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The INDO-GREEK KINGDOM or GRAECO-INDIAN KINGDOM was a Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of the northwest regions of the Indian Subcontinent (mainly modern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
, along with parts of northwestern India
India
) during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often in conflict with each other.

The kingdom was founded when the Graeco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the subcontinent early in the 2nd century BC. The Greeks in the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
were eventually divided from the Graeco- Bactrians
Bactrians
centered in Bactria
Bactria
(now the border between Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
), and the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
in the present-day north-western Indian Subcontinent. The most famous Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
ruler was Menander (Milinda) . He had his capital at Sakala in the Punjab (present-day Sialkot
Sialkot
.

The expression " Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom" loosely describes a number of various dynastic polities, traditionally associated with a number of regional capitals like Taxila
Taxila
, (modern Punjab (Pakistan)
Punjab (Pakistan)
), Pushkalavati and Sagala
Sagala
. Other potential centers are only hinted at; for instance, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
's Geographia and the nomenclature of later kings suggest that a certain Theophila in the south of the Indo-Greek sphere of influence may also have been a satrapal or royal seat at one time.

Euthydemus I
Euthydemus I
was, according to Polybius
Polybius
a Magnesian Greek . His son, Demetrius, founder of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kingdom, was therefore of Greek descent from his father at minimum. A marriage treaty was arranged for Demetrius with a daughter of Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus III the Great
, who had partial Persian descent. The ethnicity of later Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
rulers is less clear.

During the two centuries of their rule, the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings combined the Greek and Indian languages and symbols, as seen on their coins, and blended Hindu
Hindu
, Buddhist
Buddhist
and ancient Greek religious practices, as seen in the archaeological remains of their cities and in the indications of their support of Buddhism, pointing to a rich fusion of Indian and Hellenistic
Hellenistic
influences. The diffusion of Indo-Greek culture had consequences which are still felt today, particularly through the influence of Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
art .

The Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
ultimately disappeared as a political entity around 10 AD following the invasions of the Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
, although pockets of Greek populations probably remained for several centuries longer under the subsequent rule of the Indo- Parthians
Parthians
and Kushans
Kushans
. Later still, the Kidarites
Kidarites
and Alchon Huns
Alchon Huns
would again invade Central India and bring dramatic changes to the sub-continent.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 1.1 Preliminary Greek presence in the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
* 1.2 Greek rule in Bactria
Bactria
* 1.3 Rise of the Shungas (185 BC)

* 2 History of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kingdom

* 2.1 Nature and quality of the sources

* 2.2 Expansion of Demetrius into India
India

* 2.2.1 First bilingual monetary system

* 2.3 Conquests of Menander I
Menander I

* 2.3.1 Archaeological remains

* 2.3.2 Western accounts

* 2.3.2.1 Rule in Mathura
Mathura
* 2.3.2.2 Indian sources

* 2.4 Consolidation

* 2.4.1 Fall of Bactria
Bactria
and death of Menander * 2.4.2 Preservation of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
realm

* 2.5 Interractions with Indian culture and religions

* 2.5.1 Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
in the regions of Vidisha
Vidisha
and Sanchi
Sanchi
(115 BC) * 2.5.2 Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
and Bharhut
Bharhut
(100-75 BC) * 2.5.3 Sanchi
Sanchi
Yavanas
Yavanas
(50-0 BC)

* 2.6 Decline

* 2.6.1 Loss of Hindu
Hindu
Kush territories (70 BC-) * 2.6.2 Loss of Central territories (48/47 BC) * 2.6.3 Loss of Eastern territories (10 AD) * 2.6.4 Later contributions

* 3 Ideology

* 4 Religion

* 4.1 Interactions with Buddhism
Buddhism
* 4.2 "Followers of the Dharma" * 4.3 Blessing gestures * 4.4 Bhagavata
Bhagavata
cult

* 5 Art

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Coinage * 6.2 Tribute payments * 6.3 Trade with China
China
* 6.4 Indian Ocean trade

* 7 Armed forces

* 7.1 Military technology * 7.2 Size of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
armies

* 8 Legacy of the Indo-Greeks
Legacy of the Indo-Greeks
* 9 Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings: their coins, territories and chronology * 10 See also

* 11 References

* 11.1 Footnotes * 11.2 Works cited

* 12 External links

BACKGROUND

PRELIMINARY GREEK PRESENCE IN THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
Palace capital , showing Greek and Persian influence, early Mauryan Empire
Mauryan Empire
period, 3rd century BC.

In 326 BC, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
conquered the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent as far as the Hyphasis River , and established satrapies and founded several settlements, including Bucephala ; he turned south when his troops refused to go further east. The Indian satrapies of the Punjab
Punjab
were left to the rule of Porus
Porus
and Taxiles , who were confirmed again at the Treaty of Triparadisus in 321 BC, and remaining Greek troops in these satrapies were left under the command of general Eudemus . After 321 BC Eudemus toppled Taxiles, until he left India
India
in 316 BC. To the south, another general also ruled over the Greek colonies of the Indus: Peithon, son of Agenor , until his departure for Babylon
Babylon
in 316 BC.

Around 322 BC, the Greeks (described as Yona
Yona
or Yavana
Yavana
in Indian sources) may then have participated, together with other groups, in the armed uprising of Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
against the Nanda Dynasty
Nanda Dynasty
, and gone as far as Pataliputra
Pataliputra
for the capture of the city from the Nandas. The Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutta as well as the Jaina work Parisishtaparvan talk of Chandragupta's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka, often identified with Porus
Porus
, and according to these accounts, this alliance gave Chandragupta a composite and powerful army made up of Yavanas
Yavanas
(Greeks), Kambojas
Kambojas
, Shakas (Scythians), Kiratas (Nepalese), Parasikas (Persians) and Bahlikas (Bactrians) who took Pataliputra
Pataliputra
.

In 305 BC, Seleucus I
Seleucus I
led an army to the Indus
Indus
, where he encountered Chandragupta . The confrontation ended with a peace treaty, and "an intermarriage agreement" ( Epigamia , Greek: Ἐπιγαμία), meaning either a dynastic marriage or an agreement for intermarriage between Indians and Greeks. Accordingly, Seleucus ceded to Chandragupta his northwestern territories, possibly as far as Arachosia
Arachosia
and received 500 war elephants (which played a key role in the victory of Seleucus at the Battle of Ipsus
Battle of Ipsus
):

The Indians occupy in part some of the countries situated along the Indus, which formerly belonged to the Persians: Alexander deprived the Ariani of them, and established there settlements of his own. But Seleucus Nicator
Seleucus Nicator
gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, and received in return five hundred elephants. —  Strabo
Strabo
15.2.1(9)

The details of the marriage agreement are not known, but since the extensive sources available on Seleucus never mention an Indian princess, it is thought that the marital alliance went the other way, with Chandragupta himself or his son Bindusara
Bindusara
marrying a Seleucid princess, in accordance with contemporary Greek practices to form dynastic alliances. An Indian Puranic
Puranic
source, the Pratisarga Parva of the Bhavishya Purana
Bhavishya Purana
, described the marriage of Chandragupta with a Greek (" Yavana
Yavana
") princess, daughter of Seleucus, before accurately detailing early Mauryan genealogy:

"Chandragupta married with a daughter of Suluva , the Yavana
Yavana
king of Pausasa . Thus, he mixed the Buddhists and the Yavanas. He ruled for 60 years. From him, Vindusara was born and ruled for the same number of years as his father. His son was Ashoka
Ashoka
." —  Pratisarga Parva Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic
Aramaic
) by king Ashoka
Ashoka
, from Kandahar
Kandahar
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
.

Also several Greeks, such as the historian Megasthenes
Megasthenes
, followed by Deimachus and Dionysius , were sent to reside at the Mauryan court. Presents continued to be exchanged between the two rulers. The intensity of these contacts is testified by the existence of a dedicated Mauryan state department for Greek ( Yavana
Yavana
) and Persian foreigners, or the remains of Hellenistic
Hellenistic
pottery that can be found throughout northern India.

On these occasions, Greek populations apparently remained in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent under Mauryan rule. Chandragupta's grandson Ashoka
Ashoka
, who had converted to the Buddhist faith declared in the Edicts of Ashoka
Ashoka
, set in stone, some of them written in Greek, that Greek populations within his realm also had converted to Buddhism:

Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the Kambojas
Kambojas
, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dharma
Dharma
. — Rock Edict Nb13 (S. Dhammika).

In his edicts, Ashoka
Ashoka
mentions that he had sent Buddhist
Buddhist
emissaries to Greek rulers as far as the Mediterranean (Edict No. 13 ), and that he developed herbal medicine in their territories, for the welfare of humans and animals (Edict No. 2 ). According to the Mahavamsa , the Great Stupa
Stupa
in Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, was dedicated by a 30,000-strong " Yona
Yona
" (Greek) delegation from "Alexandria " around 130 BC.

The Greeks in India
India
even seem to have played an active role in the propagation of Buddhism, as some of the emissaries of Ashoka
Ashoka
such as Dharmaraksita
Dharmaraksita
, or the teacher Mahadharmaraksita , are described in Pali
Pali
sources as leading Greek (" Yona
Yona
", i.e., Ionian) Buddhist
Buddhist
monks, active in Buddhist
Buddhist
proselytism (the Mahavamsa , XII). It is also thought that Greeks contributed to the sculptural work of the Pillars of Ashoka
Ashoka
, and more generally to the blossoming of Mauryan art. Some Greeks (Yavanas) may have played an administrative role in the territories ruled by Ashoka: the Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman records that during the rule of Ashoka, a Yavana
Yavana
King/ Governor named Tushaspha
Tushaspha
was in charge in the area of Girnar
Girnar
, Gujarat , mentioning his role in the construction of a water reservoir.

Again in 206 BC, the Seleucid
Seleucid
emperor Antiochus led an army to the Kabul
Kabul
valley, where he received war elephants and presents from the local king Sophagasenus :

He (Antiochus) crossed the Caucasus (the Caucasus Indicus or Paropamisus: mod. Hindú Kúsh ) and descended into India; renewed his friendship with Sophagasenus the king of the Indians; received more elephants, until he had a hundred and fifty altogether; and having once more provisioned his troops, set out again personally with his army: leaving Androsthenes of Cyzicus the duty of taking home the treasure which this king had agreed to hand over to him. —  Polybius
Polybius
, Histories 11.39

GREEK RULE IN BACTRIA

Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
statue of an old man or philosopher, Ai Khanoum
Ai Khanoum
, Bactria
Bactria
, 2nd century BC Main article: Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom

Alexander had also established several colonies in neighbouring Bactria
Bactria
, such as Alexandria on the Oxus (modern Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
) and Alexandria of the Caucasus (medieval Kapisa
Kapisa
, modern Bagram
Bagram
). After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Bactria
Bactria
came under the control of Seleucus I
Seleucus I
Nicator , who founded the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
. The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
was founded when Diodotus I, the satrap of Bactria
Bactria
(and probably the surrounding provinces) seceded from the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
around 250 BC. The preserved ancient sources (see below) are somewhat contradictory and the exact date of Bactrian independence has not been settled. Somewhat simplified, there is a high chronology (c. 255 BC) and a low chronology (c. 246 BC) for Diodotos’ secession. The high chronology has the advantage of explaining why the Seleucid
Seleucid
king Antiochus II issued very few coins in Bactria, as Diodotos would have become independent there early in Antiochus' reign. On the other hand, the low chronology, from the mid-240s BC, has the advantage of connecting the secession of Diodotus I with the Third Syrian War , a catastrophic conflict for the Seleucid Empire.

Diodotus, the governor of the thousand cities of Bactria
Bactria
(Latin : Theodotus, mille urbium Bactrianarum praefectus), defected and proclaimed himself king; all the other people of the Orient followed his example and seceded from the Macedonians. — (Justin , XLI,4 )

The new kingdom, highly urbanized and considered as one of the richest of the Orient (opulentissimum illud mille urbium Bactrianum imperium "The extremely prosperous Bactrian empire of the thousand cities" Justin, XLI,1 ), was to further grow in power and engage into territorial expansion to the east and the west:

The Greeks who caused Bactria
Bactria
to revolt grew so powerful on account of the fertility of the country that they became masters, not only of Ariana
Ariana
, but also of India
India
, as Apollodorus of Artemita says: and more tribes were subdued by them than by Alexander ... Their cities were Bactra
Bactra
(also called Zariaspa, through which flows a river bearing the same name and emptying into the Oxus
Oxus
), and Darapsa, and several others. Among these was Eucratidia , which was named after its ruler. — (Strabo, XI.XI.I ) Corinthian capital, found at Ai-Khanoum , 2nd century BC

When the ruler of neighbouring Parthia
Parthia
, the former satrap and self-proclaimed king Andragoras , was eliminated by Arsaces , the rise of the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
cut off the Greco- Bactrians
Bactrians
from direct contact with the Greek world. Overland trade continued at a reduced rate, while sea trade between Greek Egypt and Bactria
Bactria
developed.

Diodotus was succeeded by his son Diodotus II
Diodotus II
, who allied himself with the Parthian Arsaces in his fight against Seleucus II :

Soon after, relieved by the death of Diodotus, Arsaces made peace and concluded an alliance with his son, also by the name of Diodotus; some time later he fought against Seleucos who came to punish the rebels, and he prevailed: the Parthians
Parthians
celebrated this day as the one that marked the beginning of their freedom — (Justin, XLI,4)

Euthydemus , a Magnesian Greek according to Polybius
Polybius
and possibly satrap of Sogdiana
Sogdiana
, overthrew Diodotus II
Diodotus II
around 230 BC and started his own dynasty. Euthydemus's control extended to Sogdiana, going beyond the city of Alexandria Eschate
Alexandria Eschate
founded by Alexander the Great in Ferghana
Ferghana
:

"And they also held Sogdiana, situated above Bactriana towards the east between the Oxus
Oxus
River, which forms the boundary between the Bactrians
Bactrians
and the Sogdians, and the Iaxartes
Iaxartes
River. And the Iaxartes forms also the boundary between the Sogdians and the nomads. —  Strabo
Strabo
XI.11.2 Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
king Euthydemus 230–200 BC. The Greek inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΥΘΥΔΗΜΟΥ – "(of) King Euthydemus".

Euthydemus was attacked by the Seleucid
Seleucid
ruler Antiochus III around 210 BC. Although he commanded 10,000 horsemen, Euthydemus initially lost a battle on the Arius and had to retreat. He then successfully resisted a three-year siege in the fortified city of Bactra
Bactra
(modern Balkh
Balkh
), before Antiochus finally decided to recognize the new ruler, and to offer one of his daughters to Euthydemus's son Demetrius around 206 BC. Classical accounts also relate that Euthydemus negotiated peace with Antiochus III by suggesting that he deserved credit for overthrowing the original rebel Diodotus, and that he was protecting Central Asia from nomadic invasions thanks to his defensive efforts:

...for if he did not yield to this demand, neither of them would be safe: seeing that great hordes of Nomads were close at hand, who were a danger to both; and that if they admitted them into the country, it would certainly be utterly barbarised. — ( Polybius
Polybius
, 11.34)

Following the departure of the Seleucid
Seleucid
army, the Bactrian kingdom seems to have expanded. In the west, areas in north-eastern Iran
Iran
may have been absorbed, possibly as far as into Parthia
Parthia
, whose ruler had been defeated by Antiochus the Great . These territories possibly are identical with the Bactrian satrapies of Tapuria
Tapuria
and Traxiane .

To the north, Euthydemus also ruled Sogdiana
Sogdiana
and Ferghana
Ferghana
, and there are indications that from Alexandria Eschate
Alexandria Eschate
the Greco- Bactrians
Bactrians
may have led expeditions as far as Kashgar
Kashgar
and Ürümqi
Ürümqi
in Chinese Turkestan , leading to the first known contacts between China
China
and the West around 220 BC. The Greek historian Strabo
Strabo
too writes that:

they extended their empire even as far as the Seres
Seres
(Chinese) and the Phryni — ( Strabo
Strabo
, XI.XI.I) Possible statuette of a Greek soldier, wearing a version of the Greek Phrygian helmet , from a 3rd-century BC burial site north of the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Region Museum , Urumqi
Urumqi
.

Several statuettes and representations of Greek soldiers have been found north of the Tien Shan
Tien Shan
, on the doorstep to China, and are today on display in the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
museum at Urumqi
Urumqi
(Boardman ).

Greek influences on Chinese art have also been suggested (Hirth , Rostovtzeff ). Designs with rosette flowers, geometric lines, and glass inlays, suggestive of Hellenistic
Hellenistic
influences, can be found on some early Han dynasty
Han dynasty
bronze mirrors.

Numismatics
Numismatics
also suggest that some technology exchanges may have occurred on these occasions: the Greco- Bactrians
Bactrians
were the first in the world to issue cupro-nickel (75/25 ratio) coins, an alloy technology only known by the Chinese at the time under the name "White copper" (some weapons from the Warring States period
Warring States period
were in copper-nickel alloy ). The practice of exporting Chinese metals, in particular iron, for trade is attested around that period. Kings Euthydemus, Euthydemus II, Agathocles and Pantaleon
Pantaleon
made these coin issues around 170 BC and it has alternatively been suggested that a nickeliferous copper ore was the source from mines at Anarak . Copper-nickel would not be used again in coinage until the 19th century.

The presence of Chinese people in the Indian subcontinent from ancient times is also suggested by the accounts of the "Ciñas " in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Manu Smriti
Manu Smriti
.

The Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
explorer and ambassador Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
visited Bactria
Bactria
in 126 BC, and reported the presence of Chinese products in the Bactrian markets:

"When I was in Bactria
Bactria
( Daxia
Daxia
)", Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
reported, "I saw bamboo canes from Qiong
Qiong
and cloth made in the province of Shu (territories of southwestern China). When I asked the people how they had gotten such articles, they replied, "Our merchants go buy them in the markets of Shendu (India)." — ( Shiji
Shiji
123, Sima Qian
Sima Qian
, trans. Burton Watson)

Upon his return, Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
informed the Chinese emperor Han Wudi of the level of sophistication of the urban civilizations of Ferghana, Bactria
Bactria
and Parthia, who became interested in developing commercial relationships with them:

The Son of Heaven on hearing all this reasoned thus: Ferghana
Ferghana
(Dayuan ) and the possessions of Bactria
Bactria
( Daxia
Daxia
) and Parthia
Parthia
(Anxi ) are large countries, full of rare things, with a population living in fixed abodes and given to occupations somewhat identical with those of the Chinese people, and placing great value on the rich produce of China
China
— ( Hanshu
Hanshu
, Former Han History)

A number of Chinese envoys were then sent to Central Asia, triggering the development of the Silk Road
Silk Road
from the end of the 2nd century BC. Greco- Bactria
Bactria
and the city of Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
were located at the very doorstep of Mauryan India. The Khalsi
Khalsi
rock edict of Ashoka
Ashoka
, which mentions the Greek kings Antiochus , Ptolemy
Ptolemy
, Antigonus , Magas and Alexander by name, as recipients of his teachings.

