] The Muslim Conference
Muslim Conference
sources, on the other hand, narrate that hundreds of people were killed in Bagh during flag hoisting around 15 August and that the Maharaja
Maharaja
unleased a 'reign of terror' on 24 August. Local Muslims also told Richard Symonds, a British Quaker social worker, that the army fired on crowds, and burnt houses and villages indiscriminately.[63] According to the Assistant British High Commissioner in Pakistan, H. S. Stephenson, "the Poonch affair... was greatly exaggerated".[62] Pakistan's preparations, Maharaja's manoeuvring[edit] Scholar Prem Shankar Jha states that the Maharaja
Maharaja
had decided, as early as April 1947, that he would accede to India
India
if it was not possible to stay independent.[64]:115 The rebellion in Poonch
Poonch
possibly unnerved the Maharaja. Accordingly, on 11 August, he dismissed his pro- Pakistan
Pakistan
Prime Minister, Ramachandra Kak, and appointed retired Major
Major
Janak Singh in his place.[65] On 25 August, he sent an invitation to Justice Mehr Chand Mahajan of the Punjab
Punjab
High Court to come as the Prime Minister.[66] On the same day, the Muslim Conference wrote to the Pakistani Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Liaquat Ali Khan
Liaquat Ali Khan
warning him that "if, God forbid, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Government or the Muslim League do not act, Kashmir
Kashmir
might be lost to them".[67] This set the ball rolling in Pakistan.

Liaquat Ali Khan, Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Pakistan

Liaquat Ali Khan
Liaquat Ali Khan
sent a Punjab
Punjab
politician Mian Iftikharuddin to explore the possibility of organising a revolt in Kashmir.[68] Meanwhile, Pakistan
Pakistan
cut off essential supplies to the state, such as petrol, sugar and salt. It also stopped trade in timber and other products, and suspended train services to Jammu.[69][70] Iftikharuddin returned in mid-September to report that the National Conference held strong in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley and ruled out the possibility of a revolt.

Murree, overlooking Kashmir

Meanwhile, Sardar Ibrahim had escaped to West Punjab, along with dozens of rebels, and established a base in Murree. From there, the rebels attempted to acquire arms and ammunition for the rebellion and smuggle them into Kashmir. Colonel
Colonel
Akbar
Akbar
Khan, one of a handful of high-ranking officers in the Pakistani Army,[d] with a keen interest in Kashmir, arrived in Murree, and got enmeshed in these efforts. He arranged 4,000 rifles for the rebellion by diverting them from the Army stores. He also wrote out a draft plan titled Armed Revolt inside Kashmir
Kashmir
and gave it to Mian Iftikharuddin to be passed on to the Pakistan's Prime Minister.[72][73][14] On 12 September, the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
held a meeting with Mian Iftikharuddin, Colonel
Colonel
Akbar
Akbar
Khan and another Punjab
Punjab
politician Sardar Shaukat Hayat Khan. Hayat Khan had a separate plan, involving the Muslim League National Guard
Muslim League National Guard
and the militant Pashtun tribes from the Frontier regions. The Prime Minister
Prime Minister
approved both the plans, and despatched Khurshid Anwar, the head of the Muslim League National Guard, to mobilise the Frontier tribes.[73][14]

Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of India

The Maharaja
Maharaja
was increasingly driven to the wall with the rebellion in the western districts and the Pakistani blockade. He managed to persuade Justice Mahajan to accept the post of Prime Minister
Prime Minister
(but not to arrive for another month, for procedural reasons). He sent word to the Indian leaders through Mahajan that he was willing to accede to India
India
but needed more time to implement political reforms. However, it was India's position that it would not accept accession from the Maharaja
Maharaja
unless it had the people's support. The Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
demanded that Sheikh Abdullah
Sheikh Abdullah
should be released from prison and involved in the state's government. Accession could only be contemplated afterwards. Following further negotiations, Sheikh Abdullah was released on 29 September.[74] Jawaharlal Nehru, foreseeing a number of disputes over princely states, formulated a policy that

