HOME
The Info List - Indira Gandhi


--- Advertisement ---



Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindustani: [ˈɪnːdɪrə ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] ( listen); née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian stateswoman and central figure of the Indian National Congress.[1] She was the first and, to date, the only female Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
belonged to the Nehru–Gandhi family
Nehru–Gandhi family
and was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Indian prime minister. Despite her surname Gandhi, she is not related to the family of Mahatma Gandhi. She served as Prime Minister from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 1980 until her assassination in October 1984, making her the second longest-serving Indian prime minister after her father. Gandhi served as her father's personal assistant and hostess during his tenure as Prime Minister between 1947 and 1964. She was elected Congress President in 1959. Upon her father's death in 1964 she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
(upper house) and became a member of Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting.[2] In the Congress Party's parliamentary leadership election held in early 1966 (upon the death of Shastri) she defeated her rival, Morarji Desai, to become leader, and thus succeeded Shastri as Prime Minister of India. As Prime Minister, Gandhi was known for her political ruthlessness and unprecedented centralisation of power. She went to war with Pakistan in support of the independence movement and war of independence in East Pakistan, which resulted in an Indian victory and the creation of Bangladesh, as well as increasing India's influence to the point where it became the regional hegemon of South Asia. Citing fissiparous tendencies and in response to a call for revolution, Gandhi instituted a state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 where basic civil liberties were suspended and press was censored. Widespread atrocities were carried out during the emergency. In 1980, she returned to power after free and fair elections. She was assassinated by her own bodyguards and Sikh
Sikh
nationalists in 1984. The assassins, Beant Singh and Satwant Singh, were both shot by other security guards. Satwant Singh recovered from his injuries and was executed after being convicted of murder. In 1999, Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
was named "Woman of the Millennium" in an online poll organised by the BBC.[3]

Contents

1 Early life and career 2 First term as prime minister between 1966 and 1977

2.1 First year 2.2 1967–1971 2.3 1971–1977

2.3.1 Verdict on electoral malpractice 2.3.2 State of Emergency (1975–1977) 2.3.3 Rule by decree 2.3.4 Rise of Sanjay

3 1977 election and opposition years

3.1 In opposition and return to power

4 1980 elections and third term

4.1 Operation Blue Star 4.2 Assassination

5 Foreign relations

5.1 South Asia 5.2 Middle East 5.3 Asia-Pacific 5.4 Africa 5.5 The Commonwealth 5.6 The Non-aligned Movement 5.7 Western Europe 5.8 Soviet Union 5.9 United States

6 Economic policy

6.1 Green Revolution and the Fourth Five Year Plan 6.2 State of Emergency and the Fifth Five Year Plan 6.3 Operation Forward and the Sixth Five Year Plan 6.4 Inflation and unemployment

7 Domestic policy

7.1 Nationalisation 7.2 Administration 7.3 Social reform 7.4 Language policy 7.5 National security 7.6 Nuclear Program of India

8 Family, personal life and outlook 9 Views on women 10 Awards 11 Legacy 12 Posthumous honours 13 See also 14 References

14.1 Notes 14.2 References 14.3 Sources

15 Further reading 16 External links

Early life and career[edit]

Young Indira with Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
during his fast in 1924. Indira, who is dressed in a khadi garment, is following Gandhi's advocacy that khadi be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles

Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
was born as Indira Nehru in a Kashmiri Pandit
Kashmiri Pandit
family on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad.[4] Her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a leading figure in India's political struggle for independence from British rule, and became the first Prime Minister of the Dominion (and later Republic) of India.[5] She was the only child (a younger brother was born, but died young),[6] and grew up with her mother, Kamala Nehru, at the Anand Bhavan; a large family estate in Allahabad.[7] She had a lonely and unhappy childhood.[8] Her father was often away, directing political activities or incarcerated, while her mother was frequently bed-ridden with illness, and later suffered an early death from tuberculosis.[9] She had limited contact with her father, mostly through letters.[10]

Indira Nehru c. early 1930s

Indira was mostly taught at home by tutors, and intermittently attended school until matriculation in 1934. She was a student at the Modern School in Delhi, St Cecilia's and St Mary's Christian convent schools in Allahabad,[11] the International School of Geneva, the Ecole Nouvelle in Bex, and the Pupils' Own School in Poona and Bombay, which is affiliated to University of Mumbai. [12] She and her mother Kamala Nehru
Kamala Nehru
moved to Belur Math
Belur Math
headquarters of Ramakrishna Mission where Swami Ranganathananda was her guardian[13] later she went on to study at the Visva-Bharati University
Visva-Bharati University
in Santiniketan. It was during her interview that Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
named her Priyadarshini, and she came to be known as Indira Priyadarshini Nehru.[14] A year later, however, she had to leave university to attend to her ailing mother in Europe.[15] While there, it was decided that Indira would continue her education at the University of Oxford.[16] After her mother died, she briefly attended the Badminton School
Badminton School
before enrolling at Somerville College in 1937 to study history.[17] Indira had to take the entrance examination twice, having failed at her first attempt with a poor performance in Latin.[17] At Oxford, she did well in history, political science and economics, but her grades in Latin—a compulsory subject—remained poor.[18][19] She did, however, have an active part within the student life of the university, such as the Oxford Majlis Asian Society.[20] During her time in Europe, Indira was plagued with ill-health and was constantly attended by doctors. She had to make repeated trips to Switzerland to recover, disrupting her studies. She was being treated there in 1940, when the Nazi armies rapidly conquered Europe. Gandhi tried to return to England through Portugal but was left stranded for nearly two months. She managed to enter England in early 1941, and from there returned to India
India
without completing her studies at Oxford. The university later awarded her an honorary degree. In 2010, Oxford further honoured her by selecting her as one of the ten Oxasians, illustrious Asian graduates from the University of Oxford.[21] During her stay in Great Britain, Indira frequently met her future husband Feroze Gandhi
Feroze Gandhi
(no relation to Mahatma Gandhi), whom she knew from Allahabad, and who was studying at the London School of Economics. The marriage took place in Allahabad
Allahabad
according to Adi Dharm
Adi Dharm
rituals though Feroze belonged to a Zoroastrian Parsi
Parsi
family of Gujarat.[22] The couple had two sons, Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
(born 1944) and Sanjay Gandhi
Sanjay Gandhi
(born 1946). In the 1950s, Indira, now Mrs Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
after her marriage, served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as the first Prime Minister of India.[23] Towards the end of the 1950s, Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
served as the President of the Congress. In that capacity, she was instrumental in getting the Communist led Kerala State Government dismissed in 1959. That government had the distinction of being India's first ever elected Communist Government.[24] After her father's death in 1964 she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
(upper house) and served in Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting.[25] In January 1966, after Shastri's death, the Congress legislative party elected Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
over Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
as their leader. Congress party veteran K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
was instrumental in achieving Indira's victory.[26] Because she was a woman, other political leaders in India
India
saw Gandhi as weak and hoped to use her as a puppet once elected:

Congress President Kamaraj orchestrated Mrs. Gandhi's selection as prime minister because he perceived her to be weak enough that he and the other regional party bosses could control her, and yet strong enough to beat Desai [her political opponent] in a party election because of the high regard for her father…a woman would be an ideal tool for the Syndicate.[27]

First term as prime minister between 1966 and 1977[edit] The first eleven years of Indira's position as prime minister saw her evolving from the perception of party leaders to the one with iron resolve to split the party for her policy positions or to go to war with Pakistan
Pakistan
to liberate Bangladesh. At the end of this term in 1977, she was such a dominating figure in Indian politics that a Congress party president had coined the phrase " India
India
is Indira and Indira is India."[28] First year[edit] Indira formed her government with Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
as deputy prime minister and finance minister. At the beginning of her first term as prime minister, Indira was widely criticized by the media and the opposition as a "Goongi goodiya" ( Hindi
Hindi
word for a dumb doll or puppet) of the Congress party bosses who had got her elected and tried to constrain her.[29][30] 1967–1971[edit] The first electoral test for Indira was the 1967 general elections for the Lok sabha and state assemblies. The Congress Party won a reduced majority for the Lok sabha in these elections owing to widespread disenchantment over rising prices of commodities, unemployment, economic stagnation and a food crisis. Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
had started on a rocky note after agreeing to a devaluation of the rupee, which created much hardship for Indian businesses and consumers, and the import of wheat from the United States fell through due to political disputes.[31] The party also for the first time lost power or lost majority in a number of states across the country. Following the 1967 elections, Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
gradually started moving towards socialist policies. In 1969, she fell out with senior Congress party leaders on a number of issues. Chief among them was the decision by Indira to support V. V. Giri, the independent candidate rather than the official Congress party candidate Neelam Sanjiva Reddy for the vacant position of President of India. The other was the announcement by the prime minister of Bank nationalization without consulting the finance minister, Morarji Desai. These steps culminated in Party president S. Nijalingappa expelling her from the party for indiscipline.[32][33][34] Gandhi, in turn floated her own faction of the Congress party and managed to retain most of the Congress MPs on her side with only 65 on the side of Congress (O) faction. The Indira faction, called Congress (R), lost its majority in the parliament but remained in power with the support of regional parties such as DMK.[35] The policies of the Congress under Indira Gandhi, prior to the 1971 elections, also included proposals for the abolition of Privy Purse to former rulers of the Princely states and the 1969 nationalization of the fourteen largest banks in India. 1971–1977[edit] Garibi Hatao (Eradicate Poverty) was the theme for Gandhi's 1971 bid. On the other hand, the combined opposition alliance had a two word manifesto of "Indira Hatao" (Remove Indira).[36][37] The Garibi Hatao slogan and the proposed anti-poverty programs that came with it were designed to give Gandhi an independent national support, based on rural and urban poor. This would allow her to bypass the dominant rural castes both in and of state and local governments; likewise the urban commercial class. And, for their part, the previously voiceless poor would at last gain both political worth and political weight[citation needed]. The programs created through Garibi Hatao, though carried out locally, were funded and developed by the Central Government in New Delhi. The program was supervised and staffed by the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
party. "These programs also provided the central political leadership with new and vast patronage resources to be disbursed... throughout the country.",[38] The biggest achievement of Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
after the 1971 election came in December 1971 with India's decisive victory over Pakistan
Pakistan
in the liberation war, that led to the formation of independent Bangladesh. She was hailed as Goddess Durga
Durga
by opposition leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee at that time.[39][40][41][42][note 1] In the elections held for State assemblies across India
India
in March 1972, the Congress (R) swept to power in most states riding on the post-war "Indira wave".[44] Despite the victory against Pakistan, the Congress government faced numerous problems during this term. Some of these were due to high inflation which was in turn caused by war time expenses, drought in some parts of the country and more importantly, the 1973 oil crisis. The opposition to Gandhi in 1973–75 period, after the Indira wave had receded, was strongest in the states of Bihar
Bihar
and Gujarat. In Bihar, Jayaprakash Narayan, the veteran leader came out of retirement to lead the protest movement there.[44] Verdict on electoral malpractice[edit] On 12 June 1975, the Allahabad
Allahabad
High Court declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
in 1971 void on grounds of electoral malpractice. In an election petition filed by her 1971 opponent, Raj Narain (who later on defeated her in 1977 parliamentary election from Raebareli), alleged several major as well as minor instances of using government resources for campaigning.[45][46] The court ordered her stripped of her parliamentary seat and banned from running for any office for six years. According to constitution, the Prime Minister must be a member of either the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(the lower house in the Parliament of India) or a member of the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
(the upper house). Thus, this decision effectively removed her from office. Gandhi had asked one of her colleagues in government, Mr. Ashoke Kumar Sen
Ashoke Kumar Sen
to defend her in court. But Gandhi rejected calls to resign and announced plans to appeal to the Supreme Court. The verdict was delivered by Mr Justice Jagmohanlal Sinha at Allahabad
Allahabad
High Court. It came almost four years after the case was brought by Raj Narain, the premier's defeated opponent in the 1971 parliamentary election. Gandhi, who gave evidence in her defence during the trial, was found guilty of dishonest election practices, excessive election expenditure, and of using government machinery and officials for party purposes.[45][47] The judge, however, rejected more serious charges of bribery against her.