The Indian emperor Chandragupta , founder of the Mauryan dynasty
Mauryan dynasty
, had re-conquered northwestern India
India
upon the death of Alexander the Great around 322 BC. However, contacts were kept with his Greek neighbours in the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
, a dynastic alliance or the recognition of intermarriage between Greeks and Indians were established (described as an agreement on Epigamia in Ancient sources), and several Greeks, such as the historian Megasthenes
Megasthenes
, resided at the Mauryan court. Subsequently, each Mauryan emperor had a Greek ambassador at his court.

Chandragupta's grandson Ashoka
Ashoka
converted to the Buddhist
Buddhist
faith and became a great proselytizer in the line of the traditional Pali
Pali
canon of Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism, directing his efforts towards the Indian and the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
worlds from around 250 BC. According to the Edicts of Ashoka
Ashoka
, set in stone, some of them written in Greek, he sent Buddhist emissaries to the Greek lands in Asia and as far as the Mediterranean. The edicts name each of the rulers of the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
world at the time.

The conquest by Dharma
Dharma
has been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred yojanas (4,000 miles) away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy
Ptolemy
, Antigonos , Magas and Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholas , the Pandyas , and as far as Tamraparni
Tamraparni
. — (Edicts of Ashoka
Ashoka
, 13th Rock Edict, S. Dhammika)

Some of the Greek populations that had remained in northwestern India apparently converted to Buddhism:

Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the Kambojas
Kambojas
, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dharma
Dharma
. — (Edicts of Ashoka
Ashoka
, 13th Rock Edict, S. Dhammika)

Furthermore, according to Pali
Pali
sources, some of Ashoka's emissaries were Greek Buddhist
Buddhist
monks, indicating close religious exchanges between the two cultures:

When the thera (elder) Moggaliputta, the illuminator of the religion of the Conqueror (Ashoka), had brought the (third) council to an end… he sent forth theras, one here and one there: …and to Aparantaka (the "Western countries" corresponding to Gujarat
Gujarat
and Sindh ) he sent the Greek ( Yona
Yona
) named Dhammarakkhita ... and the thera Maharakkhita he sent into the country of the Yona. — (Mahavamsa XII)

Greco- Bactrians
Bactrians
probably received these Buddhist
Buddhist
emissaries (At least Maharakkhita, lit. "The Great Saved One", who was "sent to the country of the Yona") and somehow tolerated the Buddhist
Buddhist
faith, although little proof remains. In the 2nd century AD, the Christian dogmatist Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
recognized the existence of Buddhist
Buddhist
Sramanas among the Bactrians
Bactrians
("Bactrians" meaning "Oriental Greeks" in that period), and even their influence on Greek thought:

Thus philosophy, a thing of the highest utility, flourished in antiquity among the barbarians, shedding its light over the nations. And afterwards it came to Greece
Greece
. First in its ranks were the prophets of the Egyptians ; and the Chaldeans among the Assyrians ; and the Druids
Druids
among the Gauls
Gauls
; and the SRAMANAS among the Bactrians ("Σαρμαναίοι Βάκτρων"); and the philosophers of the Celts
Celts
; and the Magi
Magi
of the Persians , who foretold the Saviour's birth, and came into the land of Judea
Judea
guided by a star. The Indian gymnosophists are also in the number, and the other barbarian philosophers. And of these there are two classes, some of them called SRAMANAS ("Σαρμάναι"), and others Brahmins ("Βραφμαναι"). — Clement of Alexandria, "The Stromata, or Miscellanies" Book I, Chapter XV

RISE OF THE SHUNGAS (185 BC)

Shunga horseman, Bharhut
Bharhut
. Main article: Shunga Empire
Shunga Empire

In India, the Maurya Dynasty was overthrown around 185 BC when Pushyamitra Shunga
Pushyamitra Shunga
, the commander-in-chief of Mauryan Imperial forces and a Brahmin
Brahmin
, assassinated the last of the Mauryan emperors Brihadratha . Pushyamitra Shunga
Pushyamitra Shunga
then ascended the throne and established the Shunga Empire
Shunga Empire
, which extended its control as far west as the Punjab
Punjab
.

Buddhist
Buddhist
sources, such as the Ashokavadana
Ashokavadana
, mention that Pushyamitra was hostile towards Buddhists and allegedly persecuted the Buddhist faith . A large number of Buddhist
Buddhist
monasteries (viharas ) were allegedly converted to Hindu
Hindu
temples, in such places as Nalanda
Nalanda
, Bodhgaya
Bodhgaya
, Sarnath
Sarnath
or Mathura
Mathura
. While it is established by secular sources that Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
were in competition during this time, with the Shungas preferring the former to the latter, historians such as Etienne Lamotte and Romila Thapar
Romila Thapar
argue that Buddhist accounts of persecution of Buddhists by Shungas are largely exaggerated. Some Puranic
Puranic
sources however also describe the resurgence of Brahmanism following the Maurya Dynasty , and the killing of millions of Buddhists, such as the Pratisarga Parva of the Bhavishya Purana :

"At this time the best of the brahmanas , Kanyakubja, performed sacrifice on the top of a mountain named Arbuda. By the influence of Vedic
Vedic
mantras, four Kshatriyas appeared from the yajna (sacrifice). (...) They kept Ashoka
Ashoka
under their control and annihilated all the Buddhists. It is said there were 4 million Buddhists and all of them were killed by uncommon weapons". —  Pratisarga Parva

HISTORY OF THE INDO-GREEK KINGDOM

Main article: History of the Indo-Greek Kingdom
History of the Indo-Greek Kingdom

NATURE AND QUALITY OF THE SOURCES

Apollodotus I
Apollodotus I
(180–160 BC) the first king who ruled in the subcontinent only, and therefore the founder of the proper Indo-Greek kingdom. Main article: Indo-Greeks (sources)

Some narrative history has survived for most of the Hellenistic world, at least of the kings and the wars; this is lacking for India. The main Greco-Roman source on the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
is Justin , who wrote an anthology drawn from the Roman historian Pompeius Trogus , who in turn wrote, from Greek sources, at the time of Augustus Caesar
Augustus Caesar
. In addition to these dozen sentences, the geographer Strabo
Strabo
mentions India
India
a few times in the course of his long dispute with Eratosthenes about the shape of Eurasia. Most of these are purely geographical claims, but he does mention that Eratosthenes' sources say that some of the Greek kings conquered further than Alexander; Strabo
Strabo
does not believe them on this, but modern historians do; nor does he believe that Menander and Demetrius son of Euthydemus conquered more tribes than Alexander There is half a story about Menander in one of the books of Polybius
Polybius
which has not come down to us intact.

There are Indian literary sources, ranging from the Milinda Panha , a dialogue between a Buddhist
Buddhist
sage Nagasena
Nagasena
and King Menander I
Menander I
, which includes some incidental information on Menander's biography and the geography and institutions of his kingdom, down to a sentence about Menander (presumably the same Menander) and his attack on Pataliputra which happens to have survived as a standard example in grammar texts; none is a narrative history. Names in these sources are consistently Indianized, and there is some dispute whether, for example, Dharmamitra represents "Demetrius" or is an Indian prince with that name. There was also a Chinese expedition to Bactria
Bactria
by Chang-k\'ien under the Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
, recorded in the Records of the Grand Historian and Book of the Former Han , with additional evidence in the Book of the Later Han
Book of the Later Han
; the identification of places and peoples behind transcriptions into Chinese is difficult, and several alternate interpretations have been proposed.

There is also significant archaeological evidence, including some epigraphic evidence, for the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings, such as the mention of the " Yavana
Yavana
" embassy of king Antialcidas
Antialcidas
on the Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
in Vidisha
Vidisha
, or the Yavanarajya inscription indicating Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
rule in Mathura
Mathura
. But the chief archaeological evidence comes from the coins of the Indo-Greeks.

EXPANSION OF DEMETRIUS INTO INDIA

The founder of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom Demetrius I (c. 205– c. 170 BC), wearing the scalp of an elephant, symbol of his conquests in India.

Demetrius I , the son of Euthydemus is generally considered as the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
king who first launched the Greek expansion into India . He is therefore the founder of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
realm. The true intents of the Greek kings in occupying India
India
are unknown, but it is thought that the elimination of the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
by the Sunga
Sunga
greatly encouraged this expansion. The Indo-Greeks, in particular Menander I who is said in the Milindapanha to have converted to Buddhism, also possibly received the help of Indian Buddhists.

There is an inscription from his father's reign already officially hailing Demetrius as victorious. He also has one of the few absolute dates in Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
history: after his father held off Antiochus III for two years, 208–6 BC, the peace treaty included the offer of a marriage between Demetrius and Antiochus' daughter. Coins of Demetrius I have been found in Arachosia
Arachosia
and in the Kabul
Kabul
Valley ; the latter would be the first entry of the Greeks into India, as they defined it. There is also literary evidence for a campaign eastward against the Seres
Seres
and the Phryni ; but the order and dating of these conquests is uncertain.

Demetrius I seems to have conquered the Kabul
Kabul
valley, Arachosia
Arachosia
and perhaps Gandhara
Gandhara
; he struck no Indian coins, so either his conquests did not penetrate that far into India
India
or he died before he could consolidate them. On his coins, Demetrius I always carries the elephant-helmet worn by Alexander, which seems to be a token of his Indian conquests. Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
believes that Demetrius received the title of "King of India" following his victories south of the Hindu Kush. He was also given, though perhaps only posthumously, the title ανικητος ("Anicetos", lit. Invincible) a cult title of Heracles
Heracles
, which Alexander had assumed; the later Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings Lysias, Philoxenus, and Artemidorus also took it. Finally, Demetrius may have been the founder of a newly discovered Yavana
Yavana
era , starting in 186/5 BC.

First Bilingual Monetary System

See also: Post-Mauryan coinage
Post-Mauryan coinage
of Gandhara
Gandhara
Indian coinage of Agathocles , with lion and Lakshmi
Lakshmi
, a goddess of fortune and abundance for Buddhists and Hindus.

After the death of Demetrius, the Bactrian kings Pantaleon
Pantaleon
and Agathocles struck the first bilingual coins with Indian inscriptions found as far east as Taxila
Taxila
so in their time (c. 185–170 BC) the Bactrian kingdom seems to have included Gandhara. These first bilingual coins used the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
, whereas later kings would generally use Kharoshthi
Kharoshthi
. They also went as far as incorporating Indian deities, such as goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and Hindu
Hindu
deities, as well as various Indian devices (lion, elephant, zebu bull) and symbols, which can also be seen in the Post-Mauryan coinage
Post-Mauryan coinage
of Gandhara
Gandhara
. Coin of Agathocles with Hindu
Hindu
deities: Balarama
Balarama
- Samkarshana (left) and Vasudeva
Vasudeva
- Krishna
Krishna
(right).

The Hinduist coinage of Agathocles is few but spectacular. Six Indian-standard silver drachmas were discovered at Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
in 1970, which depict Hindu
Hindu
deities. These are early Avatars of Vishnu
Vishnu
: Balarama
Balarama
-Sankarshana with attributes consisting of the Gada mace and the plow , and Vasudeva
Vasudeva
- Krishna
Krishna
with the Vishnu
Vishnu
attributes of the Shankha
Shankha
(a pear-shaped case or conch) and the Sudarshana Chakra
Sudarshana Chakra
wheel. These first attempts at incorporating Indian culture were only partly preserved by later kings: they all continued to struck bilingual coins, sometimes in addition to Attic
Attic
coinage, but Greek deities remained prevalent. Indian animals however, such as the elephant, the bull or the lion, possibly with religious overtones, were used extensively in their Indian-standard square coinage.

Several Bactrian kings followed after Demetrius' death, and it seems likely that the civil wars between them made it possible for Apollodotus I
Apollodotus I
(from c. 180/175 BC) to make himself independent as the first proper Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king (who did not rule from Bactria). Large numbers of his coins have been found in India, and he seems to have reigned in Gandhara
Gandhara
as well as western Punjab. Apollodotus I
Apollodotus I
was succeeded by or ruled alongside Antimachus II
Antimachus II
, likely the son of the Bactrian king Antimachus I
Antimachus I
.

CONQUESTS OF MENANDER I

Menander I
Menander I
(155–130 BC) is one of the few Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings mentioned in both Graeco-Roman
Graeco-Roman
and Indian sources. The Reh Inscription of Menander , near Kausambi
Kausambi
, tends to confirm that Menander was at the head of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
forays into northern India. Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
arrowheads from Kausambi
Kausambi
.

The next important Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king was Menander (from c. 165/155 BC) who has been described as the greatest of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kings; his coins are found as far as eastern Punjab. Menander seems to have begun a second wave of conquests, and since he already ruled in India, it seems likely that the easternmost conquests were made by him. Thus from 161 B.C. onwards Menander was the ruler of Punjab
Punjab
until his death in 130 B.C. Menander made Sagala
Sagala
his capital, and after conquering the Punjab region
Punjab region
he subsequently made an expedition across northern India
India
and reached the Mauryan capital of Patna
Patna
. Soon after, Eucratides I
Eucratides I
king of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
began warring with the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
in the north western frontier.

According to Apollodorus of Artemita , quoted by Strabo, the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
territory for a while included the Indian coastal provinces of Sindh
Sindh
and possibly Gujarat
Gujarat
. With archaeological methods, the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
territory can however only be confirmed from the Kabul Valley to the eastern Punjab
Punjab
, so Greek presence outside was probably short-lived or less significant.

Some sources also claim that the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
may have reached the Shunga capital Pataliputra
Pataliputra
in northeastern India. However, the nature of this expedition is a matter of controversy. One theory is that Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
were invited to join a raid led by local Indian kings down the Ganges
Ganges
river. The other is that it was a campaign likely made by Menander. Irrespective it appears that Pataliputra, if at all captured, was not held for long as the expedition was forced to retreat, probably due to wars in their own territories. Menander's reign saw the end of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
expansion.

Archaeological Remains

The Reh Inscription of Menander
Reh Inscription of Menander
, an inscription on a pillar discovered in Reh , Fatehpur district , Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
, in the Ganges valley 96 km west of Kausambi
Kausambi
and 350 km south-east of Mathura
Mathura
, on the left bank of the Yamuna river
Yamuna river
, tends to confirm that Menander was at the head of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
forays into northern India, probably reaching with his armies the capital city of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
. Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
Taxila
Taxila
Sagala
Sagala
Mathura
Mathura
Pataliputra
Pataliputra
Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
Hastinapur
Hastinapur
Ujjain
Ujjain
Kausambi
Kausambi
Archaeological findings corresponding to an Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
invasion. Legend: Main Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
cities. Destruction layers associated with the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
(circa 160 BCE). Finds of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
arrowheads. Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
epigraphical remains: Yavanarajya inscription in Mathura , and Reh Inscription of Menander
Reh Inscription of Menander
near Kausambi
Kausambi
.

Archaeological surveys in Kausambi
Kausambi
, 96 km east of the Reh inscription showed that Kausambi
Kausambi
had been completely destroyed at one point, and that the archaeological layer corresponding to the destruction contained numerous double-tanged and some triple-tanged arrows, consisting in an adaptation of Western socketed designs rather than Eastern designs, and previously associated with the Greeks in Taxila
Taxila
. These arrows can therefore be associated with the Indo-Greek invasion in the 2nd century BCE. Such arrowheads have also been found at Sonkh (near Borapa ) and Mathura
Mathura
. The Manhai pillar capital , as well as fortification walls nearby Kausambi
Kausambi
consisting of large blocks joined together with iron clamps and nails, a mode of construction unknown at the time in the Ganges
Ganges
valley, and thought to be the work of Greek craftsmen, also point to the presence of the Indo-Greeks.

Similar destruction layers corresponding to the same time period were also found in Ujjain
Ujjain
and Pataliputra
Pataliputra
, also suggesting destructions brought by the Indo-Greeks, and giving an archaeological indication of the extent and the violence of their foray into India. These destructions also correspond to the end of the Northern Black Polished Ware pottery culture in northern India. Carbon dating also confirmed the general time period of these destruction layers to circa 160 BCE.

Western Accounts

Greek presence in Arachosia
Arachosia
, where Greek populations had been living since before the acquisition of the territory by Chandragupta from Seleucus , is mentioned by Isidore of Charax . He describes Greek cities there, one of them called Demetrias, probably in honour of the conqueror Demetrius .

Apollodotus I
Apollodotus I
(and Menander I) were mentioned by Pompeius Trogus as important Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings. It is theorized that Greek advances temporarily went as far as the Shunga capital Pataliputra
Pataliputra
(today Patna ) in eastern India. Senior considers that these conquests can only refer to Menander: Against this, John Mitchener considers that the Greeks probably raided the Indian capital of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
during the time of Demetrius, though Mitchener's analysis is not based on numismatic evidence. King Hippostratos
Hippostratos
riding a horse, circa 100 BCE (coin detail).

Of the eastern parts of India, then, there have become known to us all those parts which lie this side of the Hypanis , and also any parts beyond the Hypanis of which an account has been added by those who, after Alexander, advanced beyond the Hypanis, to the Ganges
Ganges
and Pataliputra
Pataliputra
. —  Strabo
Strabo
, 15-1-27

The seriousness of the attack is in some doubt: Menander may merely have joined a raid led by Indian Kings down the Ganges
Ganges
, as Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
presence has not been confirmed this far east.

To the south, the Greeks may have occupied the areas of the Sindh
Sindh
and Gujarat
Gujarat
, including the strategic harbour of Barygaza
Barygaza
( Bharuch
Bharuch
), conquests also attested by coins dating from the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
ruler Apollodotus I
Apollodotus I
and by several ancient writers ( Strabo
Strabo
11; Periplus of the Erythraean Sea , Chap. 41/47):

The Greeks ... took possession, not only of Patalene
Patalene
, but also, on the rest of the coast, of what is called the kingdom of Saraostus and Sigerdis . —  Strabo
Strabo
11.11.1

The Periplus further explains ancient Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
rule and continued circulation of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coinage in the region:

"To the present day ancient drachmae are current in Barygaza
Barygaza
, coming from this country, bearing inscriptions in Greek letters, and the devices of those who reigned after Alexander, Apollodorus and Menander ." — Periplus Chap. 47

Narain however dismisses the account of the Periplus as "just a sailor's story", and holds that coin finds are not necessarily indicators of occupation. Coin hoards further suggest that in Central India, the area of Malwa
Malwa
may also have been conquered.