"wherever there is a dispute in regard to any territory, the matter should be decided by a referendum or plebiscite of the people concerned. We shall accept the result of this referendum whatever it may be."[75][76]

The policy was communicated to Liaquat Ali Khan
Liaquat Ali Khan
on 1 October at a meeting of the Joint Defence Council. Khan's eyes are said to have "sparkled" at the proposal. However, he made no response.[75][76] Operations in Poonch
Poonch
and Mirpur[edit] Main article: 1947 Poonch
Poonch
Rebellion Armed rebellion started in the Poonch
Poonch
district at the beginning of October 1947.[77][78] The fighting elements consisted of "bands of deserters from the State Army, serving soldiers of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army on leave, ex-servicemen, and other volunteers who had risen spontaneously."[15] The first clash is said to have occurred at Thorar (near Rawalakot) on 3–4 October 1947.[79] The rebels quickly gained control of almost the entire Poonch
Poonch
district. The State Forces garrison at Poonch
Poonch
came under heavy siege.[80][81] In the Mirpur district, the border posts at Saligram and Owen Pattan on the Jhelum river were captured by rebels around 8 October. Sehnsa and Throchi were abandoned by State Forces after attack.[82][83] Radio communications between the fighting units were operated by the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army.[84] Even though the Indian Navy
Indian Navy
intercepted the communications, lacking intelligence in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, it was unable to determine immediately where the fighting was taking place.[85] Accession of Kashmir[edit] Following the Muslim revolution in the Poonch
Poonch
and Mirpur area[86] and Pakistani backed[29]:18 Pashtun tribal intervention from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa aimed at supporting the revolution,[87][88] the Maharaja asked for Indian military assistance. India
India
set the condition that Kashmir
Kashmir
must accede to India
India
for it to receive assistance. The Maharaja
Maharaja
complied, and the Government of India
India
recognised the accession of the princely state to India. Indian troops were sent to the state to defend it. The Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir
Kashmir
National Conference volunteers aided the Indian Army
Indian Army
in its campaign to drive out the Pathan invaders.[89] Pakistan
Pakistan
refused to recognise the accession of Kashmir
Kashmir
to India, claiming that it was obtained by "fraud and violence."[90] Governor General
General
Mohammad Ali Jinnah
Mohammad Ali Jinnah
ordered its Army Chief General
General
Douglas Gracey to move Pakistani troops to Kashmir
Kashmir
at once. However, the Indian and Pakistani forces were still under a joint command, and Field Marshal Auchinleck
Field Marshal Auchinleck
prevailed upon him to withdraw the order. With its accession to India, Kashmir
Kashmir
became legally Indian territory, and the British officers could not a play any role in an inter-Dominion war.[91][92] The Pakistan
Pakistan
army made available arms, ammunition and supplies to the rebel forces who were dubbed the `Azad Army'. Pakistani army officers `conveniently' on leave and the former officers of the Indian National Army
Indian National Army
were recruited to command the forces. In May 1948, the Pakistani army officially entered the conflict, in theory to defend the Pakistan
Pakistan
borders, but it made plans to push towards Jammu
Jammu
and cut the lines of communications of the Indian forces in the Mehndar Valley.[93] In Gilgit, the force of Gilgit Scouts under the command of a British officer Major
Major
William Brown mutinied and overthrew the governor Ghansara Singh. Brown prevailed on the forces to declare accession to Pakistan.[94][95] They are also believed to have received assistance from the Chitral Scouts and the Chitral State Bodyguard's of the state of Chitral, one of the princely states of Pakistan, which had acceded to Pakistan
Pakistan
on 6 October 1947.[96][97] Stages of the war[edit] Initial invasion[edit]

Indian defence of the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley 27 October 1947 – 17 November 1947