With Richard Nixon, 1971

Gandhi insisted that the conviction did not undermine her position, despite having been unseated from the lower house of parliament, Lok Sabha, by order of the High Court. She said: "There is a lot of talk about our government not being clean, but from our experience the situation was very much worse when [opposition] parties were forming governments". And she dismissed criticism of the way her Congress Party raised election campaign money, saying all parties used the same methods. The prime minister retained the support of her party, which issued a statement backing her. After news of the verdict spread, hundreds of supporters demonstrated outside her house, pledging their loyalty. Indian High Commissioner BK Nehru said Gandhi's conviction would not harm her political career. "Mrs Gandhi has still today overwhelming support in the country," he said. "I believe the prime minister of India
India
will continue in office until the electorate of India
India
decides otherwise". State of Emergency (1975–1977)[edit] Main article: The Emergency (India) Gandhi moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest. Her Cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
declare a state of emergency because of the disorder and lawlessness following the Allahabad
Allahabad
High Court decision. Accordingly, Ahmed declared a State of Emergency caused by internal disorder, based on the provisions of Article 352(1) of the Constitution, on 25 June 1975. Rule by decree[edit] Within a few months, President's rule was imposed on the two opposition party ruled states of Gujarat
Gujarat
and Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
thereby bringing the entire country under direct Central rule or by governments led by the ruling Congress party.[48] Police were granted powers to impose curfews and indefinitely detain citizens and all publications were subjected to substantial censorship by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Finally, the impending legislative assembly elections were indefinitely postponed, with all opposition-controlled state governments being removed by virtue of the constitutional provision allowing for a dismissal of a state government on recommendation of the state's governor. Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
used the emergency provisions to change conflicting party members.

Unlike her father Jawaharlal Nehru, who preferred to deal with strong chief ministers in control of their legislative parties and state party organizations, Mrs. Gandhi set out to remove every Congress chief minister who had an independent base and to replace each of them with ministers personally loyal to her...Even so, stability could not be maintained in the states...[49]

President Ahmed issued ordinances that did not require debate in the Parliament, allowing Gandhi to rule by decree. Rise of Sanjay[edit] The Emergency saw the entry of Gandhi's younger son, Sanjay Gandhi, into Indian Politics. Sanjay wielded tremendous power during the emergency without holding any Government office. According to Mark Tully, "His inexperience did not stop him from using the Draconian powers his mother, Indira Gandhi, had taken to terrorise the administration, setting up what was in effect a police state."[50] It was said that during the Emergency he virtually ran India
India
along with his friends, especially Bansi Lal.[51] It was also quipped that Sanjay Gandhi
Sanjay Gandhi
had total control over his mother and that the government was run by the PMH (Prime Minister House) rather than the PMO (Prime Minister Office).[52][53][54] 1977 election and opposition years[edit] In 1977, after extending the state of emergency twice, Indira Gandhi called elections to give the electorate a chance to vindicate her rule. Gandhi may have grossly misjudged her popularity by reading what the heavily censored press wrote about her.[55] In any case, she was opposed by the Janata alliance of Opposition parties. The alliance was made up of right-wing Hindu
Hindu
leaning Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Congress (O), The Socialist parties, and Charan Singh's Bharatiya Kranti Dal representing northern peasant and farmers. Janata alliance, with Jai Prakash Narayan as its spiritual guide, claimed the elections were the last chance for India
India
to choose between "democracy and dictatorship." The Congress Party split during the election campaign of 1977: veteran Indira supporters like Jagjivan Ram, Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna and Nandini Satpathy
Nandini Satpathy
were compelled to part ways and form a new political entity, CFD (Congress for Democracy), primarily due to intra-party politicking and also due to circumstances created by Sanjay Gandhi. The prevailing rumour was that Sanjay had intentions of dislodging Gandhi and the trio stood between that. Gandhi's Congress party was crushed soundly in the elections. The public realized the statement and motto of the Janata Party alliance. Indira and Sanjay Gandhi
Sanjay Gandhi
both lost their seats, and Congress was cut down to 153 seats (compared with 350 in the previous Lok Sabha), 92 of which were in the South. The Janata alliance, under the leadership of Morarji Desai, came into power after the State of Emergency was lifted. The alliance parties later merged to form the Janata Party under the guidance of Gandhian leader, Jayaprakash Narayan. The other leaders of the Janata Party were Charan Singh, Raj Narain, George Fernandes
George Fernandes
and Atal Bihari Vajpayee.[56] In opposition and return to power[edit]

1984 USSR
USSR
commemorative stamp

Since Gandhi had lost her seat in the election, the defeated Congress party appointed Yashwantrao Chavan
Yashwantrao Chavan
as their parliamentary party leader. Soon afterwards, the Congress party split again with Gandhi floating her own Congress faction. She won a by-election from the Chikmagalur Constituency to the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
in November 1978.[57][58] However, the Janata government's Home Minister, Choudhary Charan Singh, ordered the arrest of her and Sanjay Gandhi
Sanjay Gandhi
on several charges, none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court. The arrest meant that Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
was automatically expelled from Parliament. These allegations included that she "had planned or thought of killing all opposition leaders in jail during the Emergency".[59] In response to her arrest, Indira Gandhi's supporters hijacked an Indian Airlines jet and demanded her immediate release.[60] However, this strategy backfired disastrously. Her arrest and long-running trial gained her great sympathy from many people. The Janata coalition was only united by its hatred of Gandhi (or "that woman" as some called her). The party included right wing Hindu
Hindu
Nationalists, Socialists and former Congress party members. With so little in common, the Morarji Desai government was bogged down by infighting. In 1979, the government started to unravel over the issue of dual loyalties of some members to Janata and the RSS. The ambitious Union Finance minister, Charan Singh, who as the Union Home Minister during the previous year had ordered arrest of Gandhi, took advantage of this and started courting the Congress. After a significant exodus from the party to Charan Singh's faction, Desai resigned in July 1979. Charan Singh
Charan Singh
was appointed Prime Minister, by President Reddy, after Indira and Sanjay Gandhi promised Singh that Congress would support his government from outside on certain conditions.[61][62] The conditions included dropping all charges against Indira and Sanjay. Since Charan Singh refused to drop the charges, Congress withdrew its support and President Reddy dissolved Parliament in August 1979. Before the 1980 elections Gandhi approached the then Shahi Imam
Shahi Imam
of Jama Masjid, Syed Abdullah Bukhari
Syed Abdullah Bukhari
and entered into an agreement with him on the basis of 10-point programme to secure the support of the Muslim votes.[63] In the elections held in January, Congress returned to power with a landslide majority. 1980 elections and third term[edit] The Congress under Gandhi swept back to power in January 1980.[64] Elections soon after to State assemblies across the country also brought back Congress ministries in the state with Indira's son Sanjay Gandhi choosing loyalists to lead the states. On 23 June, Gandhi's son Sanjay was killed in an air crash while performing an aerobatic manoeuvre in New Delhi.[65] Gandhi by this stage only trusted family members, and therefore persuaded her reluctant son, Rajiv, to enter politics. Operation Blue Star[edit] Main article: Operation Blue Star In the 1977 elections, a coalition led by the Sikh-majority Akali Dal came to power in the northern Indian state of Punjab. In an effort to split the Akali Dal and gain popular support among the Sikhs, Indira Gandhi's Congress helped bring the orthodox religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale
Bhindranwale
to prominence in Punjab politics.[66][67] Later, Bhindranwale's organisation Damdami Taksal
Damdami Taksal
became embroiled in violence with another religious sect called the Sant Nirankari Mission, and he was accused of instigating the murder of Jagat Narain, the owner of Punjab Kesari
Punjab Kesari
newspaper[68] After being arrested in this matter, Bhindranwale
Bhindranwale
disassociated himself from Congress and joined hands with the Akali Dal.[69] In July 1982, he led the campaign for the implementation of the Anandpur Resolution, which demanded greater autonomy for the Sikh-majority state. Meanwhile, a small section of the Sikhs, including some of Bhindranwale's followers, turned to militancy after being targeted by government officials and police in support of the Resolution.[70] In 1982, Bhindranwale
Bhindranwale
and approximately 200 armed followers moved into a guest house called the Guru Nanak Niwas, in the precinct of the Golden Temple
Golden Temple
.[71] By 1983, the Temple complex had become a fort for a large number of militants.[72] The Statesman
The Statesman
later reported that light machine guns and semi-automatic rifles were known to have been brought into the compound.[73] On 23 April 1983, the Punjab Police Deputy Inspector General A. S. Atwal was shot dead as he left the Temple compound. The following day, after the murder, Harchand Singh Longowal (then president of Shiromani Akali Dal) confirmed the involvement of Bhindranwale
Bhindranwale
in the murder.[74] After several futile negotiations, Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
ordered the Indian army in June 1984 to enter the Golden Temple
Golden Temple
in order to remove Bhindranwale
Bhindranwale
and his supporters from the complex. The army used heavy artillery, including tanks, in the action code-named Operation Blue Star. The operation badly damaged or destroyed parts of the Temple complex, including the Akal Takht
Akal Takht
shrine and the Sikh
Sikh
library. It also led to the deaths of a large number of Sikh
Sikh
fighters and innocent pilgrims. The number of casualties remain disputed with estimates ranging from many hundreds to many thousands[75] Gandhi was accused of using the attack for political ends. Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer stated that Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
attacked the temple complex to present herself as a great hero in order to win general elections planned towards the end of 1984.[76] There was fierce criticism of the action by Sikhs in India
India
and overseas.[77] There was also incidents of mutiny by Sikh
Sikh
soldiers in the aftermath of the attack.[75] Assassination[edit] Main articles: Assassination of Indira Gandhi
Assassination of Indira Gandhi
and 1984 anti- Sikh
Sikh
riots The day before her death (30 October 1984) Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
visited Orissa where she gave her last speech at the then Parade Ground in front of the Secretariat of Orissa. In that speech she strikingly associated her blood with the health of the nation[note 2]

The Saree that Indira wore on the day of her assassination

Today, the spot where Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
was assassinated is marked by a glass opening in the crystal pathway at the Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
Memorial

On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhi's bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, shot her with their service weapons in the garden of the Prime Minister's residence at 1 Safdarjung Road, New Delhi.[80] The shooting occurred as she was walking past a wicket gate guarded by Satwant and Beant. She was to have been interviewed by the British actor Peter Ustinov, who was filming a documentary for Irish television.[81] Beant Singh shot her three times using his side-arm and Satwant Singh fired 30 rounds.[82] Beant Singh and Satwant Singh dropped their weapons and surrendered. Afterwards they were taken away by other guards into a closed room where Beant Singh was shot dead. Kehar Singh was later arrested for conspiracy in the attack. Both Satwant and Kehar were sentenced to death and hanged in Delhi's Tihar Jail. Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
was brought at 9:30 AM to the All India
India
Institutes of Medical Sciences where doctors operated on her. She was declared dead at 2:20 PM. The post-mortem examination was conducted by a team of doctors headed by Dr. Tirath Das Dogra. Dr Dogra stated that as many as 30 bullet wounds were sustained by Indira Gandhi, from two sources, a Sterling submachine gun[83][84] and a pistol. The assailants had fired 31 bullets at her, of which 30 had hit; 23 had passed through her body while 7 were trapped inside her. Dr Dogra extracted bullets to establish the identity of the weapons and to match each weapon with the bullets recovered by ballistic examination. The bullets were matched with respective weapons at CFSL Delhi. Subsequently, Dr Dogra appeared in the court of Shri Mahesh Chandra as an expert witness (PW-5), and his testimony lasted several sessions. The cross examination was conducted by Shri Pran Nath Lekhi, the defence counsel.[85] Salma Sultan gave the first news of the assassination of Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
on Doordarshan's evening news on 31 October 1984, more than 10 hours after she was shot.[86][87] She died two weeks and five days before her 67th birthday.