Rule In Mathura

The Mathura
Mathura
Herakles
Herakles
. A statue of Herakles
Herakles
strangling the Nemean lion
Nemean lion
from Mathura
Mathura
. Also: . Today in the Kolkota
Kolkota
Indian Museum .

Slightly northwest of Mathura, numerous Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coins were found in the city of Khokrakot
Khokrakot
(modern Rohtak
Rohtak
), belonging to as many as 14 different Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings, as well as coin molds in Naurangabad , suggesting Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
occupation of Haryana
Haryana
in the 2nd-1st centuries BCE.

From numismatic, literary and epigraphic evidence, it seems that the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
also had control over Mathura
Mathura
at some time, especially during the rule of Menander I
Menander I
(165–135 BC). The control of Mathura seems to have continued for some time under the successors of Menander, with Strato I
Strato I
, Antimachus and Apollodotus II
Apollodotus II
, where they were facing the territory of the Sungas
Sungas
, who are known to have been absent from Mathura
Mathura
(no epigraphical or coin remains) and only located eastward of the Mathura
Mathura
region. Coins of Menander and Strato can be found in the area of Mathura, and Ptolemy
Ptolemy
records Menander as having ruled as far as Mathura
Mathura
(Μόδουρα) in Book VII, I, 47 of his Geographia . The Yavanarajya inscription , dated to "year 116 of Yavana
Yavana
hegemony ", probably referring to the Yavana
Yavana
era , suggests Greek control in Mathura
Mathura
circa 70 or 69 BC. Mathura
Mathura
Museum .

An inscription in Mathura
Mathura
discovered in 1988, the Yavanarajya inscription , mentions "The last day of year 116 of Yavana
Yavana
hegemony (Yavanarajya)", also suggesting the rule of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
in the area in the 2nd–1st century BC in Mathura. The inscription would date to the 116th year of the Yavana
Yavana
era (thought to start in 186–185 BC) which would give it a date of 70 or 69 BC.

To the south, according to the dedication of the Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
, the Sungas
Sungas
definitely ruled in Vidisha
Vidisha
around 120 BCE, where a king Bhagabhadra
Bhagabhadra
had established his court and Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
ambassador Heliodorus
Heliodorus
visited him. The son of Pushyamitra , Agnimitra
Agnimitra
, had also established his court in Vidisha
Vidisha
as a viceroy. However, this choice of Vidisha
Vidisha
as a provincial capital suggests that the Sungas
Sungas
had lost the old and traditional provincial capital of Ujjain
Ujjain
about 100 km to the west.

Indian Sources

Illustration of the possible forays of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
into India, according to Indian sources.

Various Indian records describe Yavana
Yavana
attacks on Mathura
Mathura
, Panchala , Saketa
Saketa
, and Pataliputra
Pataliputra
. The term Yavana
Yavana
is thought to be a transliteration of "Ionians" and is known to have designated Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Greeks (starting with the Edicts of Ashoka
Ashoka
, where Ashoka writes about "the Yavana
Yavana
king Antiochus "), but may have sometimes referred to other foreigners as well after the 1st century AD.

Patanjali
Patanjali
, a grammarian and commentator on Pāṇini
Pāṇini
around 150 BC, describes in the Mahābhāsya , the invasion in two examples using the imperfect tense of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, denoting a recent event:

* "Arunad Yavanah Sāketam" ("The Yavanas
Yavanas
(Greeks) were besieging Saketa") * "Arunad Yavano Madhyamikām" ("The Yavanas
Yavanas
were besieging Madhyamika" (the "Middle country")).

Also the Brahmanical text of the Yuga Purana
Yuga Purana
, which describes Indian historical events in the form of a prophecy, but is thought to be likely historical, relates the attack of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
on the capital Pataliputra, a magnificent fortified city with 570 towers and 64 gates according to Megasthenes
Megasthenes
, and describes the ultimate destruction of the city's walls:

Then, after having approached Saketa
Saketa
together with the Panchalas and the Mathuras , the Yavanas, valiant in battle, will reach Kusumadhvaja ("The town of the flower-standard", Pataliputra
Pataliputra
). Then, once Puspapura (another name of Pataliputra) has been reached and its celebrated mud-walls cast down, all the realm will be in disorder. — Yuga Purana, Paragraph 47–48, quoted in Mitchener, The Yuga Purana, 2002 edition Possible statue of a Yavana
Yavana
/ Indo-Greek warrior with boots and chiton , from the Rani Gumpha or "Cave of the Queen" in the Udayagiri Caves on the east coast of India, where the Hathigumpha inscription
Hathigumpha inscription
was also found. 2nd or 1st century BCE.

Accounts of battles between the Greeks and the Shunga in Central India
India
are also found in the Mālavikāgnimitram , a play by Kālidāsa which is thought to describe an encounter between a Greek cavalry squadron and Vasumitra , the grandson of Pushyamitra , during the latter's reign, by the Sindh
Sindh
River or the Kali Sindh
Sindh
River .

According to the Yuga Purana, the Yavanas
Yavanas
thereafter retreated following internal conflicts:

"The Yavanas
Yavanas
(Greeks) will command, the Kings will disappear. (But ultimately) the Yavanas, intoxicated with fighting, will not stay in Madhadesa (the Middle Country ); there will be undoubtedly a civil war among them, arising in their own country ( Bactria
Bactria
), there will be a terrible and ferocious war." (Gargi-Samhita, Yuga Purana
Yuga Purana
chapter, No7).

Earlier authors such as Tarn have suggested that the raid on Pataliputra
Pataliputra
was made by Demetrius . According to Mitchener, the Hathigumpha inscription
Hathigumpha inscription
indicates the presence of the Greeks led by a "Demetrius" in eastern India
India
( Magadha
Magadha
) during the 1st century BC, although this interpretation was previously disputed by Narain.

"Then in the eighth year, ( Kharavela
Kharavela
) with a large army having sacked Goradhagiri causes pressure on Rajagaha (Rajagriha ). On account of the loud report of this act of valour, the Yavana
Yavana
(Greek) King Dimi retreated to Mathura
Mathura
having extricated his demoralized army." —  Hathigumpha inscription
Hathigumpha inscription
, line 8, probably in the 1st century BCE. Original text is in Brahmi
Brahmi
script.

But while this inscription may be interpreted as an indication that Demetrius I was the king who made conquests in Punjab, it is still true that he never issued any Indian-standard coins, only numerous coins with elephant symbolism, and the restoration of his name in Kharosthi
Kharosthi
on the Hathigumpha inscription: Di-Mi-Ta, has been doubted. The "Di" is a reconstruction, and it may be noted that the name of another Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king, Amyntas, is spelt A-Mi-Ta in Kharosthi
Kharosthi
and may fit in.

Therefore, Menander remains the likeliest candidate for any advance east of Punjab.

CONSOLIDATION

Menander I
Menander I
became the most important of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
rulers. Eucratides I
Eucratides I
toppled the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
Euthydemid dynasty, and attacked the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
from the west.

The important Bactrian king Eucratides
Eucratides
seems to have attacked the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kingdom during the mid 2nd century BC. A Demetrius, called "King of the Indians", seems to have confronted Eucratides
Eucratides
in a four-month siege, reported by Justin, but he ultimately lost.

In any case, Eucratides
Eucratides
seems to have occupied territory as far as the Indus
Indus
, between ca. 170 BC and 150 BC. His advances were ultimately checked by the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king Menander I
Menander I
,

Menander is considered to have been probably the most successful Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king, and the conqueror of the largest territory. The finds of his coins are the most numerous and the most widespread of all the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings. Menander is also remembered in Buddhist literature, where he is called Milinda, and is described in the Milinda Panha as a convert to Buddhism
Buddhism
: he became an arhat whose relics were enshrined in a manner reminiscent of the Buddha. He also introduced a new coin type, with Athena
Athena
Alkidemos ("Protector of the people") on the reverse, which was adopted by most of his successors in the East.

Fall Of Bactria
Bactria
And Death Of Menander

Silver drachm of Menander I
Menander I
(160–145 BC) Heliocles (145–130 BC) was the last Greek king in Bactria
Bactria
.

From the mid-2nd century BC, the Scythians , in turn being pushed forward by the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
who were completing a long migration from the border of China
China
, started to invade Bactria
Bactria
from the north. Around 130 BC the last Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
king Heliocles was probably killed during the invasion and the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
kingdom proper ceased to exist. The Parthians
Parthians
also probably played a role in the downfall of the Bactrian kingdom. Coin of Zoilos I
Zoilos I
(130–120 BC) showing on the reverse the Heraklean club with the Scythian
Scythian
bow, inside a victory wreath.

Immediately after the fall of Bactria, the bronze coins of Indo-Greek king Zoilos I
Zoilos I
(130–120 BC), successor of Menander in the western part of the Indian territories, combined the club of Herakles
Herakles
with a Scythian
Scythian
-type bowcase and short recurve bow inside a victory wreath , illustrating interaction with horse-mounted people originating from the steppes, possibly either the Scythians (future Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
), or the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
(future Kushans
Kushans
) who had invaded Greco-Bactria. This bow can be contrasted to the traditional Hellenistic
Hellenistic
long bow depicted on the coins of the eastern Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
queen Agathokleia
Agathokleia
. It is now known that 50 years later, the Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
Maues
Maues
was in alliance with the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings in Taxila
Taxila
, and one of those kings, Artemidoros
Artemidoros
seems to claim on his coins that he is the son of Maues, although this is now disputed.

Preservation Of The Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Realm

The Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
states, shielded by the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range, were saved from the invasions, but the civil wars which had weakened the Greeks continued. Menander I
Menander I
died around the same time, and even though the king himself seems to have been popular among his subjects, his dynasty was at least partially dethroned (see discussion under Menander I
Menander I
). Probable members of the dynasty of Menander include the ruling queen Agathokleia
Agathokleia
, her son Strato I
Strato I
, and Nicias , though it is uncertain whether they ruled directly after Menander. Coin of Antialcidas
Antialcidas
(105–95 BC). Coin of Philoxenos (100–95 BC).

Other kings emerged, usually in the western part of the Indo-Greek realm, such as Zoilos I
Zoilos I
, Lysias , Antialcidas
Antialcidas
and Philoxenos . These rulers may have been relatives of either the Eucratid or the Euthydemid dynasties. The names of later kings were often new (members of Hellenistic
Hellenistic
dynasties usually inherited family names) but old reverses and titles were frequently repeated by the later rulers.

While all Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings after Apollodotus I
Apollodotus I
mainly issued bilingual (Greek and Kharoshti ) coins for circulation in their own territories, several of them also struck rare Greek coins which have been found in Bactria. The later kings probably struck these coins as some kind of payment to the Scythian
Scythian
or Yuezhi
Yuezhi
tribes who now ruled there, though if as tribute or payment for mercenaries remains unknown. For some decades after the Bactrian invasion, relationships seem to have been peaceful between the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
and these relatively hellenised nomad tribes.

There are however no historical recordings of events in the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kingdom after Menander's death around 130 BC, since the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
had now become very isolated from the rest of the Graeco-Roman
Graeco-Roman
world. The later history of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
states, which lasted to around the shift BC/AD, is reconstructed almost entirely from archaeological and numismatical analyses.

INTERRACTIONS WITH INDIAN CULTURE AND RELIGIONS

Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
In The Regions Of Vidisha
Vidisha
And Sanchi
Sanchi
(115 BC)

See also: Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
, Sanchi
Sanchi
, and Sanchi
Sanchi
Stupa
Stupa
No.2 The Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
was established by Heliodoros , ambassador of king Antialkidas , in the city of Vidisha
Vidisha
.

It is around this time, in 115 BC, that the embassy of Heliodorus
Heliodorus
, from king Antialkidas to the court of the Sungas
Sungas
king Bhagabhadra
Bhagabhadra
in Vidisha
Vidisha
, is recorded. In the Sunga
Sunga
capital, Heliodorus
Heliodorus
established the Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
in a dedication to Vāsudeva . This would indicate that relations between the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
and the Sungas
Sungas
had improved by that time, that people traveled between the two realms, and also that the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
readily followed Indian religions.

Also around the same period, circa 115 BC, decorative reliefs were introduced for the first time at nearby Sanchi
Sanchi
, 6 km away from Vidisha, by craftsmen from the northwest. These craftsmen left mason's marks in Kharoshthi
Kharoshthi
, mainly used in the area around Gandhara , as opposed to the local Brahmi
Brahmi
script. This seems to imply that these foreign workers were responsible for some of the earliest motifs and figures that can be found on the railings of the stupa. These early reliefs at Sanchi, (those of Sanchi
Sanchi
Stupa
Stupa
No.2 ), are dated to 115 BC, while the more extensive pillar carvings are dated to 80 BC. These reliefs have been described as "the oldest extensive stupa decoration in existence". They are considered as the origin of Jataka illustrations in India.

EARLY RELIEFS AT SANCHI , STUPA NO.2 (CIRCA 115 BC)

SANCHI, STUPA NO 2

Mason's marks in Kharoshti point to craftsmen from the north-west (region of Gandhara
Gandhara
) for the earliest reliefs at Sanchi, circa 115 BC.

*

Foreigner on a horse. The medallions are dated circa 115 BC. *

Lakshmi
Lakshmi
with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from similar images of Venus *

Griffin
Griffin
. *

Female riding a Centaur
Centaur
. *

Lotus within Hellenistic
Hellenistic
beads and reels motif. *

Floral motif.

Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
And Bharhut
Bharhut
(100-75 BC)

See also: Bharhut
Bharhut
and Bharhut
Bharhut
Yavana
Yavana
The Bharhut
Bharhut
Yavana
Yavana
, a possible Indian depiction of Menander , with the flowing head band of a Greek king, northern tunic with Hellenistic
Hellenistic
pleats , and Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Bharhut
Bharhut
, 100 BC. Indian Museum
Indian Museum
, Calcutta
Calcutta
. At Bharhut
Bharhut
, the gateways were made by northwestern (probably Gandharan
Gandharan
) masons using Kharosthi
Kharosthi
marks 100-75 BC.

A warrior figure, the Bharhut
Bharhut
Yavana
Yavana
, appeared prominently on a high relief on the railings of the stupa of Bharhut
Bharhut
circa 100 BC. The warrior has the flowing head band of a Greek king, a northern tunic with Hellenistic
Hellenistic
pleats , he hold a grape in his hand, and has a Buddhist
Buddhist
triratana symbol on his sword. He has the role of a dvarapala , a Guardian of the entrance of the Stupa. The warrior has been described as a Greek , Some have suggested that he might even represent king Menander .

Also around that time, craftsmen from the Gandhara
Gandhara
area are known to have been involved in the construction of the Buddhist
Buddhist
torana gateways at Bharhut
Bharhut
, which are dated to 100-75 BC: this is because mason 's marks in Kharosthi
Kharosthi
have been found on several elements of the Bharhut remains, indicating that some of the builders at least came from the north, particularly from Gandhara
Gandhara
where the Kharoshti script was in use.

Cunningham explained that the Kharosthi
Kharosthi
letters were found on the ballusters between the architraves of the gateway, but none on the railings which all had Indian markings, summarizing that the gateways, which are artistically more refined, must have been made by artists from the North, whereas the railings were made by local artists.

Sanchi
Sanchi
Yavanas
Yavanas
(50-0 BC)

Foreigners on the Northern Gateway of Stupa
Stupa
I at Sanchi
Sanchi
.

Again in Sanchi
Sanchi
, but this time dating to the period of Satavahana rule circa 50-0 BC, one frieze can be observed which shows devotees in Greek attire making a dedication to the Great Stupa
Stupa
of Sanchi. The official notice at Sanchi
Sanchi
describes "Foreigners worshiping Stupa
Stupa
". The men are depicted with short curly hair, often held together with a headband of the type commonly seen on Greek coins . The clothing too is Greek, complete with tunics , capes and sandals, typical of the Greek travelling costume . The musical instruments are also quite characteristic, such as the double flute called aulos . Also visible are carnyx -like horns . They are all celebrating at the entrance of the stupa.

The actual participation of Yavanas
Yavanas
/ Yonas (Greek donors) to the construction of Sanchi
Sanchi
is known from three inscriptions made by self-declared Yavana
Yavana
donors:

* The clearest of these reads "Setapathiyasa Yonasa danam" ("Gift of the Yona
Yona
of Setapatha"), Setapatha being an uncertain city, possibly a location near Nasik
Nasik
, a place where other dedications by Yavanas are known, in cave No.17 of the Nasik
Nasik
caves complex, and on the pillars of the Karla caves
Karla caves
not far away. * A second similar inscription on a pillar reads: "etapathasa (Yona?)sa danam", with probably the same meaning, ("Gift of the Yona of Setapatha"). * The third inscription, on two adjacent pavement slabs reads "Cuda yokasa bo silayo" ("Two slabs of Cuda, the Yonaka").

DECLINE

King Philoxenus
King Philoxenus
(100–95 BC) briefly occupied the whole Greek territory from the Paropamisadae
Paropamisadae
to Western Punjab, after what the territories fragmented again between smaller Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings. Throughout the 1st century BC, the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
progressively lost ground to the Indians in the east, and the Scythians , the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
, and the Parthians
Parthians
in the West. About 20 Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings are known during this period, down to the last known Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
rulers, Strato II and Strato III
Strato III
, who ruled in the Punjab region
Punjab region
until around 10 AD.

Loss Of Hindu
Hindu
Kush Territories (70 BC-)

Main article: Yuezhi
Yuezhi
Hermaeus
Hermaeus
(90–70 BC) was the last Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king in the Western territories ( Paropamisadae
Paropamisadae
). Hermaeus
Hermaeus
posthumous issue struck by Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
near Kabul
Kabul
, circa 80–75 BCE.

Around eight "western" Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings are known; most of them are distinguished by their issues of Attic
Attic
coins for circulation in the neighbouring region.

One of the last important kings in the Paropamisadae
Paropamisadae
(part of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush ) was Hermaeus
Hermaeus
, who ruled until around 80 BC; soon after his death the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
or Sakas
Sakas
took over his areas from neighbouring Bactria. When Hermaeus
Hermaeus
is depicted on his coins riding a horse, he is equipped with the recurve bow and bow-case of the steppes and RC Senior believes him to be of partly nomad origin. The later king Hippostratus
Hippostratus
may however also have held territories in the Paropamisadae.