The first clash occurred at Thorar
Thorar
on 3–4 October 1947.[79] On 22 October another attack was launched in the Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
sector. The state forces stationed in the border regions around Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
and Domel were quickly defeated by tribal forces (some Muslim state forces mutinied and joined them) and the way to the capital was open. Among the raiders, there were many active Pakistani Army soldiers disguised as tribals. They were also provided logistical help by the Pakistan Army. Rather than advancing toward Srinagar
Srinagar
before state forces could regroup or be reinforced, the invading forces remained in the captured cities in the border region engaging in looting and other crimes against their inhabitants.[98] In the Poonch
Poonch
valley, the state forces retreated into towns where they were besieged.[99] Indian operation in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley[edit]

Indian defence of the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley 27 October 1947 – 17 November 1947

After the accession, India
India
airlifted troops and equipment to Srinagar under the command of Lt. col. Dewan Ranjit Rai, where they reinforced the princely state forces, established a defence perimeter and defeated the tribal forces on the outskirts of the city. Initial defense operations included the notable defense of Badgam holding both the capital and airfield overnight against extreme odds. The successful defence included an outflanking manoeuvre by Indian armoured cars[100] during the Battle of Shalateng. The defeated tribal forces were pursued as far as Baramulla
Baramulla
and Uri and these towns, too, were recaptured. In the Poonch
Poonch
valley, tribal forces continued to besiege state forces. In Gilgit, the state paramilitary forces, called the Gilgit
Gilgit
Scouts, joined the invading tribal forces, who thereby obtained control of this northern region of the state. The tribal forces were also joined by troops from Chitral, whose ruler, Muzaffar ul-Mulk
Muzaffar ul-Mulk
the Mehtar of Chitral, had acceded to Pakistan.[101][102][103] Attempted link-up at Poonch
Poonch
and fall of Mirpur[edit]

Attempted link-up at Poonch
Poonch
18 November 1947 – 26 November 1947

Indian forces ceased pursuit of tribal forces after recapturing Uri and Baramula, and sent a relief column southwards, in an attempt to relieve Poonch. Although the relief column eventually reached Poonch, the siege could not be lifted. A second relief column reached Kotli, and evacuated the garrisons of that town and others but were forced to abandon it being too weak to defend it. Meanwhile, Mirpur was captured by the tribal forces on 25 November 1947. Hindu women were reportedly abducted by tribal forces and taken into Pakistan. They were sold in the brothels of Rawalpindi. Around 400 women jumped into wells in Mirpur committing suicide to escape from being abducted.[104]

Fall of Jhanger and attacks on Naoshera and Uri 25 November 1947 – 6 February 1948

Fall of Jhanger and attacks on Naoshera and Uri[edit] The tribal forces attacked and captured Jhanger. They then attacked Naoshera unsuccessfully, and made a series of unsuccessful attacks on Uri. In the south a minor Indian attack secured Chamb. By this stage of the war the front line began to stabilise as more Indian troops became available.[citation needed]

Operation Vijay: counterattack to Jhanger 7 February 1948 – 1 May 1948

Operation Vijay: counterattack to Jhanger[edit] The Indian forces launched a counterattack in the south recapturing Jhanger and Rajauri. In the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley the tribal forces continued attacking the Uri garrison. In the north Skardu
Skardu
was brought under siege by the Gilgit
Gilgit
scouts.[105]

Indian spring offensive[edit]

Indian Spring Offensive 1 May 1948 – 19 May 1948

The Indians held onto Jhanger against numerous counterattacks, who were increasingly supported by regular Pakistani Forces. In the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley the Indians attacked, recapturing Tithwail. The Gilgit scouts made good progress in the High Himalayas sector, infiltrating troops to bring Leh
Leh
under siege, capturing Kargil and defeating a relief column heading for Skardu.[citation needed]