Shakti Sthala, the place where Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
was cremated at New Delhi

Gandhi was cremated on 3 November near Raj Ghat.[88] The site where she was cremated is today known as Shakti Sthal.[89] Her funeral was televised live on domestic and international stations, including the BBC. Following her cremation, millions of Sikhs were displaced and nearly three thousand were killed in anti-Sikh riots.[90] Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
on a live TV show said of the carnage, "When a big tree falls, the earth shakes."[91][92] Foreign relations[edit] Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
is remembered for her ability to effectively promote Indian foreign policy measures.[93] South Asia[edit] Further information: List of state visits made by Indira Gandhi In early 1971, disputed elections in Pakistan
Pakistan
led the then East Pakistan
Pakistan
to declare independence as Bangladesh. Repression and violence by the Pakistani army led 10 million refugees to cross border in to India
India
over the coming months.[94] Finally in December 1971, Gandhi directly intervened in the conflict to liberate Bangladesh. India
India
emerged victorious in the resulting conflict to become the dominant power of South Asia.[95] India
India
had signed a treaty with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
promising mutual assistance in the case of war,[96] while Pakistan
Pakistan
received active support from the United States during the conflict.[97] U.S. President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
disliked Gandhi personally, referring to her as a "witch" and "clever fox" in his private communication with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.[98] Nixon later wrote of the war: "[Gandhi] suckered [America]. Suckered us.....this woman suckered us.".[99] Relations with the U.S. became distant as Gandhi developed closer ties with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
after the war. The latter grew to become India's largest trading partner and its biggest arms supplier for much of Gandhi's premiership.[100] India's new hegemonic position as articulated under the "Indira Doctrine" led to attempts to bring the Himalayan states
Himalayan states
under the Indian sphere of influence.[101] Nepal
Nepal
and Bhutan
Bhutan
remained aligned with India, while in 1975, after years of building up support, Gandhi incorporated Sikkim into India, after a referendum in which a majority of Sikkimese voted to join India.[102][103] This was denounced as a "despicable act" by China.[104] India
India
maintained close ties with neighbouring Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(formerly East Pakistan) following the Liberation War. Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman recognized Gandhi's contributions to the independence of Bangladesh. However, Mujibur Rahman's pro- India
India
policies antagonised many in Bangladeshi politics and the military, who feared that Bangladesh
Bangladesh
had become a client state of India.[105][106] The Assassination of Mujibur Rahman in 1975 led to the establishment of Islamist military regimes that sought to distance the country from India.[107] Gandhi's relationship with the military regimes was strained, due to her alleged support of anti-Islamist leftist guerrilla forces in Bangladesh.[107] Generally, however, there was a rapprochement between Gandhi and the Bangladeshi regimes, although issues such as border disputes and the Farakka Dam remained an irritant in bilateral ties.[108] In 2011, the Government of Bangladesh conferred its highest state award posthumously on Gandhi for her "outstanding contribution" to the country's independence.[109]

Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
with Jacqueline Kennedy
Jacqueline Kennedy
in New Delhi, 1962

Gandhi's approach to dealing with Sri Lanka's ethnic problems was initially accommodating. She enjoyed cordial relations with Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike. In 1974, India
India
ceded the tiny islet of Katchatheevu
Katchatheevu
to Sri Lanka in order to save Bandaranaike's socialist government from a political disaster.[110] However, relations soured over Sri Lanka's turn away from socialism under J. R. Jayewardene, whom Gandhi despised as a "western puppet."[111] India
India
under Gandhi was alleged to have supported LTTE militants in the 1980s to put pressure on Jayewardene to abide by Indian interests.[112] Nevertheless, Gandhi rejected demands to invade Sri Lanka in the aftermath of Black July
Black July
1983, an anti-Tamil pogrom carried out by Sinhalese mobs.[113] Gandhi made a statement emphasizing that she stood for the territorial integrity of Sri Lanka, although she also stated that India
India
cannot "remain a silent spectator to any injustice done to the Tamil community."[113][114] India's relationship with Pakistan
Pakistan
remained strained following the Shimla Accord in 1972. Gandhi's authorization of the detonation of a nuclear device at Pokhran
Pokhran
in 1974 was viewed by Pakistani leader Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
as an attempt to intimidate Pakistan
Pakistan
into accepting India's hegemony in the subcontinent. However, in May 1976, Gandhi and Bhutto both agreed to reopen diplomatic establishments and normalize relations.[115] Following the rise to power of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
in Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1978, India's relations with its neighbour reached a nadir. Gandhi accused General Zia of supporting Khalistani militants in Punjab.[115] Military hostilities recommenced in 1984 following Gandhi's authorization of Operation Meghdoot.[116] India
India
was victorious in the resulting Siachen conflict
Siachen conflict
against Pakistan.[116] In order to keep the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United States out of South Asia, Mrs Gandhi was instrumental in establishing the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) in 1983[117] Middle East[edit]

Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
meeting the Shah of Iran
Shah of Iran
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
and Shahbanu
Shahbanu
Farah Pahlavi
Farah Pahlavi
during their state visit to India
India
in 1970

Gandhi remained a staunch supporter of Palestinians in the Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
and was critical of the Middle East diplomacy sponsored by the United States.[111] Israel
Israel
was viewed as a religious state and thus an analogue to India's archrival Pakistan. Indian diplomats also hoped to win Arab support in countering Pakistan
Pakistan
in Kashmir. Nevertheless, Gandhi authorized the development of a secret channel of contact and security assistance with Israel
Israel
in the late 1960s. Her lieutenant, P. V. Narasimha Rao, later became Prime Minister and approved full diplomatic ties with Israel
Israel
in 1992.[118] India's pro-Arab policy had mixed success. Establishment of close ties with the socialist and secular Baathist regimes to some extent neutralized Pakistani propaganda against India.[119] However, the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
put the Arab and Muslim states of the Middle East in a dilemma as the war was fought by two states both friendly to the Arabs.[120] The progressive Arab regimes in Egypt, Syria, and Algeria
Algeria
chose to remain neutral, while the conservative pro-American Arab monarchies in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
openly supported Pakistan. Egypt's stance was met with dismay by the Indians, who had come to expect close co-operation with the Baathist regimes.[119] But, the death of Nasser in 1970 and Sadat's growing friendship with Riyadh, and his mounting differences with Moscow, constrained Egypt
Egypt
to a policy of neutrality.[119] Gandhi's overtures to Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
were rebuffed.[120] Libya
Libya
agreed with the Arab monarchies in believing that Gandhi's intervention in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
was an attack against Islam.[120] The 1971 war temporarily became a stumbling block in growing Indo-Iranian ties.[119] Although Iran
Iran
had earlier characterized the Indo-Pakistani war in 1965 as Indian aggression, the Shah had launched an effort at rapprochement with India
India
in 1969 as part of his effort to secure support for a larger Iranian role in the Persian Gulf.[119] Gandhi's tilt towards Moscow and her dismemberment of Pakistan
Pakistan
was perceived by the Shah as part of a larger anti- Iran
Iran
conspiracy involving India, Iraq, and the Soviet Union.[119] Nevertheless, Iran had resisted Pakistani pressure to activate the Baghdad Pact
Baghdad Pact
and draw in the Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO) into the conflict.[119] Gradually, Indian and Iranian disillusionment with their respective regional allies led to a renewed partnership between the nations.[121] Gandhi was unhappy with the lack of support from India's Arab allies during the war with Pakistan, while the Shah was apprehensive at the growing friendship between Pakistan
Pakistan
and Arab states of the Persian Gulf, specially Saudi Arabia, and the growing influence of Islam
Islam
in Pakistani society.[121] There was an increase in Indian economic and military co-operation with Iran
Iran
during the 1970s.[121] The 1974 India-Iranian agreement led to Iran
Iran
supplying nearly 75 percent of India's crude oil demands.[122] Gandhi appreciated the Shah's disregard of Pan-Islamism
Pan-Islamism
in diplomacy.[121] Asia-Pacific[edit] One of the major developments in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
during Gandhi's premiership was the formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967. Relations between ASEAN and India
India
was mutually antagonistic. ASEAN in the Indian perception was linked to the Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Treaty Organization (SEATO), and it was therefore, seen as a pro-American organisation. On their part, the ASEAN nations were unhappy with Gandhi's sympathy for the Viet Cong
Viet Cong
and India's strong links with the USSR. Furthermore, they were also apprehensions in the region about Gandhi's future plans, particularly after India played a big role in breaking up Pakistan
Pakistan
and facilitating in the emergence of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
as a sovereign country in 1971. India's entry into the nuclear weapons club in 1974 contributed to tensions in Southeast Asia.[123] Relations only began to improve following Gandhi's endorsement of the ZOPFAN declaration and the disintegration of the SEATO alliance in the aftermath of Pakistani and American defeats in the region. Nevertheless, Gandhi's close relations with reunified Vietnam
Vietnam
and her decision to recognize the Vietnam
Vietnam
installed Government of Cambodia
Cambodia
in 1980 meant that India
India
and ASEAN were not able to develop a viable partnership.[123] Africa[edit] Although independent India
India
was initially viewed as a champion of anti-colonialism, its cordial relationship with the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations and liberal views of British colonial policies in East Africa had harmed its image as a staunch supporter of the anti-colonial movements.[124] Indian condemnation of militant struggles in Kenya
Kenya
and Algeria
Algeria
was in sharp contrast to China, who had supported armed struggle to win African independence.[124] After reaching a high diplomatic point in the aftermath of Nehru's role in the Suez Crisis, India's isolation from Africa was complete when only four nations; Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria
Nigeria
and Libya
Libya
supported her during the Sino-Indian War
Sino-Indian War
in 1962.[124] After Gandhi became Prime Minister, diplomatic and economic relations with the states which had sided with India
India
during the Sino-Indian War
Sino-Indian War
were expanded.[124] Gandhi began negotiations with the Kenyan government to establish the Africa-India Development Cooperation. The Indian government also started considering the possibility of bringing Indians settled in Africa within the framework of its policy goals to help recover its declining geo-strategic influence. Gandhi declared the people of Indian origin settled in Africa as "Ambassadors of India."[124] Efforts to rope in the Asian community to join Indian diplomacy, however, came to naught, partly because of the unwillingness of Indians to remain in politically insecure surroundings and partly due to the exodus of African Indians to Britain with the passing of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act in 1968.[124] In Uganda, the African Indian community even suffered persecution and eventually expulsion under the government of Idi Amin.[125] Foreign and domestic policy successes in the 1970s enabled Gandhi to rebuild India's image in the eyes of African states.[124] Victory over Pakistan
Pakistan
and India's possession of nuclear weapons showed the degree of India's progress.[124] Furthermore, the conclusion of the Indo-Soviet treaty in 1971 and threatening gestures by the major western power, the United States, to send its nuclear armed Task Force 74 into the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
at the height of the East Pakistan
East Pakistan
crisis had enabled India
India
to regain its anti-imperialist image.[124] Gandhi firmly tied Indian anti-imperialist interests in Africa to those of the Soviet Union.[126] Unlike Nehru, she openly and enthusiastically supported liberation struggles in Africa.[126] At the same time, Chinese influence in Africa had declined owing to its incessant quarrels with the Soviet Union.[124] These developments permanently halted India's decline in Africa and helped reestablish its geo-strategic presence.[124] The Commonwealth[edit] The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
is voluntary association of mainly former British colonies. India
India
maintained cordial relations with most of the members during her time in power. In the 1980s, Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
along with Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Zambia's President Kenneth Kaunda, Australian prime minister Malcolm Fraser
Malcolm Fraser
and Singapore Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew
was regarded as one of the pillars of the commonwealth[127] India
India
under Indira also hosted the 1983 Commonwealth heads of Government summit in New Delhi
New Delhi
in 1983. Gandhi used to use the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
meetings as a forum to put pressure on member countries to cut economic, sports, and cultural ties with Apartheid South Africa [128] The Non-aligned Movement[edit] In the early 1980s under Gandhi, India
India
attempted to reassert its prominent role in the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
by focusing on the relationship between disarmament and economic development. By appealing to the economic grievances of developing countries, Gandhi and her successors exercised a moderating influence on the Non-aligned movement, diverting it from some of the Cold War
Cold War
issues that marred the controversial 1979 Havana meeting where Cuban leader Fidel Castro attempted to steer the movement towards the Soviet Union.[129] Although hosting the 1983 summit at Delhi
Delhi
boosted Indian prestige within the movement, its close relations with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its pro-Soviet positions on Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Cambodia
Cambodia
limited its influence Western Europe[edit]