After the death of Hermaeus, the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
or Saka
Saka
nomads became the new rulers of the Paropamisadae, and minted vast quantities of posthumous issues of Hermaeus
Hermaeus
up to around 40 AD, when they blend with the coinage of the Kushan
Kushan
king Kujula Kadphises
Kujula Kadphises
. The first documented Yuezhi
Yuezhi
prince, Sapadbizes , ruled around 20 BC, and minted in Greek and in the same style as the western Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings, probably depending on Greek mints and celators.

Loss Of Central Territories (48/47 BC)

Main article: Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
Tetradrachm
Tetradrachm
of Hippostratos
Hippostratos
, reigned circa 65–55 BC, was the last Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king in Western Punjab
Punjab
. Hippostratos
Hippostratos
was replaced by the Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
king Azes I
Azes I
(r. c. 35–12 BC).

Around 80 BC, an Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
king named Maues
Maues
, possibly a general in the service of the Indo-Greeks, ruled for a few years in northwestern India
India
before the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
again took control. He seems to have been married to an Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
princess named Machene. King Hippostratus
Hippostratus
(65–55 BC) seems to have been one of the most successful subsequent Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings until he lost to the Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
Azes I
Azes I
, who established an Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
dynasty in 48/47 BC. Various coins seem to suggest that some sort of alliance may have taken place between the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
and the Scythians.

Although the Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
clearly ruled militarily and politically, they remained surprisingly respectful of Greek and Indian cultures. Their coins were minted in Greek mints, continued using proper Greek and Kharoshthi
Kharoshthi
legends, and incorporated depictions of Greek deities, particularly Zeus. The Mathura
Mathura
lion capital inscription attests that they adopted the Buddhist
Buddhist
faith, as do the depictions of deities forming the vitarka mudra on their coins. Greek communities, far from being exterminated, probably persisted under Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
rule. There is a possibility that a fusion, rather than a confrontation, occurred between the Greeks and the Indo-Scythians: in a recently published coin, Artemidorus seems to present himself as "son of Maues" ( but this is now disputed), and the Buner reliefs
Buner reliefs
show Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
and Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
reveling in a Buddhist
Buddhist
context.

The last known mention of an Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
ruler is suggested by an inscription on a signet ring of the 1st century AD in the name of a king Theodamas
Theodamas
, from the Bajaur
Bajaur
area of Gandhara
Gandhara
, in modern Pakistan. No coins of him are known, but the signet bears in kharoshthi script the inscription "Su Theodamasa", "Su" being explained as the Greek transliteration of the ubiquitous Kushan
Kushan
royal title "Shau" (" Shah
Shah
", "King").

Loss Of Eastern Territories (10 AD)

Approximate region of East Punjab
East Punjab
and Strato II's capital Sagala . The last known Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings Strato II
Strato II
and Strato III
Strato III
, here on a joint coin (25 BC-10 AD), were the last Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king in eartern territories of Eastern Punjab . Strato II
Strato II
and Strato III were replaced by the Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
Northern Satrap
Satrap
Rajuvula .

The Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
continued to rule a territory in the eastern Punjab for some time. They may have ruled as far as the area of Mathura
Mathura
from the time of Menander I
Menander I
until the middle of the 1st century BC: the Maghera inscription , from a village near Mathura, records the dedication of a well "in the one hundred and sixteenth year of the reign of the Yavanas
Yavanas
", which corresponds to circa 70 BC. Soon after 70 BC, however, they lost the area of Mathura
Mathura
and south-eastern Punjab (modern day Southern Haryana
Haryana
), west of the Yamuna River
Yamuna River
, possibly to the Mitra rulers of Mathura, or more probably to the Indo-Scythian Northern Satraps
Northern Satraps
.

The Arjunayanas (area of Mathura) and Yaudheyas mention military victories on their coins ("Victory of the Arjunayanas", "Victory of the Yaudheyas"). During the 1st century BC, the Trigartas , Audumbaras and finally the Kunindas also started to mint their own coins, usually in a style highly reminiscent of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coinage.

The Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
continued to rule a territory in the eastern Punjab, until the kingdom of the last Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings Strato II
Strato II
and Strato III were taken over by the Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
Northern Satrap
Satrap
ruler Rajuvula around 10 AD.

Later Contributions

Pillar of the Great Chaitya
Chaitya
at Karla Caves
Karla Caves
, mentioning its donation by a Yavana
Yavana
. Below: detail of the word "Ya-va-na-sa" in old Brahmi script
Brahmi script
: , circa 120 CE.

Some Greek nuclei may have continued to survive until the 2nd century AD.

Yavanas
Yavanas
from the region of Nashik
Nashik
are mentioned as donors for six structural pillars in the Great Buddhist
Buddhist
Chaitya
Chaitya
of the Karla Caves built and dedicated by Western Satraps
Western Satraps
ruler Nahapana
Nahapana
in 120 CE, although they seem to have adopted Buddhist
Buddhist
names. In total, the Yavanas
Yavanas
account for nearly half of the known dedicatory inscriptions on the pillars of the Great Chaitya. To this day, Nasik
Nasik
is known as the wine capital of India, using grapes that were probably originally imported by the Greeks.

Nahapana
Nahapana
had at his court a Greek writer named Yavanesvara
Yavanesvara
("Lord of the Greeks"), who translated from Greek to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
the Yavanajataka ("Saying of the Greeks"), an astrological treatise and India's earliest Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work in horoscopy.

One of the Buddhist
Buddhist
caves (Cave No.17) in the Pandavleni caves complex near Nashik
Nashik
was built and dedicated by "Indragnidatta the son of the Yavana
Yavana
Dharmadeva, a northerner from Dattamittri", in the 2nd century CE. The city of "Dattamittri" is thought to be the city of Demetrias in Arachosia
Arachosia
, mentioned by Isidore of Charax .

Two dedicatory inscriptions by Yavana
Yavana
donors for the usage of the monks of the Samgha have also been found in Cave No.18 of the Lenyadri cave complex near Junnar .

THE "YAVANA CAVE", CAVE NO.17 OF PANDAVLENI CAVES , NEAR NASHIK (2ND CENTURY AD)

The " Yavana
Yavana
" inscription on the back wall of the veranda, Cave No.17, Nashik.

Cave No.17 has one inscription, mentioning the gift of the cave by Indragnidatta the son of the Yavana
Yavana
(i.e. Greek or Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
) Dharmadeva: "Success! (The gift) of Indragnidatta, son of Dhammadeva, the Yavana , a northerner from Dattamittri . By him, inspired by true religion, this cave has been caused to be excavated in mount Tiranhu, and inside the cave a Chaitya
Chaitya
and cisterns. This cave made for the sake of his father and mother has been, in order to honor all Buddhas bestowed on the universal Samgha by monks together with his son Dhammarakhita." Inscription of Cave No.17, Nashik
Nashik

*

Exterior *

Entrance pillars *

Pillar capital *

Interior *

Standing Buddha
Buddha

At the Manmodi caves Chaitya
Chaitya
Hall, the façade was donated by a Yavana
Yavana
, according to the inscription on the central flat surface of the lotus. Detail of the "Ya-va-na-sa" inscription in old Brahmi script : , circa 120 CE.

In the Manmodi caves , near Junnar , an inscription by a Yavana
Yavana
donor appears on the façade of the main Chaitya
Chaitya
, on the central flat surface of the lotus over the entrance: it mentions the erection of the hall-front (façade) for the Buddhist
Buddhist
Samgha, by a Yavana
Yavana
donor named Chanda:

"yavanasa camdānam gabhadā" "The meritorious gift of the façade of the (gharba) hall by the Yavana
Yavana
Chanda" — Inscription on the façade of the Manmodi Chaitya.

These contributions seem to have ended when the Satavahana Gautamiputra Satakarni vanquished Nahapana, and claimed to have defeated a confederacy of Shakas ( Western Kshatrapas
Western Kshatrapas
), Pahlavas (Indo- Parthians
Parthians
), and Yavanas
Yavanas
(Indo-Greeks), in the inscription of his mother Queen Gotami Balasiri at Cave No.3 of the Nasik
Nasik
caves :

...Siri-Satakani Gotamiputa (....) who crushed down the pride and conceit of the Kshatriyas ; who destroyed the Sakas
Sakas
, Yavanas
Yavanas
and Palhavas ; who rooted out the Khakharata race; who restored the glory of the Satavahana
Satavahana
family ... —  Nasik
Nasik
caves inscription of Queen Gotami Balasiri, circa 170 CE, Cave No.3

IDEOLOGY

Evolution of Zeus
Zeus
Nikephoros (" Zeus
Zeus
holding Nike ") on Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coinage: from the Classical motif of Nike handing the wreath of victory to Zeus
Zeus
himself (left, coin of Heliocles I 145–130 BC), then to a baby elephant (middle, coin of Antialcidas
Antialcidas
115–95 BC), and then to the Wheel of the Law , symbol of Buddhism
Buddhism
(right, coin of Menander II
Menander II
90–85 BC).

Buddhism
Buddhism
flourished under the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings, and their rule, especially that of Menander, has been remembered as benevolent. It has been suggested, although direct evidence is lacking, that their invasion of India
India
was intended to show their support for the Mauryan empire which may have had a long history of marital alliances, exchange of presents, demonstrations of friendship, exchange of ambassadors and religious missions with the Greeks. The historian Diodorus
Diodorus
even wrote that the king of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
had "great love for the Greeks".

The Greek expansion into Indian territory may have been intended to protect Greek populations in India, and to protect the Buddhist
Buddhist
faith from the religious persecutions of the Shungas . The city of Sirkap founded by Demetrius combines Greek and Indian influences without signs of segregation between the two cultures. Indo-Corinthian capital representing a man wearing a Graeco-Roman
Graeco-Roman
-style coat with fibula , and making a blessing gesture. Butkara Stupa
Butkara Stupa
, National Museum of Oriental Art , Rome
Rome
.

The first Greek coins to be minted in India, those of Menander I
Menander I
and Apollodotus I
Apollodotus I
bear the mention "Saviour king" (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ), a title with high value in the Greek world which indicated an important deflective victory. For instance, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
I had been Soter (saviour) because he had helped save Rhodes
Rhodes
from Demetrius the Besieger , and Antiochus I
Antiochus I
because he had saved Asia Minor
Asia Minor
from the Gauls
Gauls
. The title was also inscribed in Pali
Pali
as ("Tratarasa") on the reverse of their coins. Menander and Apollodotus may indeed have been saviours to the Greek populations residing in India, and to some of the Indians as well.

Also, most of the coins of the Greek kings in India
India
were bilingual, written in Greek on the front and in Pali
Pali
on the back (in the Kharosthi
Kharosthi
script, derived from Aramaic
Aramaic
, rather than the more eastern Brahmi
Brahmi
, which was used only once on coins of Agathocles of Bactria
Agathocles of Bactria
), a tremendous concession to another culture never before made in the Hellenic world. From the reign of Apollodotus II
Apollodotus II
, around 80 BC, Kharosthi
Kharosthi
letters started to be used as mintmarks on coins in combination with Greek monograms and mintmarks, suggesting the participation of local technicians to the minting process. Incidentally, these bilingual coins of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
were the key in the decipherment of the Kharoshthi
Kharoshthi
script by James Prinsep (1799–1840). Kharoshthi
Kharoshthi
became extinct around the 3rd century AD.

In Indian literature, the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
are described as Yavanas
Yavanas
(in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
), or Yonas (in Pali
Pali
) both thought to be transliterations of " Ionians
Ionians
". In the Harivamsa the "Yavana" Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
are qualified, together with the Sakas
Sakas
, Kambojas
Kambojas
, Pahlavas and Paradas as Kshatriya-pungava i.e. foremost among the Warrior caste, or Kshatriyas . The Majjhima Nikaya
Majjhima Nikaya
explains that in the lands of the Yavanas
Yavanas
and Kambojas, in contrast with the numerous Indian castes, there were only two classes of people, Aryas and Dasas (masters and slaves).

RELIGION

Main article: Religions of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
See also: Greco- Buddhism
Buddhism
Hellenistic
Hellenistic
temple with Ionic columns at Jandial
Jandial
near Sirkap
Sirkap
, Taxila
Taxila
. Indian-standard coinage of Menander I
Menander I
. OBV ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ "Of Saviour King Menander". REV Palm of victory, Kharoshthi
Kharoshthi
legend Māhārajasa trātadasa Menandrāsa, British Museum
British Museum
. Evolution of the Butkara stupa
Butkara stupa
, a large part of which occurred during the Indo-Greek period, through the addition of Hellenistic
Hellenistic
architectural elements.

In addition to the worship of the Classical pantheon of the Greek deities found on their coins ( Zeus
Zeus
, Herakles
Herakles
, Athena
Athena
, Apollo
Apollo
...), the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
were involved with local faiths, particularly with Buddhism, but also with Hinduism
Hinduism
and Zoroastrianism.

INTERACTIONS WITH BUDDHISM

After the Greco- Bactrians
Bactrians
militarily occupied parts of northern India from around 180 BC, numerous instances of interaction between Greeks and Buddhism
Buddhism
are recorded. Menander I
Menander I
, the "Saviour king", seems to have converted to Buddhism
Buddhism
, and is described as a great benefactor of the religion, on a par with Ashoka
Ashoka
or the future Kushan
Kushan
emperor Kanishka
Kanishka
. The wheel he represented on some of his coins was probably Buddhist, and he is famous for his dialogues with the Buddhist
Buddhist
monk Nagasena
Nagasena
, transmitted to us in the Milinda Panha , which explain that he became a Buddhist
Buddhist
arhat :

And afterwards, taking delight in the wisdom of the Elder, he (Menander) handed over his kingdom to his son, and abandoning the household life for the house-less state, grew great in insight, and himself attained to Arahatship ! — The Questions of King Milinda , Translation by T. W. Rhys Davids.

Another Indian text, the Stupavadana of Ksemendra, mentions in the form of a prophecy that Menander will build a stupa in Pataliputra.

Plutarch
Plutarch
also presents Menander as an example of benevolent rule, and explains that upon his death, the honour of sharing his remains was claimed by the various cities under his rule, and they were enshrined in "monuments" (μνημεία, probably stupas ), in a parallel with the historic Buddha
Buddha
:

But when one Menander, who had reigned graciously over the Bactrians, died afterwards in the camp, the cities indeed by common consent celebrated his funerals; but coming to a contest about his relics, they were difficultly at last brought to this agreement, that his ashes being distributed, everyone should carry away an equal share, and they should all erect monuments to him. —  Plutarch
Plutarch
, "Political Precepts" Praec. reip. ger. 28, 6).

The Butkara stupa
Butkara stupa
was "monumentalized" by the addition of Hellenistic architectural decorations during Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
rule in the 2nd century BC. A coin of Menander I
Menander I
was found in the second oldest stratum (GSt 2) of the Butkara stupa
Butkara stupa
suggesting a period of additional constructions during the reign of Menander. It is thought that Menander was the builder of the second oldest layer of the Butkara stupa, following its initial construction during the Maurya empire
Maurya empire
.

"FOLLOWERS OF THE DHARMA"

Coin of Menander II
Menander II
(90–85 BCE). "King Menander , follower of the Dharma
Dharma
" in Kharoshthi
Kharoshthi
script, with Zeus
Zeus
holding Nike , who holds a victory wreath over an Eight-spoked wheel .

Several Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings use the title "Dharmikasa", i.e. "Follower of the Dharma", in the Kharoshti script on the obverse of their coins. The corresponding legend in Greek is "Dikaios" ("The Just"), a rather usual attribute on Greek coins. The expression "Follower of the Dharma" would of course resonate strongly with Indian subjects, used to this expression being employed by pious kings, especially since the time of Ashoka
Ashoka
who advocated the Dharma
Dharma
in his inscriptions . The seven kings using "Dharmakasa", i.e. "Follower of the Dharma", are late Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings, from around 150 BCE, right after the reign of Menander I
Menander I
, and mainly associated with the area of Gandhara
Gandhara
: Zoilos I (130–120 BCE), Strato (130–110 BCE), Heliokles II
Heliokles II
(95–80 BCE), Theophilos (130 or 90 BCE), Menander II
Menander II
(90–85 BCE), Archebios (90–80 BCE) and Peukolaos (c. 90 BCE). The attribute of Dhramika was again used a century later by a known Buddhist
Buddhist
practitioner, Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
king Kharahostes
Kharahostes
, to extoll on his coins the virtues of his predecessor king Azes
Azes
.

BLESSING GESTURES

From the time of Agathokleia
Agathokleia
and Strato I
Strato I
, circa 100 BCE, kings and divinities are regularly show on coins making blessing gestures, which often seem similar to the Buddhist
Buddhist
Vitarka mudra
Vitarka mudra
. As centuries past, the exact shapes taken by the hand becomes less clear. This blessing gesture was also often adopted by the Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
.

*

Philoxenus (c. 100 BC), unarmed, making a blessing gesture. *

Nicias making a blessing gesture. *

Strato I
Strato I
in combat gear, making a blessing gesture, circa 100 BCE.

*

Various blessing gestures: divinities (top), kings (bottom).

BHAGAVATA CULT

The Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
is a stone column that was erected around 113 BCE in central India
India
in Vidisha
Vidisha
near modern Besnagar , by Heliodorus , a Greek ambassador of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king Antialcidas
Antialcidas
to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra
Bhagabhadra
. The pillar originally supported a statue of Garuda . In the dedication, the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
ambassador explains he is a devotee of " Vāsudeva , the God of Gods". Historically, it is the first known inscription related to the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
cult in India
India
.

ART

Main articles: Hellenistic
Hellenistic
influence on Indian art and Art of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
Greek Buddhist
Buddhist
devotees, holding plantain leaves, in purely Hellenistic
Hellenistic
style, inside Corinthian columns , Buner relief , Victoria and Albert Museum
Victoria and Albert Museum
.

In general, the art of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
is poorly documented, and few works of art (apart from their coins and a few stone palettes ) are directly attributed to them. The coinage of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
however is generally considered as some of the most artistically brilliant of Antiquity. The Hellenistic
Hellenistic
heritage ( Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
) and artistic proficiency of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
world would suggest a rich sculptural tradition as well, but traditionally very few sculptural remains have been attributed to them. On the contrary, most Gandharan
Gandharan
Hellenistic works of art are usually attributed to the direct successors of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
in India
India
in the 1st century AD, such as the nomadic Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
, the Indo- Parthians
Parthians
and, in an already decadent state, the Kushans
Kushans
In general, Gandharan
Gandharan
sculpture cannot be dated exactly, leaving the exact chronology open to interpretation. Hellenistic culture in the Indian subcontinent: Greek clothes, amphoras , wine and music (Detail of Chakhil-i-Ghoundi stupa
Chakhil-i-Ghoundi stupa
, Hadda , Gandhara
Gandhara
, 1st century AD).