Indian Spring Offensive 1 May 1948 – 19 May 1948

Operations Gulab and Eraze[edit] The Indians continued to attack in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley sector driving north to capture Keran and Gurais (Operation Eraze).[29]:308–324 They also repelled a counterattack aimed at Tithwal. In the Jammu region, the forces besieged in Poonch
Poonch
broke out and temporarily linked up with the outside world again. The Kashmir
Kashmir
State army was able to defend Skardu
Skardu
from the Gilgit Scouts impeding their advance down the Indus valley towards Leh. In August the Chitral Scouts
Chitral Scouts
and Chitral Bodyguard under Mata ul-Mulk besieged Skardu
Skardu
and with the help of artillery were able to take Skardu. This freed the Gilgit Scouts to push further into Ladakh.[106][107]

Operation Duck 15 August 1948 – 1 November 1948

Operation Bison[edit] Main article: Military operations in Ladakh
Ladakh
(1948) During this time the front began to settle down. The siege of Poonch continued. An unsuccessful attack was launched by 77 Parachute Brigade (Brig Atal) to capture Zoji La
Zoji La
pass. Operation Duck, the earlier epithet for this assault, was renamed as Operation Bison by Cariappa. M5 Stuart light tanks of 7 Cavalry were moved in dismantled conditions through Srinagar
Srinagar
and winched across bridges while two field companies of the Madras Sappers converted the mule track across Zoji La
Zoji La
into a jeep track. The surprise attack on 1 November by the brigade with armour supported by two regiments of 25 pounders and a regiment of 3.7-inch guns, forced the pass and pushed the tribal and Pakistani forces back to Matayan and later Dras. The brigade linked up on 24 November at Kargil with Indian troops advancing from Leh
Leh
while their opponents eventually withdrew northwards toward Skardu.[108]:103–127 The Pakistani attacked the Skardu
Skardu
on 10 February 1948 which was repulsed by the Indian soldiers.[109] Thereafter, the Skardu
Skardu
Garrison was subjected to continuous attacks by the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army for the next three months and each time, their attack was repulsed by the Colonel Sher Jung Thapa and his men.[109] Thapa held the Skardu
Skardu
with hardly 250 men for whole six long months without any reinforcement and replenishment.[110] On 14 August Indian General
General
Sher Jung Thapa had to surrender Skardu
Skardu
to the Pakistani Army.[111] and raiders after a year long siege.[112]

Operation Easy. Poonch
Poonch
link-up 1 November 1948 – 26 November 1948

Operation Easy; Poonch
Poonch
link-up[edit] Main article: Military operations in Poonch
Poonch
(1948) The Indians now started to get the upper hand in all sectors. Poonch was finally relieved after a siege of over a year. The Gilgit
Gilgit
forces in the High Himalayas, who had previously made good progress, were finally defeated. The Indians pursued as far as Kargil before being forced to halt due to supply problems. The Zoji La
Zoji La
pass was forced by using tanks (which had not been thought possible at that altitude) and Dras
Dras
was recaptured.[citation needed]

Moves up to cease-fire[edit]

Moves up to cease-fire. 27 November 1948 – 31 December 1948

After protracted negotiations a cease-fire was agreed to by both countries, which came into effect. The terms of the cease-fire as laid out in a United Nations resolution[113] of 13 August 1948, were adopted by the UN on 5 January 1949. This required Pakistan
Pakistan
to withdraw its forces, both regular and irregular, while allowing India to maintain minimum strength of its forces in the state to preserve law and order. On compliance of these conditions a plebiscite was to be held to determine the future of the territory. Indian losses were 1,104 killed and 3,154 wounded,[17] whereas Pakistani losses were 6,000 killed and 14,000 wounded.[21] India
India
gained control of the two-thirds Kashmir
Kashmir
whereas, Pakistan
Pakistan
gained roughly one-third of Kashmir.[32][114][115][116] Most neutral assessments agree that India was the victor of the war as it was able to successfully defend[30] about two thirds of Kashmir
Kashmir
including Kashmir
Kashmir
valley, Jammu
Jammu
and Ladakh.[31][32][33][34] Military awards[edit] Battle honours[edit] After the war, a total of number of 11 battle honours and one theatre honour were awarded to units of the Indian Army, the notable amongst which are:[117]

Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
1947–48 (theatre honour) Gurais Kargil

Naoshera Punch Rajouri

Srinagar Tithwal Zoji La

Gallantry awards[edit] For bravery, a number of soldiers and officers were awarded the highest gallantry award of their respective countries. Following is a list of the recipients of the Indian award Param Vir Chakra, and the Pakistani award Nishan-E-Haider:

India

Major
Major
Som Nath Sharma
Som Nath Sharma
(Posthumous) Lance Naik
Lance Naik
Karam Singh Second Lieutenant Rama Raghoba Rane Naik Jadu Nath Singh Company Havildar Major
Major
Piru Singh Shekhawat

Pakistan

Captain Muhammad Sarwar

See also[edit]

Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts Battle of Badgam Sino-Indian War Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 Siachen war Kargil War Brigadier
Brigadier
Mohammad Usman
Mohammad Usman
– Mahavir Chakra

Notes[edit]

^ At the beginning of 1947, all the posts above the rank of lieutenant colonel in the army were held by British officers.[39] Pakistan
Pakistan
had only four lieutenant colonels,[40] two of whom were involved in the Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict: Akbar
Akbar
Khan and Sher Khan.[41] At the beginning of the war, India
India
had about 500 British officers and Pakistan
Pakistan
over 1000.[42] ^ Major
Major
Kalkat was the Brigade Major
Major
at the Bannu
Bannu
Brigade, who opened a Demi-Official letter marked "Personal/Top Secret" on 20 August 1947 signed by General
General
Frank Messervy, the then Commander in Chief of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army. It was addressed to Kalkat's commanding officer Brig. C. P. Murray, who happened to be away at another post. The Pakistani officials suspected Kalkat and placed him under house arrest. He escaped and made his way to New Delhi on 18 October. However, the Indian military authorities and defence minister did not believe his information. He was recalled and debriefed on 24 October after the tribal invasion of Kashmir
Kashmir
had started.[49] ^ Under the Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
Arms Act of 1940, the possession of all fire arms was prohibited in the state. The Dogra
Dogra
Rajputs were however exempted in practice.[60] ^ According to scholar Christine Fair, at the time of independence, Pakistan
Pakistan
had one major general, two brigadiers, and six colonels, even though the requirements were for 13 major generals, 40 brigadiers, and 52 colonels.[71]

References[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

Ankit, Rakesh (May 2010). "Henry Scott: The forgotten soldier of Kashmir". Epilogue. 4 (5): 44–49.  Ankit, Rakesh (August 2010), "The Problem of Poonch", Epilogue, 4 (8): 8–49  Ankit, Rakesh (November 2010), "October 1947", Epilogue, 4 (11): 9–  Ankit, Rakesh (2016), The Kashmir
Kashmir
Conflict: From Empire to the Cold War, 1945–66, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-317-22525-6 

Ankit, Rakesh (2014), Kashmir, 1945–66: From Empire to the Cold War, University of Southampton 