Gandhi with Nicolae Ceaușescu
Nicolae Ceaușescu
in 1969

Indira spent a number of years in Europe
Europe
during her youth and formed many friendships during her stay there. During her premiership she formed friendship with many socialist leaders such as German chancellor, Willy Brandt[130] and Austrian chancellor Bruno Kreisky.[131] She also enjoyed closed working relationship with many British leaders including conservative premiers, Edward Heath
Edward Heath
and Margaret Thatcher.[132] Soviet Union[edit] The relationship between India
India
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
deepened during Gandhi's rule. The main reason was the perceived bias of United States and China, the rivals of USSR, towards Pakistan. The support of USSR with arms supplies and casting of veto at United Nations helped in winning and consolidating the victory over Pakistan
Pakistan
in the 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
liberation war. Prior to the war Indira signed a treaty of friendship with the USSR. The USSR
USSR
was not happy with the 1974 nuclear test conducted by India
India
but did not support further action because of the ensuing cold war with the United States. Indira was not happy with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
but once again calculations involving relations with Pakistan
Pakistan
and China kept from criticizing the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
harshly. USSR
USSR
became the main arms supplier during the Indira years by offering cheap credit and transactions in rupees rather than in dollars. The easy trade deals also applied to non-military goods. Under Indira by the early 1980s the USSR
USSR
became the largest trading partner of India.[133] United States[edit] When Indira came to power in 1966, Lyndon Johnson was the US President. At that time, India
India
was reliant on USA for food aid. Indira resented the US policy of food aid as a tool in forcing India
India
to adopt policies favored by the US. She also resolutely refused to sign the NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons). Relations with US strained badly under President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
and his favoring of Pakistan
Pakistan
during the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
liberation war. Nixon despised Indira politically and personally.[134] Indira met President Ronald Reagan in 1981 for the first time at the North–South Summit
North–South Summit
held to discuss global poverty. Indira had been described to him as an 'Ogre' but he found her charming and easy to work with and they formed a close working relationship during her premiership in the 1980s.[135] Economic policy[edit] Gandhi presided over three Five-Year plans as Prime Minister, two of which succeeded in meeting the targeted growth.[136] There is considerable debate regarding whether Gandhi was a socialist on principle or out of political expediency.[35] Sunanda K. Datta-Ray described her as "a master of rhetoric...often more posture than policy", while The Times
The Times
journalist, Peter Hazelhurst, famously quipped that Gandhi's socialism was "slightly left of self-interest."[137] Critics have focused on the contradictions in the evolution of her stance towards communism; Gandhi being known for her anti-communist stance in the 1950s with Meghnad Desai even describing her as "the scourge of [India's] Communist Party."[138] Yet, she later forged close relations with Indian communists even while using the army to break the Naxalites. In this context, Gandhi was accused of formulating populist policies to suit her political needs; being seemingly against the rich and big business while preserving the status quo in order to manipulate the support of the left at times of political insecurity, such as the late 1960s.[139][140] Although Gandhi came to be viewed in time as the scourge of the right-wing and reactionary political elements of India, leftist opposition to her policies emerged. As early as 1969, critics had begun accusing her of insincerity and machiavellianism. The Indian Libertarian wrote that: "it would be difficult to find a more machiavellian leftist than Mrs Indira Gandhi...for here is Machiavelli at its best in the person of a suave, charming and astute politician."[141] Rosser wrote that "some have even seen the declaration of emergency rule in 1975 as a move to suppress [leftist] dissent against Gandhi's policy shift to the right."[35] In the 1980s, Gandhi was accused of "betraying socialism" after the beginning of Operation Forward, an attempt at economic reform.[142] Nevertheless, others were more convinced of Gandhi's sincerity and devotion to socialism. Pankaj Vohra noted that "even the late prime minister's critics would concede that the maximum number of legislations of social significance was brought about during her tenure...[and that] she lives in the hearts of millions of Indians who shared her concern for the poor and weaker sections and who supported her politics."[143] In summarizing the biographical works on Gandhi, Blema S. Steinberg concluded she was decidedly non-ideological.[144] Only 7.4% (24) of the total 330 biographical extractions posit ideology as a reason for her policy choices.[144] Steinberg noted Gandhi's association with socialism was superficial; only having a general and traditional commitment to the ideology, by way of her political and family ties.[144] Gandhi personally had a fuzzy concept of socialism. In one of the early interviews she had given as Prime Minister, Gandhi had ruminated: "I suppose you could call me a socialist, but you have understand what we mean by that term...we used the word [socialism] because it came closest to what we wanted to do here – which is to eradicate poverty. You can call it socialism; but if by using that word we arouse controversy, I don't see why we should use it. I don't believe in words at all."[144] Regardless of the debate over her ideology or lack of thereof, Gandhi remains a left-wing icon. She has been described by Hindustan Times columnist, Pankaj Vohra as "arguably the greatest mass leader of the last century."[143] Her campaign slogan, Garibi Hatao (Eng: Remove Poverty), has become the iconic motto of the Indian National Congress[citation needed]. To the rural and urban poor, untouchables, minorities and women in India, Gandhi was "Indira Amma or Mother Indira."[145] Green Revolution and the Fourth Five Year Plan[edit] Gandhi inherited a weak and troubled economy. Fiscal problems associated with the war with Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1965, along with a drought-induced food crisis that spawned famines, had plunged India into the sharpest recession since independence.[35][31] The government responded by taking steps to liberalize the economy, and by agreeing to the devaluation of the currency in return for the restoration of foreign aid.[31] The economy managed to recover in 1966 and ended up growing at 4.1% over 1966–1969.[139][146] But, much of that growth was offset by the fact that the external aid promised by the United States government and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), meant to ease the short-run costs of adjustment to a liberalized economy, never materialized.[31] American policy makers had complained of continued restrictions imposed on the economy. At the same time, Indo-US relations were straining due to Gandhi's criticism of the American bombing campaign in Vietnam. While it was thought, at the time, and for decades after, that President Johnson's policy of withholding food grain shipments was to coerce Indian support for the war, in fact, it was to offer India
India
rainmaking technology that he wanted to use as a counterweight to China's possession of the atomic bomb.[147][148] In light of the circumstances, liberalization became politically suspect and was soon abandoned.[31] Grain diplomacy and currency devaluation became matters of intense national pride in India. After the bitter experience with Johnson, Gandhi decided not to request food aid in the future. Moreover, Gandhi's government resolved never again to become "so vulnerably dependent" on aid, and painstakingly began building up substantial foreign exchange reserves.[149] When food stocks slumped after poor harvests in 1972, the government made it a point to use foreign exchange to buy US wheat commercially rather than seek resumption of food aid.[150]

Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
meeting President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
in the Oval Office on 28 March 1966

The period of 1967–75 was characterized by socialist ascendency in India
India
which culminated in 1976 with the official declaration of state socialism. Gandhi not only abandoned the short lived liberalization programme but also aggressively expanded the public sector with new licensing requirements and other restrictions for industry. She began a new course by launching the Fourth Five-Year Plan in 1969. The government targeted growth at 5.7% while stating as its goals, "growth with stability and progressive achievement of self-reliance."[139][151] The rationale behind the overall plan was Gandhi's Ten Point Programme of 1967. This had been her first economic policy formulation, six months after coming to office. The programme emphasized greater state control of the economy with the understanding that government control assured greater welfare than private control.[139] Related to this point were a set of policies which were meant to regulate the private sector.[139] By the end of the 1960s, the reversal of the liberalization process was complete, and India's policies were characterised as "protectionist as ever."[149] To deal with India's food problems, Gandhi expanded the emphasis on production of inputs to agriculture that had already been initiated by her father, Jawaharlal Nehru.[35] The Green Revolution in India subsequently culminated under her government in the 1970s and transformed the country from a nation heavily reliant on imported grains and prone to famine to being largely able to feed itself, and become successful in achieving its goal of food security. Gandhi had a personal motive in pursuing agricultural self-sufficiency, having found India's dependency on the U.S. for shipments of grains humiliating.[152] The economic period of 1967–75 became significant for its major wave of nationalisations amidst the increased regulation of the private sector.[35] Some of the other objectives of the economic plan for the period was to provide for the minimum needs of the community through a rural works program and the removal of the privy purses of the nobility.[139] Both these, and many other goals of the 1967 program were accomplished by 1974–75. Nevertheless, the success of the overall economic plan was tempered by the fact that annual growth at 3.3–3.4% over 1969–74 fell short of the targeted figure.[139] State of Emergency and the Fifth Five Year Plan[edit] The Fifth Five Year Plan (1974–79) was enacted in the backdrop of the state of emergency and the Twenty Point Program of 1975.[139] The latter was the economic rationale of the emergency, a political act which has often been justified on economic grounds.[139] In contrast to the reception of Gandhi's earlier economic plan, this one was criticized for being a "hastily thrown together wish list."[139] Gandhi promised to reduce poverty by targeting the consumption levels of the poor and enact wide-ranging social and economic reforms. The government additionally targeted an annual growth of 4.4% over the period of the plan.[136] The measures of the emergency regime was able to halt the economic trouble of the early to mid-1970s, which had been marred by harvest failures, fiscal contraction, and the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchanged rate; the resulting turbulence in the foreign exchange markets being further accentuated by the oil shock of 1973.[146] The government was even able to exceed the targeted growth figure with an annual growth rate of 5.0–5.2% over the five-year period of the plan (1974–79).[136][139] The economy grew at the rate of 9% in 1975–76 alone, and the Fifth Plan, became the first plan during which the per capita income of the economy grew by over 5%.[153] Operation Forward and the Sixth Five Year Plan[edit] Gandhi inherited a weak economy when she again became Prime Minister in 1980.[154] The preceding year in 1979–80 under the Janata Party government had led to the strongest recession (−5.2%) in the history of modern India
India
with inflation rampant at 18.2%.[35][153][155] Gandhi proceeded to abrogate the Janata Party government's Five Year Plan in 1980 and launched the Sixth Five Year Plan (1980–85). The government targeted an average growth of 5.2% over the period of the plan.[136] Measures to check the inflation were also taken; by the early 1980s inflation was under control at an annual rate of about 5%.[155] Although Gandhi continued professing socialist beliefs, the Sixth Five Year Plan was markedly different from the years of Garibi Hatao. Populist programs and policies were replaced by pragmatism.[139] There was an emphasis on tightening public expenditures, greater efficiency of the state-owned enterprises (SOE), which Gandhi qualified as a "sad thing", and in stimulating the private sector through deregulation and liberation of the capital market.[156] The government subsequently launched Operation Forward in 1982, the first cautious attempt at reform.[157] The Sixth Plan went on to become the most successful of the Five Year plans yet; showing an average growth of 5.7% over 1980–85.[136] Inflation and unemployment[edit]

The price of oil during the 1970s energy crisis. The graph shows sharp increases in 1973 and again in 1979

During Lal Bahadur Shastri's last full year in office (1965), inflation averaged 7.7%, compared to 5.2% at the end of Gandhi's first stint in office (1977).[158] On average, inflation in India
India
had remained below 7% through the 1950s and 1960s.[159] But, it then accelerated sharply in the 1970s, from 5.5% in 1970–71 to over 20% by 1973–74, due to the international oil crisis.[158] Gandhi declared inflation the gravest of problems in 1974 (at 25.2%) and devised a severe anti-inflation program. The government was successful in bringing down inflation during the emergency; achieving negative figures of −1.1% by the end of 1975–76.[154][158] Gandhi inherited a tattered economy in her second term; harvest failures and a second oil shock in the late 1970s had again caused inflation to rise.[154] During Charan Singh's short reign in office in the second half of 1979, inflation averaged 18.2%, compared to 6.5% during Gandhi's last year in office (1984).[155][158] General economic recovery under Gandhi led to an average inflation at 6.5% from 1981–82 to 1985–86; the lowest since the beginning of India's inflation problems in the 1960s.[159] Unemployment stayed constant at 9% over a nine-year period (1971–80) before declining to 8.3% in 1983.[139][160] Domestic policy[edit] Nationalisation[edit] Despite the provisions, control and regulations of Reserve Bank of India, most banks in India
India
had continued to be owned and operated by private persons.[161] Businessmen who owned the banks were often accused of channeling the deposits into their own companies, and ignoring the priority sector. Furthermore, there was a great resentment against class banking in India, which had left the poor (the majority population) unbanked.[162] After becoming Prime Minister, Gandhi expressed the intention of nationalising the banks in a paper titled, "Stray thoughts on Bank Nationalisation" in order to alleviate poverty.[163] The paper received the overwhelming support of the public.[163] In 1969, Gandhi moved to nationalise fourteen major commercial banks. After the nationalisation of banks, the branches of the public sector banks in India
India
rose to approximate 800 percent in deposits, and advances took a huge jump by 11,000 percent.[164] Nationalisation also resulted in a significant growth in the geographical coverage of banks; the number of bank branches rose from 8,200 to over 62,000, most of which were opened in the unbanked, rural areas. The nationalization drive not only helped to increase household savings, but it also provided considerable investments in the informal sector, in small and medium-sized enterprises, and in agriculture, and contributed significantly to regional development and to the expansion of India's industrial and agricultural base.[165] Jayaprakash Narayan, who became famous for leading the opposition to Gandhi in the 1970s, was solid in his praise for her bank nationalisations.[162] Having been re-elected in 1971 on a nationalisation platform, Gandhi proceeded to nationalise the coal, steel, copper, refining, cotton textiles, and insurance industries.[35] Most of these nationalisations were made to protect employment and the interest of the organised labour.[35] The remaining private sector industries were placed under strict regulatory control.[35] During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, foreign-owned private oil companies had refused to supply fuel to the Indian Navy and Indian Air Force. In response, Gandhi nationalised oil companies in 1973.[166] After nationalisation the oil majors such as the Indian Oil Corporation (IOC), the Hindustan Petroleum
Hindustan Petroleum
Corporation (HPCL) and the Bharat Petroleum
Bharat Petroleum
Corporation (BPCL) had to keep a minimum stock level of oil, to be supplied to the military when needed.[167] Administration[edit]