The possibility of a direct connection between the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
and Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
art has been reaffirmed recently as the dating of the rule of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings has been extended to the first decades of the 1st century AD, with the reign of Strato II
Strato II
in the Punjab. Also, Foucher, Tarn, and more recently, Boardman, Bussagli and McEvilley have taken the view that some of the most purely Hellenistic
Hellenistic
works of northwestern India
India
and Afghanistan, may actually be wrongly attributed to later centuries, and instead belong to a period one or two centuries earlier, to the time of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
in the 2nd–1st century BC: Standing Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Gandhara
Gandhara
at Guimet Museum, Paris, France. Ancient Greeks
Ancient Greeks
(Indo-Greeks) may have been the earliest features for the Buddhist
Buddhist
culture in India
India
.

This is particularly the case of some purely Hellenistic
Hellenistic
works in Hadda , Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, an area which "might indeed be the cradle of incipient Buddhist
Buddhist
sculpture in Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
style". Referring to one of the Buddha
Buddha
triads in Hadda, in which the Buddha
Buddha
is sided by very Classical depictions of Herakles
Herakles
/ Vajrapani
Vajrapani
and Tyche
Tyche
/ Hariti
Hariti
, Boardman explains that both figures "might at first (and even second) glance, pass as, say, from Asia Minor
Asia Minor
or Syria of the first or second century BC (...) these are essentially Greek figures, executed by artists fully conversant with far more than the externals of the Classical style".

Alternatively, it has been suggested that these works of art may have been executed by itinerant Greek artists during the time of maritime contacts with the West from the 1st to the 3rd century AD.

The Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
art of Gandhara
Gandhara
, beyond the omnipresence of Greek style and stylistic elements which might be simply considered as an enduring artistic tradition, offers numerous depictions of people in Greek Classical realistic style, attitudes and fashion (clothes such as the chiton and the himation , similar in form and style to the 2nd century BC Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
statues of Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
, hairstyle), holding contraptions which are characteristic of Greek culture (amphoras , "kantaros" Greek drinking cups), in situations which can range from festive (such as Bacchanalian scenes) to Buddhist-devotional. Seated Boddhisatva , Gandhara, 2nd century (Ostasiatisches Museum, Berlin)

Uncertainties in dating make it unclear whether these works of art actually depict Greeks of the period of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
rule up to the 1st century BC, or remaining Greek communities under the rule of the Indo- Parthians
Parthians
or Kushans
Kushans
in the 1st and 2nd century AD. Benjamin Rowland thinks that the Indo-Greeks, rather than the Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
or the Kushans, may have been the models for the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
statues of Gandhara
Gandhara

ECONOMY

Very little is known about the economy of the Indo-Greeks, although it seems to have been rather vibrant.

COINAGE

See also: Post-Mauryan coinage
Post-Mauryan coinage

The abundance of their coins would tend to suggest large mining operations, particularly in the mountainous area of the Hindu-Kush
Hindu-Kush
, and an important monetary economy. The Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
did strike bilingual coins both in the Greek "round" standard and in the Indian "square" standard, suggesting that monetary circulation extended to all parts of society. The adoption of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
monetary conventions by neighbouring kingdoms, such as the Kunindas to the east and the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
to the south, would also suggest that Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coins were used extensively for cross-border trade.

TRIBUTE PAYMENTS

Stone palette depicting a mythological scene, 2nd–1st century BC.

It would also seem that some of the coins emitted by the Indo-Greek kings, particularly those in the monolingual Attic
Attic
standard, may have been used to pay some form of tribute to the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
tribes north of the Hindu-Kush. This is indicated by the coins finds of the Qunduz hoard in northern Afghanistan, which have yielded quantities of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coins in the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
standard (Greek weights, Greek language), although none of the kings represented in the hoard are known to have ruled so far north. Conversely, none of these coins have ever been found south of the Hindu-Kush.

TRADE WITH CHINA

Cupro-nickel
Cupro-nickel
coins of king Pantaleon
Pantaleon
point to a Chinese origin of the metal.

The Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings in Southern Asia issued the first known cupro-nickel coins, with Euthydemus II
Euthydemus II
, dating from 180 to 170 BC, and his younger brothers Pantaleon
Pantaleon
and Agathocles around 170 BC. As only China
China
was able to produce cupro-nickel at that time, and as the alloy ratios are exclusively similar, it has been suggested that the metal was the result of exchanges between China
China
and Bactria.

An indirect testimony by the Chinese explorer Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
, who visited Bactria
Bactria
around 128 BC, suggests that intense trade with Southern China
China
was going through northern India. Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
explains that he found Chinese products in the Bactrian markets, and that they were transiting through northwestern India, which he incidentally describes as a civilization similar to that of Bactria:

"When I was in Bactria", Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
reported, "I saw bamboo canes from Qiong
Qiong
and cloth (silk?) made in the province of Shu . When I asked the people how they had gotten such articles, they replied: "Our merchants go buy them in the markets of Shendu (northwestern India). Shendu, they told me, lies several thousand li southeast of Bactria. The people cultivate land, and live much like the people of Bactria". —  Sima Qian
Sima Qian
, "Records of the Great Historian", trans. Burton Watson, p. 236.

Recent excavations at the burial site of China
China
's first Emperor Qin Shi Huang , dating back to the 3rd century BCE, also suggest Greek influence in the artworks found there, including in the manufacture of the famous Terracotta army
Terracotta army
. It is also suggested that Greek artists may have come to China
China
at that time to train local artisans in making sculptures.

INDIAN OCEAN TRADE

See also: Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

Maritime relations across the Indian Ocean started in the 3rd century BC, and further developed during the time of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
together with their territorial expansion along the western coast of India. The first contacts started when the Ptolemies
Ptolemies
constructed the Red Sea ports of Myos Hormos and Berenike , with destination the Indus
Indus
delta, the Kathiawar
Kathiawar
peninsula or Muziris
Muziris
. Around 130 BC, Eudoxus of Cyzicus is reported ( Strabo
Strabo
, Geog. II.3.4) to have made a successful voyage to India
India
and returned with a cargo of perfumes and gemstones . By the time Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
rule was ending, up to 120 ships were setting sail every year from Myos Hormos to India
India
( Strabo
Strabo
Geog. II.5.12).

ARMED FORCES

Athena
Athena
in the art of Gandhara
Gandhara

The coins of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
provide rich clues on their uniforms and weapons. Typical Hellenistic
Hellenistic
uniforms are depicted, with helmets being either round in the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
style, or the flat kausia of the Macedonians (coins of Apollodotus I
Apollodotus I
).

MILITARY TECHNOLOGY

Their weapons were spears, swords, longbow (on the coins of Agathokleia
Agathokleia
) and arrows. Interestingly, around 130 BC, the Central Asian recurve bow of the steppes with its gorytos box started to appear for the first time on the coins of Zoilos I
Zoilos I
, suggesting strong interactions (and apparently an alliance) with nomadic peoples, either the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
or the Scythians. The recurve bow becomes a standard feature of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
horsemen by 90 BC, as seen on some of the coins of Hermaeus
Hermaeus
.

Generally, Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings are often represented riding horses, as early as the reign of Antimachus II
Antimachus II
around 160 BC. The equestrian tradition probably goes back to the Greco- Bactrians
Bactrians
, who are said by Polybius
Polybius
to have faced a Seleucid
Seleucid
invasion in 210 BC with 10,000 horsemen. Although war elephants are never represented on coins, a harness plate (phalera ) dated to the 3–2nd century BC, today in the Hermitage Museum
Hermitage Museum
, depicts a helmetted Greek combatant on an Indian war elephant.

The Milinda Panha, in the questions of Nagasena
Nagasena
to king Menander, provides a rare glimpse of the military methods of the period:

-(Nagasena) Has it ever happened to you, O king, that rival kings rose up against you as enemies and opponents? -(Menander) Yes, certainly. -Then you set to work, I suppose, to have moats dug, and ramparts thrown up, and watch towers erected, and strongholds built, and stores of food collected? -Not at all. All that had been prepared beforehand. -Or you had yourself trained in the management of war elephants, and in horsemanship, and in the use of the war chariot, and in archery and fencing? -Not at all. I had learnt all that before. -But why? -With the object of warding off future danger. — ( Milinda Panha , Book III, Chap 7)

The Milinda Panha also describes the structure of Menander's army:

Now one day Milinda the king proceeded forth out of the city to pass in review the innumerable host of his mighty army in its fourfold array (of elephants, cavalry, bowmen, and soldiers on foot). — ( Milinda Panha, Book I)

SIZE OF INDO-GREEK ARMIES

Helmetted profile of Archebios (90–80 BCE) on one of his tetradrachms . King Strato I
Strato I
in combat gear, making a blessing gesture, circa 100 BCE.

The armed forces of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
engaged in important battles with local Indian forces. The ruler of Kalinga , Kharavela
Kharavela
, claims in the Hathigumpha inscription
Hathigumpha inscription
that he led a "large army" in the direction of Demetrius' own "army" and "transports", and that he induced him to retreat from Pataliputra
Pataliputra
to Mathura. The Greek ambassador Megasthenes took special note of the military strength of Kalinga in his Indica in the middle of the 3rd century BC:

The royal city of the Calingae (Kalinga) is called Parthalis. Over their king 60,000 foot-soldiers, 1,000 horsemen, 700 elephants keep watch and ward in "procinct of war." —  Megasthenes
Megasthenes
fragm. LVI. in Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8–23. 11.

An account by the Roman writer Justin gives another hint of the size of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
armies, which, in the case of the conflict between the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
Eucratides
Eucratides
and the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Demetrius II , he numbers at 60,000 (although they allegedly lost to 300 Greco-Bactrians):

Eucratides
Eucratides
led many wars with great courage, and, while weakened by them, was put under siege by Demetrius , king of the Indians. He made numerous sorties, and managed to vanquish 60,000 enemies with 300 soldiers, and thus liberated after four months, he put India
India
under his rule — Justin, XLI,6

These are considerable numbers, as large armies during the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
typically numbered between 20,000 and 30,000.

The Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
were later confronted by the nomadic tribes from Central Asia ( Yuezhi
Yuezhi
and Scythians ). According to Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
, the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
represented a considerable force of between 100,000 and 200,000 mounted archer warriors, with customs identical to those of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
.

LEGACY OF THE INDO-GREEKS

Main article: Legacy of the Indo-Greeks
Legacy of the Indo-Greeks
The Indo-Scythian Taxila
Taxila
copper plate uses the Macedonian month of " Panemos " for calendrical purposes ( British Museum
British Museum
).

From the 1st century AD, the Greek communities of central Asia and the northwestern Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
lived under the control of the Kushan
Kushan
branch of the Yuezhi, apart from a short-lived invasion of the Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
Kingdom . The Kushans
Kushans
founded the Kushan
Kushan
Empire , which was to prosper for several centuries. In the south, the Greeks were under the rule of the Western Kshatrapas
Western Kshatrapas
. The Kalash tribe of the Chitral Valley claim to be descendants of the Indo-Greeks; although this is disputed. Hellenistic
Hellenistic
couple from Taxila
Taxila
(IV)

It is unclear how much longer the Greeks managed to maintain a distinct presence in the Indian sub-continent. The legacy of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
was felt however for several centuries, from the usage of the Greek language
Greek language
and calendrical methods, to the influences on the numismatics of the Indian subcontinent, traceable down to the period of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
in the 4th century.

The Greeks may also have maintained a presence in their cities until quite late. Isidorus of Charax in his 1st century AD "Parthian stations" itinerary described an "Alexandropolis, the metropolis of Arachosia", thought to be Alexandria Arachosia
Arachosia
, which he said was still Greek even at such a late time:

Beyond is Arachosia. And the Parthians
Parthians
call this White India; there are the city of Biyt and the city of Pharsana and the city of Chorochoad and the city of Demetrias ; then Alexandropolis, the metropolis of Arachosia; it is Greek , and by it flows the river Arachotus . As far as this place the land is under the rule of the Parthians
Parthians
.

The Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
may also have had some influence on the religious plane as well, especially in relation to the developing Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
. Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
has been described as "the form of Buddhism
Buddhism
which (regardless of how Hinduized its later forms became) seems to have originated in the Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
communities of India, through a conflation of the Greek Democritean –Sophistic –Skeptical tradition with the rudimentary and unformalized empirical and skeptical elements already present in early Buddhism".

INDO-GREEK KINGS: THEIR COINS, TERRITORIES AND CHRONOLOGY

The story of the Trojan horse
Trojan horse
was depicted in the art of Gandhara
Gandhara
. British Museum
British Museum
.

Today 36 Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings are known. Several of them are also recorded in Western and Indian historical sources, but the majority are known through numismatic evidence only. The exact chronology and sequencing of their rule is still a matter of scholarly inquiry, with adjustments regular being made with new analysis and coin finds (overstrikes of one king over another's coins being the most critical element in establishing chronological sequences).

There is an important evolution of coin shape (round to square) and material (from gold to silver to brass) across the territories and the periods, and from Greek type to Indian type over a period of nearly 3 centuries. Also, the quality of coinage illustration decreases down to the 1st century CE. Coinage evolution is an important point of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
history, and actually one of the most important since most of these kings are only known by their coins, and their chronology is mainly established by the evolution of the coin types.

The system used here is adapted from Osmund Bopearachchi, supplemented by the views of R C Senior and occasionally other authorities.

GRECO-BACTRIAN AND INDO-GREEK KINGS, THEIR COINS, TERRITORIES AND CHRONOLOGY Based on Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
(1991)

Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
kings Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings

Territories/ dates WEST BACTRIA EAST BACTRIA Paropamisade
Paropamisade
ARACHOSIA GANDHARA WESTERN PUNJAB EASTERN PUNJAB MATHURA

326–325 BCE Campaigns of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in India
India

312 BCE Creation of the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire

305 BCE Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
after Mauryan war

280 BCE Foundation of Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum

255–239 BCE Independence of the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
kingdom Diodotus I
Diodotus I

239–223 BCE Diodotus II
Diodotus II

230–200 BCE Euthydemus I
Euthydemus I

200–190 BCE Demetrius I

190–185 BCE Euthydemus II
Euthydemus II

190–180 BCE Agathocles Pantaleon
Pantaleon

185–170 BCE Antimachus I
Antimachus I

180–160 BCE

Apollodotus I
Apollodotus I

175–170 BCE Demetrius II

160–155 BCE

Antimachus II
Antimachus II

170–145 BCE Eucratides
Eucratides

155–130 BCE Yuezhi
Yuezhi
occupation, loss of Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
Eucratides
Eucratides
II Plato Heliocles I Menander I
Menander I

130–120 BCE Yuezhi
Yuezhi
occupation Zoilos I
Zoilos I
Agathokleia
Agathokleia

Yavanarajya inscription

120–110 BCE

Lysias Strato I
Strato I

* Classical Civilisation portal

* Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
* Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
* Greco- Buddhism
Buddhism
* Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
* Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
Kingdom * Kushan
Kushan
Empire * Roman commerce
Roman commerce
* Timeline of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdoms * Gandhara
Gandhara
Kingdom