Bajwa, Kuldip Singh (2003), Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
War, 1947–1948: Political and Military Perspective, Har-Anand Publications, ISBN 978-81-241-0923-6  Bangash, Yaqoob Khan (2010), "Three Forgotten Accessions: Gilgit, Hunza and Nagar", The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 38 (1): 117–143, doi:10.1080/03086530903538269, (Subscription required (help))  Barua, Pradeep (2003), Gentlemen of the Raj: The Indian Army
Indian Army
Officer Corps, 1817-1949, Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 133–, ISBN 978-0-275-97999-7  Bhattacharya, Brigadier
Brigadier
Samir (2013), NOTHING BUT!: Book Three: What Price Freedom, Partridge Publishing, pp. 42–, ISBN 978-1-4828-1625-9  Cheema, Brig Amar (2015), The Crimson Chinar: The Kashmir
Kashmir
Conflict: A Politico Military Perspective, Lancer Publishers, pp. 51–, ISBN 978-81-7062-301-4  Dasgupta, C. (2014) [first published 2002], War and Diplomacy in Kashmir, 1947–48, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-81-321-1795-7  Effendi, Col. M. Y. (2007), Punjab
Punjab
Cavalry: Evolution, Role, Organisation and Tactical Doctrine 11 Cavalry, Frontier Force, 1849-1971, Karachi: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-547203-5  Guha, Ramachandra (2008), India
India
after Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy, Pan Macmillian, ISBN 0330396110  Hajari, Nisid (2015), Midnight's Furies: The Deadly Legacy of India's Partition, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, pp. 185–, ISBN 978-0-547-66924-3  Hiro, Dilip (2015), The Longest August: The Unflinching Rivalry Between India
India
and Pakistan, Nation Books, ISBN 978-1-56858-503-1  Jamal, Arif (2009), Shadow War: The Untold Story of Jihad in Kashmir, Melville House, ISBN 978-1-933633-59-6  Joshi, Manoj (2008), Kashmir, 1947-1965: A Story Retold, India Research Press, ISBN 978-81-87943-52-5  Hodson, H. V. (1969), The Great Divide: Britain, India, Pakistan, London: Hutchinson  Korbel, Josef (1966) [first published 1954], Danger in Kashmir
Kashmir
(second ed.), Princeton University Press  Mahajan, Mehr Chand (1963), Looking Back: The Autobiography of Mehr Chand Mahajan, Former Chief Justice of India, Asia Publishing House  Moore, Robin James (1987), Making the new Commonwealth, Clarendon Press, ISBN 978-0-19-820112-0  Palit, D. K. (1972), Jammu
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and Kashmir
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Arms: History of the J & K Rifles, Palit & Dutt  Prasad, Sri Nandan; Pal, Dharm (1987), Operations in Jammu
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& Kashmir, 1947-48, History Division, Ministry of Defence, Government of India  Raghavan, Srinath (2010), War and Peace in Modern India, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 101–, ISBN 978-1-137-00737-7  Nawaz, Shuja (May 2008), "The First Kashmir
Kashmir
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in Conflict, London and New York: I. B. Taurus & Co, ISBN 1860648983  Snedden, Christopher (2013) [first published as The Untold Story of the People of Azad Kashmir, 2012], Kashmir: The Unwritten History, HarperCollins India, ISBN 9350298988  Zaheer, Hasan (1998), The Times and Trial of the Rawalpindi Conspiracy, 1951: The First Coup Attempt in Pakistan, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-577892-2 

Further reading[edit]

Major
Major
sources

Ministry of Defence, Government of India. Operations in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
1947–1948. (1987). Thomson Press (India) Limited, New Delhi. This is the Indian Official History. Lamb, Alastair. Kashmir: A Disputed Legacy, 1846–1990. (1991). Roxford Books. ISBN 0-907129-06-4. Praval, K.C. The Indian Army
Indian Army
After Independence. (1993). Lancer International, ISBN 1-897829-45-0 Sen, Maj Gen L.P. Slender Was The Thread: The Kashmir
Kashmir
confrontation 1947–1948. (1969). Orient Longmans Ltd, New Delhi. Vas, Lt Gen. E. A. Without Baggage: A personal account of the Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
Operations 1947–1949. (1987). Natraj Publishers Dehradun. ISBN 81-85019-09-6.