Administrative divisions of India
India
1961–1975. Gandhi established six states, Haryana
Haryana
(1966), Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
(1971), Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura
Tripura
(all 1972), and finally Sikkim
Sikkim
(1975), bringing up the total of states to 22. She also established Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
and Mizoram
Mizoram
(1972) as Union Territories

In 1966, Gandhi accepted the demands of the Akalis to reorganize Punjab on linguistic lines. The Hindi-speaking southern half of Punjab became a separate state, Haryana, while the Pahari speaking hilly areas in the north east were joined to Himachal Pradesh.[168] In doing so, she had hoped to ward off the growing political conflict between Hindu
Hindu
and Sikh
Sikh
groups in the region.[168] However, a contentious issue that was considered unresolved by the Akalis was the status of Chandigarh, a prosperous city on the Punjab- Haryana
Haryana
border, which Gandhi declared a union territory to be shared as a capital by both the states.[169] Victory over Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1971 consolidated Indian power in Kashmir. Gandhi indicated that she would make no major concessions on Kashmir. The most prominent of the Kashmiri separatists, Sheikh Abdullah, had to recognize India's control over Kashmir
Kashmir
in light of the new order in South Asia. The situation was normalized in the years following the war after Abdullah agreed to an accord with Gandhi, by giving up the demand for a plebiscite in return for a special autonomous status for Kashmir. In 1975, Gandhi declared the state of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
as a constituent unit of India. The Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict remained largely peaceful if frozen under Gandhi's premiership.[170] In 1972, Gandhi granted statehood to Meghalaya, Manipur
Manipur
and Tripura, while the North-East Frontier Agency
North-East Frontier Agency
was declared a union territory and renamed Arunachal Pradesh. The transition to statehood for these territories was successfully overseen by her administration.[171] This was followed by the annexation of Sikkim
Sikkim
in 1975.[103] Social reform[edit] The principle of equal pay for equal work for both men and women was enshrined in the Indian Constitution under the Gandhi administration.[172] Gandhi questioned the continued existence of a privy purse for former rulers of princely states. She argued the case for abolition based on equal rights for all citizens and the need to reduce the government's revenue deficit. The nobility responded by rallying around the Jana Sangh and other right-wing parties that stood in opposition to Gandhi's attempts to abolish royal privileges.[140] The motion to abolish privy purses, and the official recognition of the titles, was originally brought before the Parliament in 1970. It was passed in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
but felt short of the two-thirds majority in the Rajya Sabha by a single vote.[173] Gandhi responded by having a Presidential proclamation issued; de-recognizing the princes; with this withdrawal of recognition, their claims to privy purses were also legally lost.[173] However, the proclamation was struck down by the Supreme Court of India.[173] In 1971, Gandhi again motioned to abolish the privy purse. This time, it was successfully passed as the 26th Amendment to the Constitution of India.[140] Many royals tried to protest the abolition of the privy purse, primarily through campaigns to contest seats in elections. They, however, received a final setback when many of them were defeated by huge margins. Gandhi claimed that only "clear vision, iron will and the strictest discipline" can remove poverty.[140] She justified the imposition of the state of emergency in 1975 in the name of the socialist mission of the Congress.[140] Armed with the power to rule by decree and without constitutional constraints, Gandhi embarked on a massive redistribution program.[140] The provisions included rapid enforcement of land ceilings, housing for landless labourers, the abolition of bonded labour and a moratorium on the debts of the poor.[140] North India
India
was at the centre of the reforms; millions of acres of land were acquired and redistributed.[140] The government was also successful in procuring houses for landless labourers; according to Frankel, three-fourths of the targeted four million houses was achieved in 1975 alone.[140] Nevertheless, others have disputed the success of the program and criticized Gandhi for not doing enough to reform land ownership. The political economist, Jyotindra Das Gupta, cryptically questioned "...whether or not the real supporters of land-holders were in jail or in power?"[140] Critics also accused Gandhi of choosing to "talk left and act right", referring to her concurrent pro-business decisions and endeavours.[140] Rosser wrote that "some have even seen the declaration of emergency rule in 1975 as a move to suppress dissent against Gandhi's policy shift to the right."[35] Regardless of the controversy over the nature of the reforms, the long-term effects of the social changes gave rise to prominence of middle-ranking farmers from intermediate and lower castes in North India.[140] The rise of these newly empowered social classes challenged the political establishment of the Hindi
Hindi
Belt in the years to come.[140] Language policy[edit] Under the Constitution of India
India
of 1950, Hindi
Hindi
was to have become the official national language by 1965. This was not acceptable to many non- Hindi
Hindi
speaking states, who wanted the continued use of English in government. In 1967, Gandhi made a constitutional amendment that guaranteed the de facto use of both Hindi
Hindi
and English as official languages. This established the official government policy of bilingualism in India
India
and satisfied the non- Hindi
Hindi
speaking Indian states.[144] Gandhi thus put herself forward as a leader with a pan-Indian vision.[174] Nevertheless, critics alleged that her stance was actually meant to weaken the position of rival Congress leaders from the northern states such as Uttar Pradesh, where there had been strong, sometimes violent, pro- Hindi
Hindi
agitations.[144] Gandhi came out of the language conflicts with the strong support of the south Indian populace.[174] National security[edit] In the late 1960s and 1970s, Gandhi had the Indian army crush militant Communist uprisings in the Indian state of West Bengal.[175] The communist insurgency in India
India
was completely suppressed during the state of emergency.[176][177][178] Gandhi considered the north-eastern regions important, because of its strategic situation.[179] In 1966, the Mizo uprising took place against the government of India
India
and overran almost the whole of the Mizoram
Mizoram
region. Gandhi ordered the Indian Army
Indian Army
to launch massive retaliatory strikes in response. The rebellion was suppressed with the Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
even carrying out airstrikes in Aizawl; this remains the only instance of India
India
carrying out an airstrike in its own civilian territory.[171][180] The defeat of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1971 and the secession of East Pakistan
East Pakistan
as pro- India
India
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
led to the collapse of the Mizo separatist movement. In 1972, after the less extremist Mizo leaders came to the negotiating table, Gandhi upgraded Mizoram
Mizoram
to the status of a union territory. A small-scale insurgency by some militants continued into the late 1970s but was successfully dealt with by the government.[171] The Mizo conflict was definitively resolved during the administration of Gandhi's son Rajiv. Today, Mizoram
Mizoram
is considered as one of the most peaceful states in the north-east.[181] Responding to the insurgency in Nagaland, Gandhi "unleashed a powerful military offensive" in the 1970s.[182] Finally, a massive crackdown on the insurgents took place during the state of emergency ordered by Gandhi. The insurgents soon agreed to surrender and signed the Shillong Accord in 1975.[183] While the agreement was considered a victory for the Indian government and ended large-scale conflicts,[184] there has since been spurts of violence by rebel holdouts and ethnic conflict amongst the tribes.[184] Nuclear Program of India[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main articles: India
India
and weapons of mass destruction and Smiling Buddha Gandhi contributed and further carried out the vision of Jawaharlal Nehru, former Premier of India
India
to develop the program. Gandhi authorised the development of nuclear weapons in 1967, in response to the Test No. 6 by People's Republic of China. Gandhi saw this test as Chinese nuclear intimidation, therefore, Gandhi promoted the views of Nehru to establish India's stability and security interests as independent from those of the nuclear superpowers. The program became fully mature in 1974, when Dr. Raja Ramanna reported to Gandhi that India
India
had the ability to test its first nuclear weapon. Gandhi gave verbal authorisation of this test, and preparations were made in a long-constructed army base, the Indian Army Pokhran
Pokhran
Test Range. In 1974, India
India
successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code named as "Smiling Buddha", near the desert village of Pokhran
Pokhran
in Rajasthan. As the world was quiet by this test, a vehement protest came forward from Pakistan. Great ire was raised in Pakistan
Pakistan
and its Prime Minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, described this test as "Indian hegemony" to intimidate Pakistan. In response to this Bhutto launched a massive campaign all over the Pakistan
Pakistan
to make Pakistan
Pakistan
a nuclear power. In these campaigns Bhutto asked the nation to get united and great slogans were raised such as hum ghaas aur pattay kha lay gay magar nuclear power ban k rhe gay (We will eat grass or leaves even go hungry but will get nuclear power). Gandhi directed a letter to Bhutto and, later to the world, describing the test for peaceful purposes and India's commitment to develop its programme for industrial and scientific use. Family, personal life and outlook[edit]

Indira Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
and Sanjay Gandhi

A member of the Nehru-Gandhi family, she married Feroze Gandhi
Feroze Gandhi
at the age of 25, in 1942. Their marriage lasted 18 years, until Feroze died of a heart attack in 1960. They had two sons – Rajiv (b. 1944) and Sanjay (b. 1946). Her younger son Sanjay had initially been her chosen heir; but after his death in a flying accident in June 1980, Gandhi persuaded her reluctant elder son Rajiv to quit his job as a pilot and enter politics in February 1981. Rajiv took office as prime minister following his mother's assassination in 1984; he served until December 1989. Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
himself was assassinated by a suicide bomber working on behalf of LTTE on 21 May 1991. Gandhi's yoga guru, Dhirendra Brahmachari, helped her in making certain decisions and also executed certain top level political tasks on her behalf, especially from 1975 to 1977 when Gandhi "declared a state of emergency and suspended civil liberties."[185][186]

Portrait of Feroze and Indira Gandhi

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
with grandson Rahul Gandhi
Rahul Gandhi
on her 53rd birthday, in New Delhi
New Delhi
on 19 November 1970.