REFERENCES

FOOTNOTES

* ^ As in other compounds such as "African-American", the area of origin usually comes first, and the area of arrival comes second, so that "Greco-Indian" is normally a more accurate nomenclature than "Indo-Greek". The latter however has become the general usage, especially since the publication of Narain's book The Indo-Greeks. * ^ Euthydemus I
Euthydemus I
was, according to Polybius
Polybius
11.34, a Magnesian Greek . His son, Demetrius I , founder of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kingdom, was therefore of Greek ethnicity at least by his father. A marriage treaty was arranged for the same Demetrius with a daughter of the Seleucid ruler Antiochus III (who had some Persian descent). Polybius
Polybius
11.34. The ethnicity of later Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
rulers is less clear ("Notes on Hellenism in Bactria
Bactria
and India". W. W. Tarn. Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 22 (1902), pp. 268–293). For example, Artemidoros
Artemidoros
(80 BC) may have been of Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
ascendency. Some level of inter-marriage may also have occurred, as exemplified by Alexander III of Macedon
Macedon
(who married Roxana
Roxana
of Bactria
Bactria
) or Seleucus (who married Apama ). * ^ Mortimer Wheeler Flames over Persepolis (London, 1968). Pp. 112 ff. It is unclear whether the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
street plan found by Sir John Marshall's excavations dates from the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
or from the Kushans, who would have encountered it in Bactria; Tarn (1951, pp. 137, 179) ascribes the initial move of Taxila
Taxila
to the hill of Sirkap
Sirkap
to Demetrius I, but sees this as "not a Greek city but an Indian one"; not a polis or with a Hippodamian plan
Hippodamian plan
. * ^ "Menander had his capital in Sagala" Bopearachchi, "Monnaies", p.83. McEvilley supports Tarn on both points, citing Woodcock: "Menander was a Bactrian Greek king of the Euthydemid dynasty. His capital (was) at Sagala
Sagala
(Sialkot) in the Punjab, "in the country of the Yonakas (Greeks)"." McEvilley, p.377. However, "Even if Sagala proves to be Sialkot, it does not seem to be Menander's capital for the Milindapanha states that Menander came down to Sagala
Sagala
to meet Nagasena, just as the Ganges
Ganges
flows to the sea." * ^ 11.34 * ^ A B C Polybius
Polybius
11.34 * ^ "Notes on Hellenism in Bactria
Bactria
and India". W. W. Tarn. Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 22 (1902), pages 268–293 * ^ "A vast hoard of coins, with a mixture of Greek profiles and Indian symbols, along with interesting sculptures and some monumental remains from Taxila, Sirkap
Sirkap
and Sirsukh, point to a rich fusion of Indian and Hellenistic
Hellenistic
influences", India, the Ancient Past, Burjor Avari, p.130 * ^ Ghose, Sanujit (2011). "Cultural links between India
India
and the Greco-Roman world". Ancient History Encyclopedia. * ^ "When the Greeks of Bactria
Bactria
and India
India
lost their kingdom they were not all killed, nor did they return to Greece. They merged with the people of the area and worked for the new masters; contributing considerably to the culture and civilization in southern and central Asia." Narain, "The Indo-Greeks" 2003, p.278 * ^ Concise Encyclopeida Of World History by Carlos Ramirez-Faria * ^ India, the Ancient Past, Burjor Avari, p. 92-93 * ^ :"To the colonies settled in India, Python, the son of Agenor, was sent." Justin XIII.4 * ^ Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
and His Times, Radhakumud Mookerji, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1966, p.26-27 * ^ Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
and His Times, Radhakumud Mookerji, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1966, p.27 * ^ History Of The Chamar Dynasty, Raj Kumar, Gyan Publishing House, 2008, p.51 * ^ "Kusumapura was besieged from every direction by the forces of Parvata and Chandragupta: Shakas, Yavanas, Kiratas, Kambojas, Parasikas, Bahlikas and others, assembled on the advice of Chanakya
Chanakya
" in Mudrarakshasa 2. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
original: "asti tava Shaka-Yavana-Kirata-Kamboja-Parasika-Bahlika parbhutibhih Chankyamatipragrahittaishcha Chandergupta Parvateshvara balairudidhibhiriva parchalitsalilaih samantaad uprudham Kusumpurama". From the French translation, in "Le Ministre et la marque de l'anneau", ISBN 2-7475-5135-0 * ^ India, the Ancient Past, Burjor Avari, p. 106-107 * ^ " Strabo
Strabo
15.2.1(9)". * ^ Barua, Pradeep. The State at War in South Asia. Vol. 2. U of Nebraska Press, 2005. pp13-15 via Project MUSE (subscription required) * ^ A B Foreign Influence on Ancient India, Krishna
Krishna
Chandra Sagar, Northern Book Centre, 1992, p.83 * ^ Pratisarga Parva p.18. Original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
of the first two verses: "Chandragupta Sutah Paursadhipateh Sutam. Suluvasya Tathodwahya Yavani Baudhtatapar". * ^ "A minor rock edict, recently discovered at Kandahar, was inscribed in two scripts, Greek and Aramaic", India, the Ancient Past, Burjor Avari, p. 112 * ^ India, the Ancient Past, Burjor Avari, p.108-109 * ^ "Three Greek ambassadors are known by name: Megasthenes, ambassador to Chandragupta; Deimachus, ambassador to Chandragupta\'s son Bindusara; and Dyonisius, whom Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Philadelphus sent to the court of Ashoka, Bindusara's son", McEvilley, p.367 * ^ Classical sources have recorded that following their treaty, Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents, such as when Chandragupta sent various aphrodisiacs to Seleucus: "And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in such matters as to make people more amorous. And Phylarchus confirms him, by reference to some of the presents which Sandrakottus, the king of the Indians, sent to Seleucus; which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection, while some, on the contrary, were to banish love" Athenaeus of Naucratis
Athenaeus of Naucratis
, " The deipnosophists " Book I, chapter 32 Ath. Deip. I.32. Mentioned in McEvilley, p.367 * ^ "The very fact that both Megasthenes
Megasthenes
and Kautilya
Kautilya
refer to a state department run and maintained specifically for the purpose of looking after foreigners, who were mostly Yavanas
Yavanas
and Persians, testifies to the impact created by these contacts.", Narain, "The Indo-Greeks", p.363 * ^ "It also explains (...) random finds from the Sarnath
Sarnath
, Basarth, and Patna
Patna
regions of terra-cotta pieces of distinctive Hellenistic
Hellenistic
or with definite Hellenistic
Hellenistic
motifs and designs", Narain, "The Indo-Greeks" 2003, p. 363 * ^ "The second Kandahar
Kandahar
edict (the purely Greek one) of Ashoka
Ashoka
is a part of the "corpus" known as the "Fourteen-Rock-Edicts"" Narain, "The Indo-Greeks" 2003, p.452 * ^ "It is also in Kandahar
Kandahar
that were found the fragments of a Greek translation of Edicts XII and XIII, as well as the Aramean translation of another edict of Ashoka", Bussagli, p.89 * ^ "Within Ashoka's domain Greeks may have had special privileges, perhaps ones established by the terms of the Seleucid
Seleucid
alliance. Rock Edict Thirteen indicates the existence of a Greek principality in the northwest of Ashoka's empire -perhaps Kandahar, or Alexandria-of-the-Arachosians- which was not ruled by him and for which he troubled to send Buddhist
Buddhist
missionaries and published at least some of his edicts in Greek", McEvilley, p. 368 * ^ "Thirteen, the longest and most important of the edicts, contains the claim, seemingly outlandish t first glance, that Ashoka had sent missions to the lands of the Greek monarchs -not only those of Asia, such as the Seleucids, but those back in the Mediterranean also", McEvilley, p.368 * ^ "When Ashoka
Ashoka
was converted to Buddhism, his first thought was to despatch missionaries to his friends, the Greek monarchs of Egypt, Syria, and Macedonia", Rawlinson, Intercourse between India
India
and the Western world, p.39, quoted in McEvilley, p.368 * ^ "In Rock Edict Two Ashoka
Ashoka
even claims to have established hospitals for men and beasts in the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
kingdoms", McEvilley, p. 368 * ^ "One of the most famous of these emissaries, Dharmaraksita, who was said to have converted thousands, was a Greek (Mhv.XII.5 and 34)", McEvilley, p.370 * ^ "The Mahavamsa tells that "the celebrated Greek teacher Mahadharmaraksita in the second century BC led a delegation of 30,000 monks from Alexandria-of-the-Caucasus (Alexandra-of-the-Yonas, or of-the-Greeks, the Ceylonese text actually says) to the opening of the great Ruanvalli Stupa
Stupa
at Anuradhapura"", McEvilley, p. 370, quoting Woodcock, "The Greeks in India", p.55 * ^ Full text of the Mahavamsa Click chapter XII * ^ "The finest of the pillars were executed by Greek or Perso-Greek sculptors; others by local craftsmen, with or without foreign supervision" Marshall, "The Buddhist
Buddhist
art of Gandhara", p4 * ^ "A number of foreign artisans, such as the Persians or even the Greeks, worked alongside the local craftsmen, and some of their skills were copied with avidity" Burjor Avari, "India, The ancient past", p. 118 * ^ Foreign Influence on Ancient India
India
by Krishna
Krishna
Chandra Sagar p.138 * ^ The Idea of Ancient India: Essays on Religion, Politics, and Archaeology by Upinder Singh p.18 * ^ "Antiochos III, after having made peace with Euthydemus I
Euthydemus I
after the aborted siege of Bactra, renewed with Sophagasenus the alliance concluded by his ancestor Seleucos I", Bopearachchi, Monnaies, p.52 * ^ Polybius
Polybius
(1962) . "11.39". Histories. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (translator). Macmillan, Reprint Bloomington. * ^ Polybius; Friedrich Otto Hultsch (1889). The Histories of Polybius. Macmillan and Company. p. 78. * ^ J. D. Lerner, The Impact of Seleucid
Seleucid
Decline on the Eastern Iranian Plateau: the Foundations of Arsacid Parthia
Parthia
and Graeco-Bactria, (Stuttgart 1999) * ^ F. L. Holt, Thundering Zeus
Zeus
(Berkeley 1999) * ^ Justin XLI, paragraph 4 * ^ Justin XLI, paragraph 1 * ^ A B Strabo
Strabo
XI.XI.I * ^ Justin XLI * ^ Strabo
Strabo
11.11.2 * ^ Polybius
Polybius
10.49, Battle of the Arius * ^ Polybius
Polybius
11.34 Siege of Bactra * ^ On the image of the Greek kneeling warrior: "A bronze figurine of a kneeling warrior, not Greek work, but wearing a version of the Greek Phrygian helmet.. From a burial, said to be of the 4th century BC, just north of the Tien Shan
Tien Shan
range". Ürümqi
Ürümqi
Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Museum. (Boardman "The diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity") * ^ Notice of the British Museum
British Museum
on the Zhou vase (2005, attached image): "Red earthenware bowl, decorated with a slip and inlaid with glass paste. Eastern Zhou period, 4th–3rd century BC. This bowl was probably intended to copy a more precious and possibly foreign vessel in bronze or even silver. Glass was little used in China. Its popularity at the end of the Eastern Zhou period was probably due to foreign influence." * ^ "The things which China
China
received from the Graeco-Iranian world-the pomegranate and other "Chang-Kien" plants, the heavy equipment of the cataphract, the traces of Greeks influence on Han art (such as) the famous white bronze mirror of the Han period with Graeco-Bactrian designs (...) in the Victoria and Albert Museum" (Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria
Bactria
and India, pp. 363–364) * ^ Copper-Nickel coinage in Greco-Bactria. Archived 2005-03-06 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Ancient Chinese weapons Archived 2005-03-07 at the Wayback Machine . A halberd of copper-nickel alloy, from the Warring States Period. * ^ A.A. Moss pp317-318 Numismatic
Numismatic
Chronicle 1950 * ^ C.Michael Hogan, Silk Road, North China, Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham * ^ Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
"The Stromata, or Miscellanies" Book I, Chapter XV * ^ "General Pushyamitra, who is at the origin of the Shunga dynasty. He was supported by the Brahmins
Brahmins
and even became the symbol of the Brahmanical turnover against the Buddhism
Buddhism
of the Mauryas. The capital was then transferred to Pataliputra
Pataliputra
(today's Patna
Patna
)", Bussagli, p.99 * ^ Pushyamitra is described as a "senapati" (Commander-in-chief) of Brihadratha in the Puranas
Puranas
* ^ E. Lamotte: History of Indian Buddhism, Institut Orientaliste, Louvain-la-Neuve 1988 (1958), p. 109. * ^ Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryas by Romila Thapar, Oxford University Press,1960 p. 200 * ^ A B Encyclopaedia of Indian Traditions and Cultural Heritage, Anmol Publications, 2009, p.18 * ^ Pratisarga Parva p.18 * ^ Jairazbhoy, Rafique Ali (1995). Foreign influence in ancient Indo-Pakistan. Sind Book House. p. 100. ISBN 969-8281-00-2 . Apollodotus, founder of the Graeco- Indian kingdom (c. 160 BC). * ^ See Polybius
Polybius
, Arrian
Arrian
, Livy
Livy
, Cassius Dio , and Diodorus
Diodorus
. Justin, who will be discussed shortly, provides a summary of the histories of Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Macedonia, Egypt, Asia, and Parthia. * ^ For the date of Trogus, see the OCD on "Trogus" and Yardley/Develin, p. 2; since Trogus' father was in charge of Julius Caesar 's diplomatic missions before the history was written (Justin 43.5.11), Senior's date in the following quotation is too early: "The Western sources for accounts of Bactrian and Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
history are: Polybius, a Greek born c.200 BC; Strabo, a Roman who drew on the lost history of Apollodoros of Artemita (c. 130–87 BC), and Justin, who drew on Trogus, a post 87 BC writer", Senior, Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
coins IV, p.x; the extent to which Strabo
Strabo
is citing Apollodorus is disputed, beyond the three places he names Apollodorus (and he may have those through Eratosthenes). Polybius
Polybius
speaks of Bactria, not of India. * ^ Strabo, Geographia 11.11.1 p.516 Casaubon. 15.1.2, p. 686 Casaubon, "tribes" is Jones' version of ethne (Loeb) * ^ For a list of classical testimonia, see Tarn's Index II; but this covers India, Bactria, and several sources for the Hellenstic East as a whole. * ^ Tarn, App. 20; Narain (1957) pp. 136, 156 et alii. * ^ "The Besnagar Garuda pillar inscription witnesses to the presence of the Yavana
Yavana
Heliodorus
Heliodorus
son of Dion in Vidisa as an envoy from Taxila
Taxila
of king Antialkidas around 140 BC", Mitchener, The Yuga Purana, p.64 * ^ Senior, Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
coins, p.xii * ^ A Journey Through India\'s Past Chandra Mauli Mani, Northern Book Centre, 2005, p.39 * ^ Polybius
Polybius
11.34 * ^ The first conquests of Demetrius have usually been held to be during his father's lifetime; the difference has been over the actual date. Tarn and Narain agreed on having them begin around 180; Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
moved this back to 200, and has been followed by much of the more recent literature, but see Brill\'s New Pauly : Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World (Boston, 2006) "Demetrius" §10, which places the invasion "probably in 184". D.H. MacDowall, "The Role of Demetrius in Arachosia
Arachosia
and the Kabul
Kabul
Valley", published in the volume: O. Bopearachchi, Landes (ed), Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Ancien Carrefour Entre L'Est Et L'Ouest, (Brepols 2005) discusses an inscription dedicated to Euthydemus, "Greatest of all kings" and his son Demetrius, who is not called king but "Victorious" (Kallinikos). This is taken to indicate that Demetrius was his father's general during the first conquests. It is uncertain whether the Kabul
Kabul
valley or Arachosia
Arachosia
were conquered first, and whether the latter province was taken from the Seleucids after their defeat by the Romans in 190 BC. Peculiar enough, more coins of Euthydemus I
Euthydemus I
than of Demetrius I have been found in the mentioned provinces. The calendar of the "Yonas" is proven by an inscription giving a triple synchronism to have begun in 186/5 BC; what event is commemorated is itself uncertain. Richard Salomon "The Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
era of 186/5 B.C. in a Buddhist
Buddhist
reliquary inscription", in Afghanistan, Ancien Carrefour cited. * ^ "Demetrius occupied a large part of the Indus
Indus
delta, Saurashtra and Kutch", Burjor Avari, p.130 * ^ "It would be impossible to explain otherwise why in all his portraits Demetrios is crowned with an elephant scalp", Bopearachchi, Monnaies, p.53 * ^ "We think that the conquests of these regions south of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush brought to Demetrius I the title of "King of India" given to him by Apollodorus of Artemita ." Bopearachchi, p.52 * ^ For Heracles, see Lillian B. Lawler "Orchesis Kallinikos" Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 79. (1948), pp. 254–267, p. 262; for Artemidorus, see K. Walton Dobbins "The Commerce of Kapisene and Gandhāra after the Fall of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Rule" Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 14, No. 3. (Dec., 1971), pp. 286–302 (Both JSTOR
JSTOR
). Tarn, p.132, argues that Alexander did not assume as a title, but was only hailed by it, but see Peter Green , The Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Age, p.7; see also Senior, Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
coins, p.xii. No undisputed coins of Demetrius I himself use this title, but it is employed on one of the pedigree coins issued by Agathocles, which bear on the reverse the classical profile of Demetrius crowned by the elephant scalp, with the legend DEMETRIOS ANIKETOS, and on the reverse Herakles
Herakles
crowning himself, with the legend "Of king Agathocles" (Boppearachchi, "Monnaies", p.179 and Pl 8). Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria
Bactria
and India, Chap IV. * ^ "It now seems most likely that Demetrios was the founder of the newly discovered Greek Era of 186/5", Senior, Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
coins IV * ^ MacDowall, 2004 * ^ "The only thing that seems reasonably sure is that Taxila
Taxila
was part of the domain of Agathocles", Bopearachchi, Monnaies, p.59 * ^ A B Iconography of Balarāma, Nilakanth Purushottam Joshi, Abhinav Publications, 1979, p.22 * ^ Bopearachchi, Monnaies, p.63 * ^ A B Reh Inscription Of Menander And The Indo-greek Invasion Of The Ganga Valley, Sharma, G.R., 1980 p.ix-x * ^ "Menander". Encyclopædia Britannica Online . Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 7 August 2015. Menander, also spelled Minedra or Menadra, Pali
Pali
Milinda (flourished 160 BCE?–135 BCE?), the greatest of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings and the one best known to Western and Indian classical authors. He is believed to have been a patron of the Buddhist
Buddhist
religion and the subject of an important Buddhist
Buddhist
work, the Milinda-panha ("The Questions of Milinda"). Menander was born in the Caucasus, but the Greek biographer Plutarch
Plutarch
calls him a king of Bactria, and the Greek geographer and historian Strabo
Strabo
includes him among the Bactrian Greeks "who conquered more tribes than Alexander ."