Other sources

Cohen, Lt Col Maurice. Thunder over Kashmir. (1955). Orient Longman Ltd. Hyderabad Hinds, Brig Gen SR. Battle of Zoji La. (1962). Military Digest, New Delhi. Sandhu, Maj Gen Gurcharan. The Indian Armour: History Of The Indian Armoured Corps 1941–1971. (1987). Vision Books Private Limited, New Delhi, ISBN 81-7094-004-4. Singh, Maj K Brahma. History of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
Rifles (1820–1956). (1990). Lancer International New Delhi, ISBN 81-7062-091-0. Ayub, Muhammad (2005). An army, Its Role and Rule: A History of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army from Independence to Kargil, 1947–1999. RoseDog Books. ISBN 9780805995947.

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replaced Commander-in-Chief of the Army

Corps, commands and regiments

I Corps II Corps IV Corps V Corps X Corps XI Corps XII Corps XXX Corps XXXI Corps Air Defence Corps Armoured Corps Army Strategic Forces Command Aviation Corps Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
Regiment Baloch Regiment Corps of Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Corps of Engineers

Engineer-in-Chief Frontier Works Organisation

Corps of Military Police Corps of Signals Force Command Northern Areas Frontier Force Regiment Medical Corps Military Intelligence Northern Light Infantry
Northern Light Infantry
Regiment Punjab
Punjab
Regiment Regiment of Artillery Sind Regiment Special
Special
Services Group

Education and training

Army Medical College Army Public Schools and Colleges System Cadet colleges College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Command and Staff College Military Academy Military College of Engineering Military College of Signals Parachute Training School

Equipment General
General
Headquarters Hospitals Serving Generals

Air Force  

Air Force Museum Air Force ranks and insignia Air Headquarters Aircraft Bases Chief of Air Staff Education and training

Air Force Academy Air War College College of Aeronautical Engineering College of Flying Training Combat Commanders School Fazaia Schools and Colleges System

Hospitals Squadrons and commands

Air Force Strategic Command Air Intelligence Special
Special
Service Wing Squadrons

Serving Air Marshals

Navy  

Bases

Ahsan Naval Base Akram Naval Base Hameed Naval Base Iqbal Naval Base Jinnah Naval Base Kalmat Naval Base Karachi Naval Dockyard Mehran Naval Base Qasim Naval Base

Chief of Naval Staff Education and training

Naval Academy Navy Engineering College Navy run basic education schools Navy School of Logistics and Management Navy War College PNS Karsaz

Hospitals

PNS Darmaan Jah PNS Rahat PNS Shifa

Maritime Museum Naval Headquarters Naval ranks and insignia Squadrons and commands

Marines Naval Air Arm Naval Intelligence Naval Strategic Forces Command Navy Hydrographic Department Navy Northern Command Navy Punjab
Punjab
Command Navy Western Command Special
Special
Services Group Navy

Vessels Serving Admirals

Paramilitary forces

Airports Security Force Coast Guards Frontier Constabulary Frontier Corps

Bajaur Scouts Chagai Militia Chitral Scouts Gilgit
Gilgit
Baltistan
Baltistan
Scouts Kharan Rifles Khyber Rifles Zhob Militia

Maritime Security Agency National Guard Rangers

Wars and conflicts

India- Pakistan
Pakistan
War(s) of 1947-1948 / 1965 / 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War 1967 Israeli-Arab war 1973 Israeli-Arab war Jordan-Palestine Liberation Organization conflict 1970s Baloch insurgency Grand Mosque in Saudi Arabia seizure Soviet-Afghan war Siachen conflict 1991 Gulf War Kargil conflict War in North-West Pakistan

Related

Awards and decorations Defence Housing Authority Defence industry of Pakistan

Air Weapons Complex Defence Science and Technology Organisation Heavy Industries Taxila Institute of Optronics Integrated Dynamics Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works Khan Research Laboratories National Development Complex National Engineering and Scientific Commission Pakistan
Pakistan
Aeronautical Complex Pakistan
Pakistan
Ordnance Factories Wah Metallurgical Laboratory

Military history

Air Force history Foreign deployments of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces

Involvement in UN peacekeeping missions

Military coups

Khyber Border Coordination Center Women in the Pakistan
Pakistan
Armed Forces

Category

Army Air Force

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