In January 2017, a woman called Priya Singh Paul claimed to be Indira's grand-daughter as Sanjay Gandhi's biological daughter. She claims that she was given away for adoption because Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
hid her as a child and her mother as a wife of Sanjay Gandhi
Sanjay Gandhi
for political reasons.[187] Views on women[edit] In 1952 in a letter to her American friend Dorothy Norman, Gandhi wrote: "I am in no sense a feminist, but I believe in women being able to do everything...Given the opportunity to develop, capable Indian women have come to the top at once." While this statement appears paradoxical, it reflects Gandhi's complex feelings toward her gender and feminism.[188] Her egalitarian upbringing with her cousins helped contribute to her sense of natural equality. "Flying kites, climbing trees, playing marbles with her boy cousins, Indira said she hardly knew the difference between a boy and a girl until the age of twelve.",[189][190] Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
did not often discuss her gender, but she did involve herself in women's issues before becoming the prime minister. Before her election as the Prime Minister, she became active in the organizational wing of the Congress party, working in part in the Women's Department.[191] In 1956, Gandhi had an active role in setting up the Congress Party's Women's Section.[192] Unsurprisingly, a lot of her involvement stemmed from her father. As an only child, Gandhi naturally stepped into the political light. And, as a woman, Gandhi naturally helped head the Women's section of the Congress Party. She often tried to organize women to involve themselves in politics[citation needed]. Although rhetorically Gandhi may have attempted to separate her political success from her gender, Gandhi did involve herself in women's organizations. The political parties in India
India
paid substantial attention to Gandhi's gender before she became prime minister, hoping to use her for political gain[citation needed]. Even though men surrounded Gandhi during her upbringing, she still had a female role model as a child. Several books on Gandhi mention her interest in Joan of Arc. In her own accounts through her letters she wrote to her friend Dorothy Norman, in 1952 she wrote: "At about eight or nine I was taken to France; Jeanne d'Arc became a great heroine of mine. She was one of the first people I read about with enthusiasm."[193] Another historian recounts Indira's comparison of herself to Joan of Arc: "Indira developed a fascination for Joan of Arc, telling her aunt, 'Someday I am going to lead my people to freedom just as Joan of Arc did!'"[194] Gandhi's linking of herself to Joan of Arc presents a nice model for historians to assess Gandhi. As one writer said: "The Indian people were her children; members of her family were the only people capable of leading them."[195] Gandhi had been swept up in the call for Indian independence since she was born in 1917.[196] Thus by 1947 she was already well immersed in politics, and by 1966, when she first assumed the position of prime minister, she had held several cabinet positions in her father's office[citation needed]. Gandhi's advocacy for women's rights began with her help in establishing the Congress Party's Women's Section[citation needed]. In 1956, she wrote in a letter: "It is because of this that I am taking a much more active part in politics. I have to do a great deal of touring in order to set up the Congress Party Women's Section, and am on numerous important committees."[192] Gandhi spent a great deal of time throughout the 1950s helping organize women. She wrote to Norman in 1959, irritable that women had organized around the communist cause but had not mobilized for the Indian cause: "The women, whom I have been trying to organize for years, had always refused to come into politics. Now they are out in the field."[197] Once appointed president in 1959, she "travelled relentlessly, visiting remote parts of the country that had never before received a VIP...she talked to women, asked about child health and welfare, inquired after the crafts of the region"[198] Gandhi's actions throughout her ascent to power clearly reflect a desire to mobilize women[citation needed]. Gandhi did not see the purpose of feminism. Gandhi saw her own success as a woman, and also noted that "Given the opportunity to develop, capable Indian women have come to the top at once."[188] Gandhi felt guilty about her inability to fully devote her time to her children. She noted that her main problem in office was how to balance her political duties with tending to her children, and "stressed that motherhood was the most important part of her life."[199] At another point, she went into more detail: "To a woman, motherhood is the highest fulfilment…To bring a new being into this world, to see its perfection and to dream of its future greatness is the most moving of all experiences and fills one with wonder and exaltation."[200] Her domestic initiatives did not necessarily reflect favourably on Indian women. Gandhi did not make a special effort to appoint women to cabinet positions. She did not appoint any women to full cabinet rank during her terms in office.[93] Yet despite this, many women saw Gandhi as a symbol for feminism and an image of women's power.[93] Awards[edit] After leading India
India
to victory against Pakistan
Pakistan
in the Bangladesh liberation war in 1971, Prime Minister (Mrs. Indira Gandhi) recommended & President V. V. Giri
V. V. Giri
awarded Mrs. Gandhi India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna.[201][202][203] In 2011, the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Freedom Honour ( Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Swadhinata Sammanona), Bangladesh's highest civilian award, was posthumously conferred on Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
for her "outstanding contributions" to Bangladesh's Liberation War.[204] Legacy[edit]

Indira Gandhi's wax statue at Madame Tussauds, London

Indira Gandhi's main legacy was standing firm in face of American pressure to defeat Pakistan
Pakistan
and turn East Pakistan
East Pakistan
into independent Bangladesh.[205] She was also responsible for India
India
joining the club of countries with nuclear weapons.[clarification needed] Despite India being officially part of the Non-Aligned Movement, she gave Indian foreign policy a tilt towards the Soviet bloc.[133] Being at the forefront of Indian politics for decades, Gandhi left a powerful but controversial legacy on Indian politics. The main legacy of her rule was destroying internal party democracy in the Congress party. Her detractors accuse her of weakening State chief ministers and thereby weakening the federal structure, weakening independence of judiciary, and weakening her cabinet by vesting power in her secretariat and her sons.[POV? – discuss][206] Gandhi is also associated with fostering a culture of nepotism in Indian politics and in India's institutions.[207] She is also almost singularly associated with the period of Emergency rule and the dark period in Indian Democracy that it entailed.[208] Her actions in storming the Golden Temple alienated Sikhs for a very long time.[209] She remains the only woman ever to occupy the office of the Prime Minister of India.[210] Posthumous honours[edit] See also: List of things named after Indira Gandhi

The two extreme points of India: the northernmost Indira Col (35.674520°N 76.845245°E) and the southernmost Indira Point (6.74678°N 93.84260°E) are also named after Indira Gandhi. The Indira Awaas Yojana, a central government low-cost housing programme for the rural poor, was named after her. The international airport at New Delhi
New Delhi
is named Indira Gandhi International Airport in her honour. The Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
National Open University, the largest university in the world, is also named after her. Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
established the annual Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
Award for National Integration in 1985, given in her memory on her death anniversary. The Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
Memorial Trust also constituted the annual Indira Gandhi Prize.

See also[edit]

Biography portal Politics portal India
India
portal

Massa Ranghar List of assassinated Indian politicians List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
though categorically denied ever having said that when he made an appearance in Rajat Sharma's show Aap ki Adalat.[43] ^ In her last speech she said,"I am alive today, I may not be there tomorrow...I shall continue to serve until my last breath and when I die, I can say, that every drop of my blood will invigorate India
India
and strengthen it".[78] Even if I died in the service of the nation, I would be proud of it. Every drop of my blood... will contribute to the growth of this nation and to make it strong and dynamic.[79] After her death, the Parade Ground was converted to the Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
Park which was inaugurated by her son, Rajiv Gandhi.

References[edit]