* ^ "There is certainly some truth in Apollodorus and Strabo
Strabo
when they attribute to Menander the advances made by the Greeks of Bactria beyond the Hypanis and even as far as the Ganges
Ganges
and Palibothra (...) That the Yavanas
Yavanas
advanced even beyond in the east, to the Ganges-Jamuna valley, about the middle of the second century BC is supported by the cumulative evidence provided by Indian sources", Narain, "The Indo-Greeks" p.267. * ^ Ahir, D. C. (1971). Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh. Maha Bodhi Society of India. p. 31. OCLC
OCLC
1288206 . Demetrius died in 166 B.C., and Apollodotus, who was a near relation of the King died in 161 B.C. After his death, Menander carved out a kingdom in the Punjab. Thus from 161 B.C. onward Menander was the ruler of Punjab
Punjab
till his death in 145 B.C. or 130 B.C.. * ^ Magill, Frank Northen (2003). Dictionary of World Biography, Volume 1. Taylor probably Kalasi, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Died: c. 135 B.C.; probably in northwest India
India
Areas of Achievement: Government and religion Contribution: Menander extended the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
domains in India
India
more than any other ruler. He became a legendary figure as a great patron of Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Pali
Pali
book the Milindapanha. Early Life – Menander (not to be confused with the more famous Greek dramatist of the same name) was born somewhere in the fertile area to the south of the Paropaisadae or present Hindu
Hindu
Kush Mountains of Afghanistan. The only reference to this location is in the semilegendary Milindapanha (first or second century A.D.), which says that he was born in a village called Kalasi near Alasanda, some two hundred yojanas (about eighteen miles) from the town of Sagala
Sagala
(probably Sialkot
Sialkot
in the Punjab). The Alasanda refers to the Alexandria in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and not the one in Egypt. * ^ Hazel, John (2013). Who's Who in the Greek World. Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 9781134802241 . Menander king in India, known locally as Milinda, born at a village named Kalasi near Alasanda (Alexandria-in-the-Caucasus), and who was himself the son of a king. After conquering the Punjab, where he made Sagala
Sagala
his capital, he made an expedition across northern India
India
and visited Patna, the capital of the Maurya empire, though he did not succeed in conquering this land as he appears to have been overtaken by wars on the north-west frontier with Eucratides. * ^ "The Greeks ... took possession, not only of Patalena , but also, on the rest of the coast, of what is called the kingdom of Saraostus and Sigerdis ." Strabo
Strabo
11.11.1 ( Strabo
Strabo
11.11.1) * ^ The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places Educational Britannica Educational p.156 * ^ A B C Shane Wallace Greek Culture in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and India: Old Evidence and New Discoveries 2016, p.210 * ^ "The combination of textual and numismatic evidence allows to see what was the conflict between Eucratides
Eucratides
and Menander. When Menander was engaged in a bloody conquest of the Ganges
Ganges
valley, Eucratides I
Eucratides I
would have taken advantage of this opportunity to invade his kingdom. This would be the "civil war" mentioned in the Yuga Purana; this would explain that Menander had to stop his conquest of the Ganges
Ganges
valley, and had to return hastily to face the aggressor", Bopearachchi, Monnaies, p.85 * ^ A B C D Reh Inscription Of Menander And The Indo-greek Invasion Of The Ganga Valley, Sharma, G.R., 1980 p.12-44 summary: pp101-102 * ^ A B C D E Reh Inscription Of Menander And The Indo-greek Invasion Of The Ganga Valley, Sharma, G.R., 1980 p.13 ff * ^ Reh Inscription Of Menander And The Indo-greek Invasion Of The Ganga Valley, by Sharma, G.R. , 1980 pp 22-24 * ^ Reh Inscription Of Menander And The Indo-greek Invasion Of The Ganga Valley, Sharma, G.R., 1980 p.44 * ^ In the 1st century BC, the geographer Isidorus of Charax mentions Parthians
Parthians
ruling over Greek populations and cities in Arachosia
Arachosia
: "Beyond is Arachosia. And the Parthians
Parthians
call this White India; there are the city of Biyt and the city of Pharsana and the city of Chorochoad and the city of Demetrias; then Alexandropolis, the metropolis of Arachosia; it is Greek, and by it flows the river Arachotus. As far as this place the land is under the rule of the Parthians." " Parthians
Parthians
stations", 1st century BC. Mentioned in Bopearachchi, "Monnaies Greco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques", p52. Original text in paragraph 19 of Parthian stations * ^ Pompeius Trogus, Prologue to Book XLI. * ^ "When Strabo
Strabo
mentions that "Those who after Alexander advanced beyond the Hypanis to the Ganges
Ganges
and Polibothra (Pataliputra)" this can only refer to the conquests of Menander.", Senior, Indo-Scythian coins and history, p.XIV * ^ Mitchener, The Yuga Purana, 2000, p.65: "In line with the above discussion, therefore, we may infer that such an event (the incursions to Pataliputra) took place, after the reign of Shalishuka Maurya (c.200 BC) and before that of Pushyamitra Shunga
Pushyamitra Shunga
(187 BC). This would accordingly place the Yavana
Yavana
incursions during the reign of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings Euthydemus (c.230–190 BC) or Demetrios (c.205-190 as co-regent, and 190–171 BC as supreme ruler". * ^ According to Tarn, the word used for "advance" (Proelonthes) can only mean a military expedition. The word generally means "going forward"; according to the LSJ this can, but need not, imply a military expedition. See LSJ, sub προέρχομαι. Strabo
Strabo
15-1-27 * ^ A.K. Narain and Keay 2000 * ^ "Menander became the ruler of a kingdom extending along the coast of western India, including the whole of Saurashtra and the harbour Barukaccha . His territory also included Mathura, the Punjab, Gandhara
Gandhara
and the Kabul
Kabul
Valley", Bussagli p101) * ^ Tarn, p.147-149 * ^ Strabo
Strabo
on the extent of the conquests of the Greco-Bactrians/Indo-Greeks: "They took possession, not only of Patalena , but also, on the rest of the coast, of what is called the kingdom of Saraostus and Sigerdis . In short, Apollodorus says that Bactriana is the ornament of Ariana
Ariana
as a whole; and, more than that, they extended their empire even as far as the Seres
Seres
and the Phryni ." Strabo
Strabo
11.11.1 ( Strabo
Strabo
11.11.1) * ^ Full text, Schoff\'s 1912 translation * ^ "the account of the Periplus is just a sailor's story", Narain (p.118-119) * ^ "A distinctive series of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coins has been found at several places in central India: including at Dewas, some 22 miles to the east of Ujjain
Ujjain
. These therefore add further definite support to the likelihood of an Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
presence in Malwa" Mitchener, "The Yuga Purana", p.64 * ^ The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, James C. Harle, Yale University Press, 1994 p.67 * ^ "Coin-moulds of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
have also been recovered from Ghuram and Naurangabad." Punjab
Punjab
History Conference, Punjabi University , 1990, Proceedings, Volume 23, p.45 * ^ History and Historians in Ancient India, Dilip Kumar Ganguly, Abhinav Publications, 1984 p.108 * ^ Encyclopaedia of Tourism Resources in India, Volume 1, Manohar Sajnani, Gyan Publishing House, 2001 p.93 * ^ A B C D History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE – 100 CE, Sonya Rhie Quintanilla, BRILL, 2007, p.8-10 * ^ Published in "L'Indo-Grec Menandre ou Paul Demieville revisite," Journal Asiatique 281 (1993) p.113 * ^ A B C A History of India, Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund, Routledge, 2016 p.138 ff * ^ "Because the Ionians
Ionians
were either the first or the most dominant group among the Greeks with whom people in the east came in contact, the Persians called all of them Yauna, and the Indians used Yona
Yona
and Yavana
Yavana
for them", Narain, The Indo-Greeks, p.249 * ^ "The term (Yavana) had a precise meaning until well into the Christian era
Christian era
, when gradually its original meaning was lost and, like the word Mleccha, it degenerated into a general term for a foreigner" Narain, p.18 * ^ "Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
and Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
coins in the Smithsonian institution", Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
, p16. * ^ Tarn, p.145-146 * ^ "But the real story of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
invasion becomes clear only on the analysis of the material contained in the historical section of the Gargi Samhita, the Yuga Purana" Narain, p110, The Indo-Greeks. Also "The text of the Yuga Purana, as we have shown, gives an explicit clue to the period and nature of the invasion of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
in which the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
took part, for it says that the Pancalas and the Mathuras were the other powers who attacked Saketa and destroyed Pataliputra", Narain, p.112 * ^ "For any scholar engaged in the study of the presence of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
or Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
before the Christian Era, the Yuga Purana is an important source material" Dilip Coomer Ghose, General Secretary, The Asiatic Society
Asiatic Society
, Kolkata
Kolkata
, 2002 * ^ "..further weight to the likelihood that this account of a Yavana
Yavana
incursion to Saketa
Saketa
and Pataliputra-in alliance with the Pancalas and the Mathuras- is indeed historical" Mitchener, The Yuga Purana, p. 65. * ^ "The advance of the Greek to Pataliputra
Pataliputra
is recorded from the Indian side in the Yuga-purana", Tarn, p.145 * ^ "The greatest city in India
India
is that which is called Palimbothra, in the dominions of the Prasians ... Megasthenes
Megasthenes
informs us that this city stretched in the inhabited quarters to an extreme length on each side of eighty stadia, and that its breadth was fifteen stadia, and that a ditch encompassed it all round, which was six hundred feet in breadth and thirty cubits in depth, and that the wall was crowned with 570 towers and had four-and-sixty gates." Arr. Ind. 10. "Of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
and the Manners of the Indians.", quoting Megasthenes
Megasthenes
Text Archived December 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "The text of the Yuga Purana, as we have shown, gives an explicit clue to the period and nature of the invasion of Pataliputra in which the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
took part, for it says that the Pancalas and the Mathuras were the other powers who attacked Saketa
Saketa
and destroyed Pataliputra", Narain, The Indo-Greeks, p. 112. * ^ A B The Sungas, Kanvas, Republican Kingdoms and Monarchies, Mahameghavahanas, Dilip Kumar Chakrabarti , p.6 * ^ "The taut posture and location at the entrance of the cave (Rani Gumpha) suggests that the male figure is a guard or dvarapala . The aggressive stance of the figure and its western dress (short kilt and boots) indicates that the sculpture may be that of a Yavana
Yavana
, foreigner from the Graeco-Roman
Graeco-Roman
world." in Early Sculptural Art in the Indian Coastlands: A Study in Cultural Transmission and Syncretism (300 BCE-CE 500), by Sunil Gupta, D K Printworld (P) Limited, 2008, p.85 * ^ "Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
and Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
coins in the Smithsonian institution", Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
, p16. Also: "Kalidasa recounts in his Mālavikāgnimitra (5.15.14–24) that Puspamitra appointed his grandson Vasumitra to guard his sacrificial horse, which wandered on the right bank of the Sindhu river and was seized by Yavana cavalrymen- the later being thereafter defeated by Vasumitra. The "Sindhu" referred to in this context may refer the river Indus
Indus
: but such an extension of Shunga power seems unlikely, and it is more probable that it denotes one of two rivers in central India
India
-either the Sindhu river which is a tributary of the Yamuna
Yamuna
, or the Kali-Sindhu river which is a tributary of the Chambal ." The Yuga Purana, Mitchener, 2002.)" * ^ Tarn, pp. 132–133. * ^ "The name Dimita is almost certainly an adaptation of "Demetrios", and the inscription thus indicates a Yavana
Yavana
presence in Magadha, probably around the middle of the 1st century BC." Mitchener, The Yuga Purana, p. 65. * ^ "The Hathigumpha inscription
Hathigumpha inscription
seems to have nothing to do with the history of the Indo-Greeks; certainly it has nothing to do with Demetrius I", Narain, The Indo-Greeks, p. 50. * ^ Translation in Epigraphia Indica 1920 p.87 * ^ P.L.Gupta: Kushâna Coins and History, D.K.Printworld, 1994, p.184, note 5 * ^ "Numismats and historians all consider that Menander was one of the greatest, if not the greatest, and the most illustrious of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings", Bopearachchi, "Monnaies", p.76 * ^ "Justin refers to an incident in which Eucratides
Eucratides
with a small force of 300 was besieged for four months by "Demetrius, king of the Indians" with a large army of 60,000. The numbers are obviously an exaggeration. Eucratides
Eucratides
managed to break out and went on to conquer India." It is uncertain who this Demetrius was, and when the siege happened. Some scholars believe that it was Demetrius I."(Demetrius I) was probably the Demetrius who besieged Eucratides
Eucratides
for four months", D.W. Mac Dowall, p.201-202, Afghanistan, ancien carrefour entre l'est et l'ouest. This analysis goes against Bopearachchi, who has suggested that Demetrius I died long before Eucratides
Eucratides
came to power. * ^ Bopearachchi, p.72 * ^ "As Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
has shown, Menander was able to regroup and take back the territory that Eucratides I
Eucratides I
had conquered, perhaps after Eucratides
Eucratides
had died (1991, pp. 84–6). Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
demonstrates that the transition in Menander's coin designs were in response to changes introduced by Eucratides". * ^ "Numismats and historians are unanimous in considering that Menander was one of the greatest, if not the greatest, and the most famous of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings. The coins to the name of Menander are incomparably more abundant than those of any other Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king" Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
, "Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques", p. 76. * ^ "Menander, the probable conqueror of Pataliputra, seems to have been a Buddhist, and his name belongs in the list of important royal patrons of Buddhism
Buddhism
along with Ashoka
Ashoka
and Kanishka", McEvilley, p. 375. * ^ "(In the Milindapanha) Menander is declared an arhat", McEvilley, p. 378. * ^ "Plutarch, who talks of the burial of Menander's relics under monuments or stupas, had obviously read or heard some Buddhist
Buddhist
account of the Greek king's death", McEvilley, p. 377. * ^ "The statement of Plutarch
Plutarch
that when Menander died "the cities celebrated (...) agreeing that they should divide ashes equally and go away and should erect monuments to him in all their cities", is significant and reminds one of the story of the Buddha", Narain, "The Indo-Greeks" 2003, p. 123, "This is unmistakably Buddhist
Buddhist
and recalls the similar situation at the time of the Buddha's passing away", Narain, "The Indo-Greeks" 2003, p. 269. * ^ Bopearachchi, "Monnaies", p. 86. * ^ "By about 130 BC nomadic people from the Jaxartes region had overrun the northern boundary of Bactria
Bactria
itself", McEvilley, p. 372. * ^ Boot, Hooves and Wheels: And the Social Dynamics behind South Asian Warfare, Saikat K Bose, Vij Books India
India
Pvt Ltd, 2015, p.226 * ^ On the Cusp of an Era: Art in the Pre-Kuṣāṇa World, Doris Srinivasan, BRILL, 2007, p.101 * ^ A B Osmund Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
Was Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Artemidoros
Artemidoros
the son of Indo-Sctythian Maues * ^ Bopearachchi, Monnaies, p.88 * ^ Senior, Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
coins and history IV, p.xi * ^ A B "P.Bernard thinks that these emissions were destined to commercial exchanges with Bactria, then controlled by the Yuezhi, and were post- Greek coins remained faithful to Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
coinage. In a slightly different perspective (...) G. Le Rider considers that these emission were used to pay tribute to the nomads of the north, who were thus incentivized not to pursue their forays in the direction of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
realm", Bopearachchi, "Monnaies", p.76. * ^ Senior, Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
coins and history IV, p.xxxiii * ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization, Sailendra Nath Sen, New Age International, 1999 p.170 * ^ A B C D An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology, by Amalananda Ghosh , BRILL p.295 * ^ A B C Buddhist
Buddhist
Landscapes in Central India: Sanchi
Sanchi
Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change, C. Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD, by Julia Shaw, Left Coast Press, 2013 p.90 * ^ "The railing of Sanchi
Sanchi
Stupa
Stupa
No.2, which represents the oldest extensive stupa decoration in existence, (and) dates from about the second century B.C.E" Constituting Communities: Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Religious Cultures of South and Southeast Asia, John Clifford Holt, Jacob N. Kinnard , Jonathan S. Walters, SUNY Press, 2012 p.197 * ^ Didactic Narration: Jataka
Jataka
Iconography in Dunhuang
Dunhuang
with a Catalogue of Jataka
Jataka
Representations in China, Alexander Peter Bell, LIT Verlag Münster, 2000 p.15ff * ^ Buddhist
Buddhist
Landscapes in Central India: Sanchi
Sanchi
Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change, C. Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD, Julia Shaw, Left Coast Press, 2013 p.88ff * ^ An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p.171 * ^ A B Faces of Power: Alexander's Image and Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Politics, Andrew Stewart, University of California Press, 1993 p.180 * ^ A B Popular Controversies in World History: Investigating History's Intriguing Questions : Investigating History's Intriguing Questions, Steven L. Danver, ABC-CLIO, 2010 p.91 * ^ A B Buddhist
Buddhist
Art & Antiquities of Himachal Pradesh, Upto 8th Century A.D., Omacanda Hāṇḍā, Indus
Indus
Publishing, 1994 p.48 * ^ A B The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity, John Boardman, Princeton University Press, p.115 * ^ A B "These little balusters are of considerable interest, as their sculptured statues are much superior in artistic design and execution to those of the railing pillars. They are further remarkable in having Arian letters engraved on their bases or capitals, a peculiarity which points unmistakably to the employment of Western artists, and which fully accounts for the superiority of their execution. The letters found are p, s, a, and b, of which the first three occur twice. Now, if the same sculptors had been employed on the railings, we might confidently expect to find the same alphabetical letters used as private marks. But the fact is just the reverse, for the whole of the 27 marks found on any portions of the railing are Indian letters. The only conclusion that I can come to from these facts is that the foreign artists who were employed on the sculptures of the gateways were certainly not engaged on any part of the railing. I conclude, therefore, that the Raja of Sungas
Sungas
, the donor of the gateways, must have sent his own party of workmen to make them, while the smaller gifts of pillars and rails were executed by the local artists." in The stūpa of Bharhut: a Buddhist
Buddhist
monument ornamented with numerous sculptures illustrative of Buddhist
Buddhist
legend and history in the third century B. C, by Alexander Cunningham p. 8 (Public Domain) * ^ A B C "The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity, John Boardman, 1993, p.112 * ^ Didactic Narration: Jataka
Jataka
Iconography in Dunhuang
Dunhuang
with a Catalogue of Jataka
Jataka
Representations in China, Alexander Peter Bell, LIT Verlag Münster, 2000 p.18 * ^ Buddhist
Buddhist
Architecture, Huu Phuoc Le, Grafikol, 2010 p.149ff * ^ "There is evidence of Hellensitic scultors being in touch with Sanchi
Sanchi
and Bharhut" in The Buddha
Buddha
Image: Its Origin and Development, Yuvraj Krishan, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1996, p.9 * ^ Buddhist
Buddhist
Architecture by Huu Phuoc Le p.161 * ^ Arora , Udai Prakash (1991). Graeco-Indica, India\'s cultural contacts. Ramanand Vidya Bhawan. p. 12. Sculptures showing Greeks or the Greek type of human figures are not lacking in ancient India. Apart from the proverbial Gandhara, Sanchi
Sanchi
and Mathura
Mathura
have also yielded many sculptures that betray a close observation of the Greeks.