^ "19th November 2017: 100 years of Indira Gandhi. She was the mother of every Indian supremo". 18 November 2017.  ^ "Indira Gandhi". Biography.com. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ " BBC
BBC
Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
'greatest woman'". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ Frank 2010, p. 13. ^ Gupte 2012, p. 3. ^ Frank 2010, p. 31. ^ Frank 2010, p. 16. ^ Frank 2010, p. 25. ^ Frank 2010, p. 32. ^ Frank 2010, p. 55. ^ Gupte, Pranay (2011). Mother India : a political biography of Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
/ Pranay Gupte (Rev. ed.). New York: Penguin Books. pp. 151–152. ISBN 9780143068266. Retrieved 16 August 2016.  ^ Frank 2010, pp. 29,75,83. ^ Indira Gandhi: Daughter of India
India
2002, pp. 42,43,45. ^ Frank 2010, p. 90. ^ Gupte 2012, p. 170. ^ Gupte 2012, p. 181. ^ a b Frank 2010, p. 116. ^ Somervill 2007, p. 36. ^ Gupte 2012, p. 184. ^ http://oxfordmajlis.wix.com/majlis ^ "Exhibit celebrates 120 years of South Asians at Oxford". University of Oxford. 22 April 2010. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2012.  ^ "Sonia assures help for father-in-law's grave". archive.indianexpress.com. Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ Steinberg, Blema S. (2008). Women in power : the personalities and leadership styles of Indira Gandhi, Golda Meir, and Margaret Thatcher. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7735-3356-1. Retrieved 2 December 2015.  ^ Upadhyaya, Prakash Chandra (1989). "Review of Marxist State Governments in India, Politics, Economics and Society by T. J. Nossiter". Social Scientist. 17 (1/2 January – February 1989): 84–91. doi:10.2307/3520112.  ^ Gandhi, Indira. (1982) My Truth ^ Kochanek, Stanley A. (May 1966). "Post Nehru India: The Emergence of the New Leadership". Asian Survey. 6 (5): 298. doi:10.2307/2642538. JSTOR 2642538.  ^ Genovese, Michael A., ed. Women As National Leaders. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1993. Print. 110. ^ Ghosh, P.S., 1999. Whither Indian Polity?. Economic and Political Weekly, pp.3340-3342. ^ Derichs, Claudia (editor); Thompson, Mark R. (2013). Dynasties and female political leaders in Asia : gender, power and pedigree. [S.l.: s.n.] pp. 32, 50. ISBN 978-3-643-90320-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Shankar, Kalyani (2013). Pandora's daughters. London: Bloomsbury Pub. India. ISBN 9789382951049.  ^ a b c d e Kapila, Raj; Kapila, Uma (2004). Understanding India's economic Reforms. Academic Foundation. p. 126. ISBN 978-8171881055.  ^ "March to socialism under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
offers an interesting parallel". The Economic Times. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ "1969: S. Nijalingappa
S. Nijalingappa
expelled Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
from the party". Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ Singh, Mahendra Prasad (1981). Split in a Predominant Party: The Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
in 1969. New Delhi: Sakti Malik, Abhinav Prakashan. ISBN 8170171407.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rosser, J. Barkley; Rosser, Marina V. (2004). Comparative Economics in Transforming the World Economy. MIT Press. pp. 468–470. ISBN 978-0262182348.  ^ "General Elections, India, 1971: Statistical report" (PDF). eci.nic.in. Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.  ^ Masani,, Zareer (2012). "The Indira Wave" (3 March 2012). The Hindu. Retrieved 8 January 2015.  ^ Rath, Nilakantha (1985). "'Garibi Hatao': Can IRDP Do It?". Economic and Political Weekly. 20 (6): 238–246. JSTOR 4374060.  ^ Hellmann-Rajanayagam, D (2013). Dynasties and Female Political Leaders in Asia: Gender, Power and Pedigree. Vienna, Zurich: LIT Verlag GMBH. p. 27. ISBN 978-3-643-90320-4.  ^ Puri, Balraj (1993). "Indian Muslims since Partition". Economic and Political Weekly. 28 (40): 2144. JSTOR 4400229.  ^ Sanghavi, Nagindas. "From Navnirman to the anti-Mandal riots: the political trajectory of Gujarat
Gujarat
(1974–1985)." South Asian History and Culture 1.4 (2010): 480–493. ^ Copeman,, Jacob (Editor); Ikegame, Aya (Editor); Jaffrelot, , Christophe (2012). The Guru in South Asia: New Interdisciplinary Perspectives Chapter 4 The political guru. London, New York: Routledge. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-415-51019-6. Retrieved 30 November 2015. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Jain, Atishay (26 September 2015). "Did Atal bihari Vajpayee call Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
'Durga' ?". You Tube. You Tube. Retrieved 23 March 2016.  ^ a b Rudolph, Lloyd; Rudolph, Susanne (July 1977). "India's Election: Backing into the future". Foreign Affairs. 55 (4): 836. doi:10.2307/20039739. Retrieved 8 January 2015.  ^ a b " BBC
BBC
ON THIS DAY 12 1975: Gandhi found guilty of corruption". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ Priyadarshi, D., 1975. Case Study: Smt. Indira Nehru Gandhi vs. Shri Raj Narain and Anr. on 7 November 1975. Indira Nehru Gandhi vs. Shri Raj Narain and Anr. on, 7. ^ Chandra, Bipan (2003). In the name of democracy : JP movement and the emergency, Chapter 4, Emergency imposed. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0143029670.  ^ Kochanek, Stanely, Mrs. Gandhi's Pyramid: The New Congress, (Westview Press, Boulder, CO 1976) p. 98 ^ Brass, Paul R., The Politics of India
India
Since Independence, (Cambridge University Press, England 1995) p. 40 ^ Mark Tully
Mark Tully
Amritsar: Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle, p. 55, ISBN 81-291-0917-4 ^ Subodh Ghildiyal (29 December 2010). "Cong blames Sanjay Gandhi
Sanjay Gandhi
for Emergency 'excesses'". Times Of India. Retrieved 19 January 2013.  ^ "Mystery Called Sanjay Gandhi". Scribd. 21 November 2007. Retrieved 19 January 2013.  ^ Express News Service (11 June 2013). "Emergency 'propagandist' who banned Kishore Kumar songs". Indian Express. Retrieved 17 January 2014.  ^ Dasgupta, Swapan (July 1985). "Sanjay Gandhi". Third World Quarterly. 7 (3): 731–778. doi:10.1080/01436598508419863.  ^ Derfler, Leslie (2011). The fall and rise of political leaders Olof Palme, Olusegun Obasanjo, and Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
(1st ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 186–187. ISBN 9780230117242. Retrieved 14 September 2017.  ^ Rudolph, Lloyd I.; Hoeber, Susanne (1989). In pursuit of Lakshmi: The political economy of the Indian state ([Nachdr.] ed.). Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr. pp. 159–178. ISBN 978-0226731391.  ^ Maramkal, M-B (2013). "Chikmagalur remembers Indira Gandhi" (20 November). Times of India.  ^ "Mrs. Gandhi is Jeered". The Spokesman-Review. 21 November 1978. Retrieved 9 April 2017.  ^ Malhotra, Inder. Indira Gandhi. New York: Coronet Books, 1991. ^ [1] ^ de Mesquita, Bruce Bueno. The Predictioneer's Game: Using the Logic of Brazen Self-Interest to See and shapte the future. New York: Random House. p. xxiii. ISBN 978-0-8129-7977-0.  ^ Sanghvi, Vijay (2006). The Congress, Indira to Sonia Gandhi
Sonia Gandhi
By. Delhi: Kalpaz. pp. 114–122. ISBN 81-7835-340-7.  ^ S. K. Agnihotri; B. Datta Ray (2002). Perspective Of Security And Development In North East India. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 106–. ISBN 978-81-8069-165-2. Retrieved 28 June 2013.  ^ " Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
becomes Indian prime minister - Jan 19, 1966 - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 2017-12-05.  ^ Auerbach, Stuart (23 June 1980). " Sanjay Gandhi
Sanjay Gandhi
Killed in Plane Crash". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ Gus Martin (15 June 2011). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism, Second Edition. SAGE. pp. 543–545. ISBN 978-1-4129-8016-6. Retrieved 11 October 2012.  ^ C. Christine Fair; Sumit Ganguly (29 September 2008). Treading on Hallowed Ground: Counterinsurgency Operations in Sacred Spaces. Oxford University Press. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0-19-534204-8. Retrieved 11 October 2012.  ^ William Gould (30 November 2011). Religion and Conflict in Modern South Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-521-87949-1. Retrieved 11 October 2012.  ^ Harnik Deol (2 October 2012). Religion and Nationalism in India: The Case of the Punjab. Psychology Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-415-20108-7. Retrieved 11 October 2012.  ^ Martin E. Marty; R. Scott Appleby (1 May 2004). Fundamentalisms Comprehended. University of Chicago Press. p. 454. ISBN 978-0-226-50888-7. Retrieved 11 October 2012.  ^ Singh, Tavleen. "Prophet of Hate:J S Bhindranwale". India
India
Today. Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2009.  ^ Mark Tully
Mark Tully
and Satish Jacob, Amritsar – Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (Calcutta: Rupa & Co. by arrangement with Pan Books, London, 1985) ^ Kuldip Nayar and Khushwant Singh, Tragedy of Punjab, Vision Books, New Delhi, 1984, page 79. ^ Longowal said "Whenever the situation becomes ripe for settlement, some violent incident takes place. I know Bhindranwale
Bhindranwale
is behind the murder of the DIG", "(The person behind the murder is) The one who is afraid of losing his seat of power"Indian Express. 27 April 1983. interview with Longowal.  ^ a b Guidry, John; Kennedy,, Michael D.; Zald, Mayer N. (Editors) (2000). Globalizations and social movements : culture, power, and the transnational public sphere (Reprint. ed.). Ann Arbor, Michigan: Univ. of Michigan Press. p. 319. ISBN 9780472067213. Retrieved 14 September 2017. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ " Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
had since long been planning for an attack on Darbar Sahib..." Harjinder Singh Dilgeer (2012). Sikh
Sikh
History in 10 Volumes. vol 7, p. 168; 196-197. ^ Mandair, Arvind-pal Singh; Shackle, Christopher; Singh, Gurharpal (Editors) (2001). Sikh
Sikh
religion, culture and ethnicity. Routledge,. pp. 169–171. ISBN 9781136846342. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "Last speech of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
prior to her assassination". India
India
Study Channel. 21 June 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2013.  ^ "Remembering Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
on her 29th death anniversary Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". dna. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2016.  ^ Crossette, Barbara; Times, Special
Special
to the New York (1989). "India Hangs Two Sikhs Convicted In Assassination of Indira Gandhi". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-05.  ^ "32 years of Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
assassination, anti- Sikh
Sikh
riots: All you need to know". Retrieved 2017-12-05.  ^ Smith, William E. (12 November 1984). "Indira Gandhi's assassination sparks a fearful round of sectarian violence". Time. Retrieved 19 January 2013.  ^ Indira Gandhi: Death in the Garden – TIME ^ Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues With Sikh
Sikh
Militants – Cynthia Keppley Mahmood – Google Books ^ Dr. T D Dogra's Expert Evidence in trial of assassination of Late Mrs Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India
Prime Minister of India
(Witness No. PW 5) Raina Anupuma, Lalwani Sanjeev, Dogra TD, Dept. of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, AIIMS, N. Delhi. Indian Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Year : 2009, Volume : 7, Issue : 4 ^ The riots that could not be televised. Indian Express (3 November 2009). Retrieved on 2014-05-21. ^ We the eyeballs : Cover Story – India
India
Today. Indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved on 21 May 2014. ^ Claiborne, William; report, Washington Post Foreign Service; Lena Sun of the Washington Post Foreign Service contributed to this (1984-11-04). " Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
Cremated in Hindu
Hindu
Ritual". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-12-05.  ^ "Shakti Sthal - Delhi
Delhi
Information". www.delhiinformation.in. Retrieved 2017-12-05.  ^ "Indira Gandhi's death remembered". BBC
BBC
News. 1 November 2009.  ^ "HS Phoolka releases video of Rajiv Gandhi's speech justifying 1984 riots". The Indian Express. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ "Watch: The shocking video where Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
justified 1984 anti- Sikh
Sikh
riots Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". dna. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ a b c Genovese, Michael A., ed. Women As National Leaders. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1993. Print. ^ Reynolds, David (2001). One world divisible : a global history since 1945. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 244–247. ISBN 978-0393321081.  ^ Kulke, Hermann (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 359. ISBN 978-0415329194.  ^ Reynolds, David (2001). One world divisible : a global history since 1945. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 246. ISBN 978-0393321081.  ^ Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira, BBC
BBC
News, 29 June 2005. BBC
BBC
News (29 June 2005). Retrieved on 18 June 2011. ^ " BBC
BBC
NEWS South Asia
South Asia
Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ "'This woman suckered us', said Nixon of Indira Gandhi". www.hindustantimes.com. 2 March 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ Racioppi, Linda (1994). Soviet Policy towards South Asia
South Asia
since 1970. Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0521414579.  ^ Kapur, Harish (2009). Foreign Policies Of India's Prime Ministers. Lancer Publishers. p. 138. ISBN 978-0979617485.  ^ James F. Fisher (1978). Himalayan Anthropology: The Indo-Tibetan Interface. Walter de Gruyter. p. 225.  ^ a b Malik 1988, p. 120-121. ^ Bajpai, G. S. (1999). China's Shadow Over Sikkim: The Politics of Intimidation. Lancer Publishers. p. 210. ISBN 978-1897829523.  ^ Nair, P. Sukumaran (2008). Indo- Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Relations. APH Publishing. p. 47. ISBN 978-8131304082.  ^ "Mujib's downfall". Countrystudies.us. 15 August 1975. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ a b "Bangladesh's relations with India". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ Jayapalan, N (2000). India
India
And Her Neighbours. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 134. ISBN 978-8171569120.  ^ Former PM Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
honoured with Bangladesh's highest award, The Economic Times, 25 July 2011. The Economic Times (25 July 2011). Retrieved on 25 December 2012. ^ Suryanarayan, Venkateswaran (2005). Conflict Over Fisheries In The Palk Bay Region. Lancer Publishers. p. 65. ISBN 978-8170622420.  ^ a b Gupte 2012, p. 5. ^ "LTTE: the Indian connection". Sunday Times. 1997. Retrieved 29 December 2012.  ^ a b Bandarage, Asoka (2009). The Separatist Conflict in Sri Lanka: Terrorism, Ethnicity, Political Economy. Taylor & Francis. p. 111. ISBN 978-0415776783.  ^ Dissanayaka, T.D.S.A. (2005). War Or Peace in Sri Lanka. Popular Prakashan. p. 84. ISBN 978-8179911990.  ^ a b Grover, Verinder (1999). Events and Documents of Indo-Pak Relations: Includes Chronology of All Important Events & Documents from 1947 to 1998. Deep and Deep Publications. pp. 100–113. ISBN 978-8176290593.  ^ a b Kapur, S. Paul. Dangerous Deterrent: Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and Conflict in South Asia. Stanford University Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0804755504.  ^ Gupte, Pranay (2011). Mother India : a political biography of Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
(Rev. ed.). New York: Penguin Books. p. 482. ISBN 9780143068266.  ^ Kapur, Ashok (2006). India: From Regional to World Power. Routledge. p. 215. ISBN 978-0415328043.  ^ a b c d e f g Ghosh, Anjali (2009). India's Foreign Policy. Pearson. pp. 306–307. ISBN 978-8131710258.  ^ a b c Kaur, Ranjit (1993). Islamic Co-Operation and Unity. Deep and Deep Publications. pp. 168–170. ISBN 978-8171005642.  ^ a b c d Hunter, Shireen (2010). Iran's Foreign Policy in the Post-Soviet Era: Resisting the New International Order. ABC-CLIO. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-0804755504.  ^ Pande, Aparna (2011). Explaining Pakistan's Foreign Policy. Taylor & Francis, 2011. p. 146. ISBN 978-1136818943.  ^ a b Nanda, Prakash (2003). Rediscovering Asia: Evolution of India's Look-East Policy. Lancer Publishers. pp. 220–226. ISBN 978-8170622970.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ghosh, Anjali (2009). India's Foreign Policy. Pearson. pp. 422–424. ISBN 978-8131710258.  ^ Oonk, Gijsbert (2007). Global Indian Diasporas: Exploring Trajectories of Migration and Theory. Amsterdam University Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-9053560358.  ^ a b Mawdsley, Emma; Gerard McCann (2011). India
India
in Africa: Changing Geographies of Power. Fahamu & Pambazuka. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-1906387655.  ^ Low, D.A. (1984). The contraction of England : an inaugural lecture delivered before the University of Cambridge on 22 October 1984. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Cambridge University Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780521314244.  ^ Danilewitz, J., 1998. Athletics & apartheid. Harvard International Review, 20(4), p.36. ^ Gupte, Pranay (2011). Mother India : a political biography of Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
(Rev. ed.). New York: Penguin Books. pp. 499–500. ISBN 9780143068266.  ^ Brandt, Willy; Bell, Anthea (translator) (1987). Arms and hunger (1st MIT Press English language pbk. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 9780262521277.  ^ Kreisky, Bruno; Lewis, Jill; Rathkolb, Oliver (2000). The struggle for a democratic Austria : Bruno Kreisky
Bruno Kreisky
on peace and social justice. New York: Berghahn Books. pp. 413–414. ISBN 1571811559.  ^ Gupte, Pranay (1992). Mother India : a political biography of Indira Gandhi. New York: Scribner's. pp. 516–517. ISBN 978-0-684-19296-3.  ^ a b Light, Margot (Editor); Duncan, Peter J.S. (Author) (1993). Troubled friendships : Moscow's Third World ventures, Chapter II, Soviet-Indian Model. London [u.a.]: British Academic Press. ISBN 9781850436492. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Van Dijk, Ruud; Glenn Gray, William; Savranskaya, Svetlana; Suri, Jeremi; Zhai, Qiang (editors) (2008). Encyclopedia of the Cold War. New York: Routledge. pp. 340–341. ISBN 9780203880210. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Wolfgang, Hoppenstedt ...(editor) (2005). Global management. Wien: Lit. pp. 65–66. ISBN 3-8258-8644-1. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b c d e L. N. Dash (2000). World bank and economic development of India. APH Publishing. p. 375. ISBN 81-7648-121-1.  ^ "Indira – terror personified or goddess?". Timeshighereducation.co.uk. 7 December 2001. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ Desai, Meghnad (2011). The Rediscovery Of India. Penguin Books India. p. 346. ISBN 978-0143417354.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Malik 1988, p. 60-72. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Jaffrelot, Christoph (2003). India's Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Lower Castes in North India. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 131–142. ISBN 978-1850653981.  ^ The Indian Libertarian, Volume 15–17. 1969. University of Virginia. ^ Sunanda K. Datta-Ray; Indira Gandhi: Enigma, Mother-Goddess and Terror Incernate. 3 November 1994. The Straits Times (Singapore). ^ a b "The original aam aadmi leader". Hindustantimes.com. 1 November 2009. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ a b c d e f Steinberg, Blema (2008). Women in Power: The Personalities and Leadership Styles of Indira Gandhi, Golda Meir, and Margaret Thatcher. McGill-Queen's Press. pp. 79–95. ISBN 9780-773533561.  ^ Chandra, Bipan; Aditya Mukherjee; Mridula Mukherjee (2008). India Since Independence. Penguin Books India. p. 335. ISBN 978-0143104094.  ^ a b Nayak, Pulin; Bishwanath Goldar; Pradeep Agrawal (2010). India's Economy and Growth. SAGE Publications. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-8132104520.  ^ http://faculty.georgetown.edu/khb3/Osiris/papers/Doel-Harper.pdf ^ Oliver, Robert W. (1995). George Woods and the World Bank. p. 144. ISBN 978-1555875039.  ^ a b Kirk, Jason A. (2011). India
India
and the World Bank: The Politics of Aid and Influence. Anthem Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0857284129.  ^ Kux, Dennis (1992). India
India
and the United States: Estranged Democracies, 1941–1991. DIANE Publishing. p. 311. ISBN 978-0788102790.  ^ Gupta, K. L.; Harvinder Kaur (2004). New Indian Economy and Reforms. Deep and Deep Publications. p. 7. ISBN 978-8176295598.  ^ Chadda, Maya (2000). Building Democracy in South Asia. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 150. ISBN 978-1555878597.  ^ a b Kelly, D. David A.; Ramkishen S. Raj; Gillian H. L. Goh (2010). Managing Globalisation: Lessons from China And India. World Scientific. p. 62. ISBN 9789812564948.  ^ a b c Harley, Keith; Todd Sandler (1990). The Economics of Defence Spending: An International Survey. Routledge. p. 192. ISBN 978-0415001618.  ^ a b c Lal, Deepak (2004). The Hindu
Hindu
Equilibrium: India
India
c.1500 B.C. – 2000 A.D. Oxford University Press. p. 314. ISBN 978-0199275793.  ^ Waterbury, John (1993). Exposed to Innumerable Delusions: Public Enterprise and State Power in Egypt, India, Mexico, and Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0521434973.  ^ "Sunanda K Datta Ray: Rendezvous with Ronniel". Business-standard.com. 12 June 2004. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ a b c d Centre for Monitoring the Indian Economy; Basic Statistics Relating to the Indian Economy. Economic Intelligence Service. August 1993. ^ a b Kapila, Uma (2009). Indian Economy Since Independence. Academic Foundation. p. 838. ISBN 978-8171887088.  ^ Chandhoke, Neera; Praveen Priyadarshi (2009). Contemporary India: Economy, Society, Politics. Pearson. p. 60. ISBN 978-8131719299.  ^ Gomez, Clifford (2008). Financial Markets Institutions And Financial Services. PHI. p. 283. ISBN 978-8120335370.  ^ a b Akshat Kaushal (28 May 2011). "Off the record". Business-standard.com. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ a b Muralidharan (2009). Modern Banking: Theory And Practice. PHI. p. 364. ISBN 978-8120336551.  ^ Muralidharan (2009). Modern Banking: Theory And Practice. PHI. p. 4. ISBN 978-8120336551.  ^ Singh, Kavaljit (2005). Questioning Globalization. Zed Books. p. 45. ISBN 978-1842772799.  ^ "Energy Geopolitics – An Overview". GreatGame India
India
Magazine (July–Sept 2015 issue). 4 July 2015.  ^ Luthra, Ved (2005). Poverty And Economic Reforms. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. p. 293. ISBN 978-8178901367.  ^ a b Gupte 2012, p. 302. ^ Pletcher, Kenneth (2010). The History of India. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 315. ISBN 978-1615302017.  ^ Kumar Ray, Jayanta (2007). Aspects of India's International Relations, 1700 to 2000: South Asia
South Asia
and the World. Pearson. p. 493. ISBN 978-8131708347.  ^ a b c Chandra, Bipan; Aditya Mukherjee; Mridula Mukherjee (2008). India
India
Since Independence. Penguin Books India. pp. 146–147. ISBN 978-0143104094.  ^ Sarkar, Sumit; Tanika Sarkar (2008). Women and Social Reform in Modern India: A Reader. Indiana University Press. p. 490. ISBN 978-0253352699.  ^ a b c Jayakar 1997, p. 214. ^ a b Chandra, Bipan; Aditya Mukherjee; Mridula Mukherjee (2008). India
India
Since Independence. Penguin Books India. p. 122. ISBN 978-0143104094.  ^ "Hamlet and the Naxals". Sify.com. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ Naxalites: who are they and what are their demands? Archived 2 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "History of Naxalism". Hindustantimes.com. 15 December 2005. Archived from the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ " Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
used Army to break Naxals: Retired General". Ndtv.com. 10 June 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ Gandhi, Indira (1985). Selected Thoughts of Indira Gandhi: A Book of Quotes. Mittal Publications. p. 224.  ^ "Don't bomb the Naxals!: IAF last strafed Indian territory in 1966". Rediff.com. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2012.  ^ Stepan, Alfred; Juan J. Linz; Yogendra Yadav (2011). Crafting State-Nations: India
India
and Other Multinational Democracies. JHU Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0801897238.  ^ Das, Samir (2005). Peace Processes and Peace Accords. Sage. p. 207. ISBN 978-0761933915.  ^ " Nagaland
Nagaland
Accord – The Shillong Agreement of November 11, 1975". satp.org/. Retrieved 27 December 2012. representatives of the underground organisations met the Governor of Nagaland, Shri L.P. Singh representing the Government of India, at Shillong on 10th and 11th November, 1975.  ^ a b "Dawn of Peace in Nagaland
Nagaland
– SHILLONG ACCORD". nagaland.nic.in. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012. the historic "Shillong" signed at Shillong on November 11, 1975, by the Governor of Nagaland
Nagaland
Mr. L.P Singh representing the Government of India
India
and the underground leadership represented by Mr. Assa and Mr. Kevi Yalley  ^ Dhirendra Brahmachari, Yoga Master, 7, The New York Times, 10 June 1994 ^ Mrs G's String of Beaus, Outlook India, 26 March 2001 ^ "Priya Singh Paul claimed to be Daughter of Sanjay Gandhi". 10 January 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2017.  ^ a b Norman, Dorothy. Indira Gandhi, Letters to an American Friend. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. Print. 20. ^ Jayakar, Pupul (1995). Indira Gandhi, a biography (Rev. ed.). New Delhi, India: Penguin. p. 265. ISBN 978-0140114621.  ^ Jayakar, Pupul. Indira Gandhi: An Intimate Biography. New York: Pantheon, 1992. Print. 64. ^ Genovese, Michael A., ed. Women As National Leaders. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1993. Print. 109. ^ a b Norman, Dorothy. Indira Gandhi, Letters to an American Friend. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. Print. 30. ^ Norman, Dorothy. Indira Gandhi, Letters to an American Friend. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. Print. 12. ^ Genovese, Michael A., ed. Women As National Leaders. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1993. Print. 107. ^ Genovese, Michael A., ed. Women As National Leaders. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1993. Print. 131. ^ "Indira Gandhi." About Indira Gandhi. Web. 20 November 2012. <http://www.indiragandhi.com/aboutindiragandhi.htm>. ^ Norman, Dorothy. Indira Gandhi, Letters to an American Friend. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. Print. 57. ^ Jayakar, Pupul. Indira Gandhi: An Intimate Biography. New York: Pantheon, 1992. Print. 112. ^ Genovese, Michael A., ed. Women As National Leaders. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1993. Print. 127. ^ Malhotra, Inder. Indira Gandhi: A Personal and Political Biography. Boston: Northeastern UP, 1989. Print. 55. ^ "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2007)" (PDF). Ministry of Home affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2010.  ^ Shankar, A. (1987). Indira Priyadarshini. Children's Book Trust, page 95. ^ "Awards earned, awards fixed?". The Hindu. 19 January 2003. Retrieved 24 January 2015.  ^ " Bangladesh
Bangladesh
honours Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
with highest award". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ Reynolds, David (2001). One world divisible : a global history since 1945. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 244–247. ISBN 978-0393321081.  ^ Jannuzi, F. Tomasson (1989). India
India
in transition : issues of political economy in a plural society. Boulder: Westview Press. p. 9. ISBN 9780813377230. Retrieved 14 September 2017.  ^ Adina Campu (2009). "History as a marker of otherness in Rohinton Mistry's "A fine balance"" (PDF). Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov. Series IV: Philology and Cultural Studies. 2 (51): 47.  ^ Rajgarhia, Mahak (25 June 2014). "40 years on, 7 things you need to know about Emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ "The Ghosts of Khalistan". The Hindu. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ "This day in history: Jan 19 1966 Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
becomes Indian prime minister". history.com. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 