* ^ These "Greek-looking foreigners" are also described in Susan Huntington, "The art of ancient India", p. 100 * ^ "The Greeks evidently introduced the himation and the chiton seen in the terracottas from Taxila
Taxila
and the short kilt worn by the soldier on the Sanchi
Sanchi
relief." in Foreign influence on Indian culture: from c. 600 B.C. to 320 A.D., Manjari Ukil Originals, 2006, p.162 * ^ "The scene shows musicians playing a variety of instruments, some of them quite extraordinary such as the Greek double flute and wind instruments with dragon head from West Asia" in The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia, Himanshu Prabha Ray, Cambridge University Press, 2003 p.255 * ^ Purātattva, Number 8. Indian Archaeological Society. 1975. p. 188. A reference to a Yona
Yona
in the Sanchi
Sanchi
inscriptions is also of immense value.(...) One of the inscriptions announces the gift of a Setapathia Yona, "Setapathiyasa Yonasa danam" i.e the gift of a Yona, inhabitant of Setapatha. THE WORD YONA CAN\'T BE HERE ANYTHING, BUT A GREEK DONOR * ^ Epigraphia Indica Vol.2 p.395 inscription 364 * ^ John Mashall, The Monuments of Sanchi
Sanchi
p.348 inscription No.475 * ^ A B C The Idea of Ancient India: Essays on Religion, Politics, and Archaeology, Sage Publications
Sage Publications
India, Upinder Singh, 2016 p.18 * ^ John Mashall, The Monuments of Sanchi
Sanchi
p.308 inscription No.89 * ^ John Mashall, The Monuments of Sanchi
Sanchi
p.345 inscription No.433 * ^ "During the century that followed Menander more than twenty rulers are known to have struck coins", Narain, "The Indo-Greeks" 2003, p.270 * ^ Bernard (1994), p. 126. * ^ "Kujula Kadphises, founder of the Kushan
Kushan
Empire, succeeded there (in the Paropamisadae) to the nomads who minted imitations of Hermaeus" Bopearachchi, "Monnaies", p.117 * ^ " Maues
Maues
himself issued joint coins with Machene, (...) probably a daughter of one of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
houses" Senior, Indo-Scythians, p.xxxvi * ^ G.K. Jenkins, using overstrikes and monograms, showed that, contrary to what Narai would write two years later, Apollodotus II
Apollodotus II
and Hippostratus
Hippostratus
were posterior, by far, to Maues. (...) He reveals an overstike if Azes I
Azes I
over Hippostratus. (...) Apollodotus and Hippostratus
Hippostratus
are thus posterior to Maues
Maues
and anterior to Azes
Azes
I, whose era we now starts in 57 BC." Bopearachchi, p.126-127. * ^ "It is curious that on his copper Zoilos
Zoilos
used a bow and quiver as a type. A quiver was a badge used by the Parthians
Parthians
(Scythians) and had been used previously by Diodotos, who we know had made a treaty with them. Did Zoilos
Zoilos
use Scythian
Scythian
mercenaries in his quest against Menander perhaps?" Senior, Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
coins, p.xxvii * ^ "The Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
conquerors, who, also they adopted the greek types, minted money with their own names". Bopearachchci, "Monnaies", p.121 * ^ Described in R. C. Senior "The Decline of the Indo-Greeks" . See also this source Archived 2007-10-15 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.. * ^ "We get two Greeks of the Parthian period, the first half of the first century AD, who used the Indian form of their names, King Theodamas
Theodamas
on his signet-ring found in Bajaur, and Thedorus son of Theoros on two silver bowls from Taxila." Tarn, p. 389. * ^ A B "Around 10 AD, with the joint rule of Straton II and his son Straton in the area of Sagala, the last Greek kingdom succumbed to the attacks of Rajuvula, the Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
satrap of Mathura.", Bopearachchi, "Monnaies", p.125 * ^ The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
inscription reads "Yavanarajyasya sodasuttare varsasate 100 10 6". R.Salomon, "The Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
era of 186/5 B.C. in a Buddhist
Buddhist
reliquary inscription", in "Afghanistan, ancien carrefour entre l'est et l'ouest", p373 * ^ "The coinage of the former (the Audumbaras) to whom their trade was of importance, starts somewhere in the first century BC; they occasionally imitate the types of Demetrius and Apollodotus I", Tarn, p. 325. * ^ The Kunindas must have been included in the Greek empire, not only because of their geographical position, but because they started coining at the time which saw the end of Greek rule and the establishment of their independence", Tarn, p. 238. * ^ "Further evidence of the commercial success of the Greek drachms is seen in the fact that they influenced the coinage of the Audumbaras
Audumbaras
and the Kunindas", Narain The Indo-Greeks, p.114 * ^ "The wealthy Audumbaras
Audumbaras
(...) some of their coins after Greek rule ended imitated Greek types", Tarn, p. 239. * ^ "Most of the people east of the Ravi already noticed as within Menander's empire -Audumbaras, Trigartas, Kunindas, Yaudheyas, Arjunayanas- began to coins in the first century BC, which means that they had become independent kingdoms or republics.", Tarn, p. 324. * ^ "Later, in the first century a ruler of the Kunindas, Amogabhuti, issued a silver coinage "which would compete in the market with the later Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
silver"", Tarn, p. 325. * ^ Epigraphia Indica Vol.18 p.328 Inscription No10 * ^ World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India, Volume 1 ʻAlī Jāvīd, Tabassum Javeed, Algora Publishing, 2008 p.42

* ^ * Inscription no.7: "(This) pillar (is) the gift of the Yavana Sihadhaya from Dhenukataka" in Problems of Ancient Indian History: New Perspectives and Perceptions, Shankar Goyal - 2001, p.104 * Inscription no.4: "(This) pillar (is) the gift of the Yavana Dhammadhya from Dhenukataka" Description in Hellenism in Ancient India
India
by Gauranga Nath Banerjee p.20 * ^ Epigraphia Indica Vol.18 p.326-328 and Epigraphia Indica Vol.7 * ^ A B "De l' Indus
Indus
à l'Oxus: archéologie de l'Asie Centrale", Pierfrancesco Callieri, p212: "The diffusion, from the second century BC, of Hellenistic
Hellenistic
influences in the architecture of Swat is also attested by the archaeological searches at the sanctuary of Butkara I, which saw its stupa "monumentalized" at that exact time by basal elements and decorative alcoves derived from Hellenistic architecture". * ^ Tarn, p. 391: "Somewhere I have met with the zhole-hearted statement that every Greek in India
India
ended by becoming a Buddhist
Buddhist
(...) Heliodorus
Heliodorus
the ambassador was a Bhagavatta, a worshiper of Vshnu- Krishna
Krishna
as the supreme deity (...) Theodorus the meridrarch, who established some relics of the Buddha
Buddha
"for the purpose of the security of many people", was undoubtedly Buddhist". Images of the Zoroastrian divinity Mithra
Mithra
– depicted with a radiated phrygian cap – appear extensively on the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coinage of the Western kings. This Zeus- Mithra
Mithra
is also the one represented seated (with the gloriole around the head, and a small protrusion on the top of the head representing the cap) on many coins of Hermaeus
Hermaeus
, Antialcidas
Antialcidas
or Heliokles II
Heliokles II
. * ^ "It is not unlikely that "Dikaios", which is translated Dhramaika in the Kharosthi
Kharosthi
legend, may be connected with his adoption of the Buddhist
Buddhist
faith." Narain, "The Indo-Greeks" 2003, p.124 * ^ "Menander, the probable conqueror of Pataliputra, seems to have been a Buddhist, and his name belongs in the list of important royal patrons of Buddhism
Buddhism
along with Ashoka
Ashoka
and Kanishka", McEvilley, p.375 * ^ "It is probable that the wheel on some coins of Menander is connected with Buddhism", Narain, The Indo-Greeks, p.122 * ^ Stupavadana, Chapter 57, v15. Quotes in E.Seldeslachts. * ^ McEvilley, p.377 * ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
"Political precepts", p147–148 Full text Archived February 20, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Handbuch der Orientalistik, Kurt A. Behrendt, BRILL, 2004, p.49 sig * ^ "King Menander, who built the penultimate layer of the Butkara stupa in the first century BCE, was an Indo-Greek."in Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River, Alice Albinia – 2012 * ^ Foreign Impact on Indian Life and Culture (c. 326 B.C. to C. 300 A.D.) Satyendra Nath Naskar, Abhinav Publications, 1996, p.69 * ^ The Crossroads of Asia, Elizabeth Errington, Ancient India
India
and Iran
Iran
Trust, Fitzwilliam Museum, Ancient India
India
and Iran
Iran
Trust, 1992, p.16 * ^ Mentioned throughout "Monnaies Greco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques", Osmund Bopearachchi, Bibliotheque Nationale, 1991 * ^ Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia, Andrea L. Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter J. Seybolt, Carolyn M. Elliott, SAGE Publications, 2012 p.28 * ^ Osmund Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
, 2016, Emergence of Viṣṇu and Śiva Images in India: Numismatic
Numismatic
and Sculptural Evidence * ^ "The extraordinary realism of their portraiture. The portraits of Demetrius, Antimachus and of Eucratides
Eucratides
are among the most remarkable that have come down to us from antiquity" Hellenism in Ancient India, Banerjee, p134 * ^ "Just as the Frank Clovis had no part in the development of Gallo-Roman art , the Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
Kanishka
Kanishka
had no direct influence on that of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Art; and besides, we have now the certain proofs that during his reign this art was already stereotyped, of not decadent" Hellenism in Ancient India, Banerjee, p147 * ^ "The survival into the 1st century AD of a Greek administration and presumably some elements of Greek culture in the Punjab
Punjab
has now to be taken into account in any discussion of the role of Greek influence in the development of Gandharan
Gandharan
sculpture", The Crossroads of Asia, p14

* ^ On the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
and the Gandhara
Gandhara
school:

* 1) "It is necessary to considerably push back the start of Gandharan
Gandharan
art, to the first half of the first century BC, or even, very probably, to the preceding century.(...) The origins of Gandharan art ... go back to the Greek presence. (...) Gandharan
Gandharan
iconography was already fully formed before, or at least at the very beginning of our era" Mario Bussagli "L'art du Gandhara", p331–332 * 2) "The beginnings of the Gandhara
Gandhara
school have been dated everywhere from the first century B.C. (which was M.Foucher's view) to the Kushan
Kushan
period and even after it" (Tarn, p. 394). Foucher's views can be found in "La vieille route de l'Inde, de Bactres a Taxila", pp340–341). The view is also supported by Sir John Marshall
John Marshall
("The Buddhist
Buddhist
art of Gandhara", pp5–6). * 3) Also the recent discoveries at Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
confirm that " Gandharan
Gandharan
art descended directly from Hellenized Bactrian art" (Chaibi Nustamandy, "Crossroads of Asia", 1992). * 4) On the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
and Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
art: "It was about this time (100 BC) that something took place which is without parallel in Hellenistic
Hellenistic
history: Greeks of themselves placed their artistic skill at the service of a foreign religion, and created for it a new form of expression in art" (Tarn, p. 393). "We have to look for the beginnings of Gandharan
Gandharan
Buddhist
Buddhist
art in the residual Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
tradition, and in the early Buddhist
Buddhist
stone sculpture to the South ( Bharhut
Bharhut
etc...)" (Boardman, 1993, p. 124). "Depending on how the dates are worked out, the spread of Gandhari Buddhism
Buddhism
to the north may have been stimulated by Menander's royal patronage, as may the development and spread of the Gandharan
Gandharan
sculpture, which seems to have accompanied it" McEvilley, 2002, "The shape of ancient thought", p. 378.

* ^ Benjamin Rowland JR, foreword to "The Dyasntic art of the Kushan", John Rosenfield, 1967 * ^ Boardman, p. 141 * ^ Boardman, p. 143. * ^ "Others, dating the work to the first two centuries A.D., after the waning of Greek autonomy on the Northwest, connect it instead with the Roman Imperial trade, which was just then getting a foothold at sites like Barbaricum (modern Karachi
Karachi
) at the Indus-mouth. It has been proposed that one of the embassies from Indian kings to Roman emperors may have brought back a master sculptorto oversee work in the emerging Mahayana Buddhist
Buddhist
sensibility (in which the Buddha
Buddha
came to be seen as a kind of deity), and that "bands of foreign workmen from the eastern centres of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
" were brought to India" (Mc Evilley "The shape of ancient thought", quoting Benjamin Rowland "The art and architecture of India" p121 and A.C. Soper "The Roman Style in Gandhara" American Journal of Archaeology 55 (1951) pp. 301–319) * ^ Boardman, p.115 * ^ McEvilley, p.388-390 * ^ Boardman, 109–153 * ^ "It is noteworthy that the dress of the Gandharan
Gandharan
Bodhisattva statues has no resemblance whatever to that of the Kushan
Kushan
royal portrait statues, which has many affiliations with Parthian costume. The finery of the Gandhara
Gandhara
images must be modeled on the dress of local native nobility, princes of Indian or Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
race, who had no blood connection with the Scythian
Scythian
rulers. It is also evident that the facial types are unrelated to the features of the Kushans
Kushans
as we know them from their coins and fragmentary portrait statues.", Benjamin Rowland JR, foreword to "The Dyasntic art of the Kushan", John Rosenfield, 1967. * ^ "Those tiny territories of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings must have been lively and commercially flourishing places", India: The ancient past, Burjor Avari, p.130 * ^ "No doubt the Greeks of Bactria
Bactria
and India
India
presided over a flourishing economy. This is clearly indicated by their coinage and the monetary exchange they had established with other currencies." Narain, "The Indo-Greeks" 2003, p. 275. * ^ Bopearachchi, "Monnaies", p.27 * ^ Rapson, clxxxvi- * ^ Bopearachchi, "Monnaies", p. 75. * ^ Fussman, JA 1993, p. 127 and Bopearachchi, "Graeco-Bactrian issues of the later Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings", Num. Chron. 1990, pp. 79–104) * ^ A B Science and civilisation in China: Chemistry and chemical technology by Joseph Needham, Gwei-Djen Lu p. 237ff * ^ "Western contact with China
China
began long before Marco Polo, experts say". 12 October 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2017 – via www.bbc.com. * ^ "The Mausoleum of China\'’s First Emperor Partners with the BBC and National Geographic Channel to Reveal Groundbreaking Evidence That China
China
Was in Contact with the West During the Reign of the First Emperor". businesswire.com. Retrieved 16 April 2017. * ^ " Strabo
Strabo
II.3.4‑5 on Eudoxus". * ^ "Since the merchants of Alexandria are already sailing with fleets by way of the Nile and of the Persian Gulf as far as India, these regions also have become far better known to us of today than to our predecessors. At any rate, when Gallus was prefect of Egypt, I accompanied him and ascended the Nile as far as Syene and the frontiers of Ethiopia, and I learned that as many as one hundred and twenty vessels were sailing from Myos Hormos for India, whereas formerly, under the Ptolemies, only a very few ventured to undertake the voyage and to carry on traffic in Indian merchandise." Strabo II.5.12 * ^ "It is curious that on his copper Zoilos
Zoilos
used a Bow and quiver as a type. A quiver was a badge used by the Parthians
Parthians
(Scythians) and had been used previously by Diodotos, who we know had made a treaty with them. Did Zoilos
Zoilos
use Scythian
Scythian
mercenaries in his quest against Menander perhaps?" Senior, Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
coins, p.xxvii * ^ " Polybius
Polybius
10.49, Battle of the Arius". * ^ " Megasthenes
Megasthenes
Indica". Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. * ^ "Justin XLI". * ^ On the size of Hellenistic
Hellenistic
armies, see accounts of Hellenistic battles by Diodorus
Diodorus
, books XVIII and XIX * ^ "They are a nation of nomads, moving from place to place with their herds, and their customs are like those of the Xiongnu. They have some 100,000 or 200,000 archer warriors ... The Yuezhi
Yuezhi
originally lived in the area between the Qilian or Heavenly mountains and Dunhuang
Dunhuang
, but after they were defeated by the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
they moved far away to the west, beyond Dayuan
Dayuan
, where they attacked and conquered the people of Daxia
Daxia
(Bactria) and set up the court of their king on the northern bank of the Gui ( Oxus
Oxus
) river" ("Records of the Great Historian ", Sima Qian
Sima Qian
, trans. Burton Watson, p234) * ^ Tarn, p. 494. * ^ "Though the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
monarchies seem to have ended in the first century BC, the Greek presence in India
India
and Bactria
Bactria
remained strong", McEvilley, p.379 * ^ "The use of the Greek months by the Sakas
Sakas
and later rulers points to the conclusion that they employed a system of dating started by their predecessors." Narain, "Indo-Greeks" 2003, p.190 * ^ "Evidence of the conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II is to be seen in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the Western Satraps ... they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters, while on the reverse, they substitute the Gupta type (a peacock) for the chaitya with crescent and star." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. The Andhras etc...", p.cli * ^ " Parthians
Parthians
stations", 1st century AD. Original text in paragraph 19 of Parthian stations * ^ McEvilley, "The Shape of Ancient Thought", p503. * ^ Under each king, information from Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
is taken from Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques, Catalogue Raisonné (1991) or occasionally SNG9 (1998). Senior's chronology is from The Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
and Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
king sequences in the second and first centuries BC, ONS179 Supplement (2004), whereas the comments (down to the time of Hippostratos) are from The decline of the Indo-Greeks (1998). * ^ O. Bopearachchi, "Monnaies gréco-bactriennes et indo-grecques, Catalogue raisonné", Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, 1991, p.453 * ^ History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE – 100 CE, Sonya Rhie Quintanilla, BRILL, 2007, p.9

WORKS CITED

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OCLC
1837954 ISBN 0-8364-2910-9 . * Bernard, Paul (1994). "The Greek Kingdoms of Central Asia." In: History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250, pp. 99–129. Harmatta, János, ed., 1994. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. ISBN 92-3-102846-4 . * Boardman, John (1994). The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03680-2 . * Bopearachchi, Osmund (1991). Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques, Catalogue Raisonné (in French). Bibliothèque Nationale de France. ISBN 2-7177-1825-7 . * Bopearachchi, Osmund (1998). SNG 9. New York: American Numismatic Society. ISBN 0-89722-273-3 . * Bopearachchi, Osmund (2003). De l' Indus
Indus
à l'Oxus, Archéologie de l'Asie Centrale (in French). Lattes: Association imago-musée de Lattes. ISBN 2-9516679-2-2 . * Bopearachchi, Osmund (1993). Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
and Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
coins in the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: National Numismatic
Numismatic
Collection, Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
. OCLC 36240864 . * Bussagli, Mario; Francine Tissot; Béatrice Arnal (1996). L'art du Gandhara
Gandhara
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Musée Guimet
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Iran
Trust ; Fitzwilliam Museum (1992). The Crossroads of Asia: transformation in image and symbol in the art of ancient Afghanistan and Pakistan. Cambridge: Ancient India
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Buddhist
art of Gandhara: the story of the early school, its birth, growth, and decline. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 81-215-0967-X . * Marshall, John (1956). Taxila. An illustrated account of archaeological excavations carried out at Taxila
Taxila
(3 volumes). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. * McEvilley, Thomas (2002). The Shape of Ancient Thought. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. Allworth Press and the School of Visual Arts. ISBN 1-58115-203-5 . * Mitchiner, John E.; Garga (1986). The Yuga Purana: critically edited, with an English translation and a detailed introduction. Calcutta, India: Asiatic Society. OCLC
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* Narain, A.K. (1957). The Indo-Greeks. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

* reprinted by Oxford, 1962, 1967, 1980; reissued (2003), "revised and supplemented", by B. R. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi.

* Narain, A.K. (1976). The coin types of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
kings. Chicago, USA: Ares Publishing. ISBN 0-89005-109-7 . * Puri, Baij Nath (2000). Buddhism
Buddhism
in Central Asia. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0372-8 . * Rosenfield, John M. (1967). The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 81-215-0579-8 . * Salomon, Richard. "The "Avaca" Inscription and the Origin of the Vikrama Era". 102. * Seldeslachts, E. (2003). The end of the road for the Indo-Greeks?. (Also available online): Iranica Antica, Vol XXXIX, 2004. * Senior, R. C. (2006). Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
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* Tarn, W. W. (1938). The Greeks in Bactria
Bactria
and India. Cambridge University Press.

* Second edition, with addenda and corrigenda, (1951). Reissued, with updating preface by Frank Lee Holt (1985), Ares Press, Chicago ISBN 0-89005-524-6

* Afghanistan, ancien carrefour entre l'est et l'ouest (in French and English). Belgium: Brepols. 2005. ISBN 2-503-51681-5 . * 東京国立博物館 (Tokyo Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan); 兵庫県立美術館 (Hyogo Kenritsu Bijutsukan) (2003). Alexander the Great: East-West cultural contacts from Greece
Greece
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India
– A Survey in Philosophical Understanding. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Limited. ISBN 81-215-0921-1 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

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* Indo-Greek
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Indo-Greek
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Kushans
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Ancient South Asia and Central Asia