Sources[edit]

Skard, Torild (2014). "Indira Gandhi". Women of Power: Half a Century of Female Presidents and Prime Ministers Worldwide. Bristol: Policy Press. ISBN 9781447315780.  Barbara Somervill (2007). Indira Gandhi: Political Leader in India. Capstone Publishers. ISBN 978-0756518851.  Katherine Frank (2010). Indira: the life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0007372508.  Meena Agrawal (2005). Indira Gandhi. Diamond Pocket Books. ISBN 81-288-0901-6.  Pranay Gupte (2012). Mother India: A Political Biography of Indira Gandhi. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0143068266.  Pupul Jayakar (1997). Indira Gandhi: A Biography. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0140114621.  Yogendra Kumar Malik (1988). India: The Years of Indira Gandhi. Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-9004086814. 

Further reading[edit]

Ved Mehta, A Family Affair: India
India
Under Three Prime Ministers (1982) ISBN 0-19-503118-0 Pupul Jayakar, Indira Gandhi: An Intimate Biography (1992) ISBN 978-0-679-42479-6 Ramachandra Guha, India
India
after Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy (2007) ISBN 978-0-06-019881-7 Inder Malhotra, Indira Gandhi: A personal and political biography (1991) ISBN 0-340-53548-2 Shourie, Arun (1984). Mrs Gandhi's second reign. New Delhi: Vikas. Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
– Iron Lady of India
India
by Dr Sulakshi Thelikorala Midnight's Children, Salman Rushdie

External links[edit]

Find more aboutIndira Gandhiat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata

Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Rare pictures of Indira Gandhi Rare letters by Indira Gandhi Famous and Historic speeches given by Indira Gandhi website of Indira gandhi

Party political offices

Preceded by Uchharangrai Navalshankar Dhebar President of the Indian National Congress 1959 Succeeded by Neelam Sanjiva Reddy

Preceded by Devakanta Barua President of the Indian National Congress 1978–1984 Succeeded by Rajiv Gandhi

Political offices

Preceded by Gulzarilal Nanda Acting Prime Minister of India 1966–1977 Succeeded by Morarji Desai

Chair of the Planning Commission 1966–1977

Preceded by Mahommedali Currim Chagla Minister of External Affairs 1967–1969 Succeeded by Dinesh Singh

Preceded by Morarji Desai Minister of Finance 1969–1970 Succeeded by Yashwantrao Chavan

Minister of Home Affairs 1970–1973

Preceded by Swaran Singh Minister of Defence 1975 Succeeded by Bansi Lal

Preceded by Charan Singh Prime Minister of India 1980–1984 Succeeded by Rajiv Gandhi

Chair of the Planning Commission 1980–1984

Preceded by Chidambaram Subramaniam Minister of Defence 1980–1982 Succeeded by Ramaswamy Venkataraman

Preceded by Narasimha Rao Minister of External Affairs 1984 Succeeded by Rajiv Gandhi

v t e

Prime Minister of India

Jawaharlal Nehru Gulzarilal Nanda
Gulzarilal Nanda
(acting) Lal Bahadur Shastri Gulzarilal Nanda
Gulzarilal Nanda
(acting) Indira Gandhi Morarji Desai Charan Singh Rajiv Gandhi V. P. Singh Chandra Shekhar P. V. Narasimha Rao Atal Bihari Vajpayee H. D. Deve Gowda I. K. Gujral Manmohan Singh Narendra Modi

List List by longevity Official residence PM's Office

v t e

Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
laureates

1954–1960

C. Rajagopalachari, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and C. V. Raman
C. V. Raman
(1954) Bhagwan Das, Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, and Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(1955) Govind Ballabh Pant
Govind Ballabh Pant
(1957) Dhondo Keshav Karve
Dhondo Keshav Karve
(1958)

1961–1980

Bidhan Chandra Roy
Bidhan Chandra Roy
and Purushottam Das Tandon
Purushottam Das Tandon
(1961) Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
(1962) Zakir Husain and Pandurang Vaman Kane
Pandurang Vaman Kane
(1963) Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri
(1966) Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
(1971) V. V. Giri
V. V. Giri
(1975) K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
(1976) Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
(1980)

1981–2000

Vinoba Bhave
Vinoba Bhave
(1983) Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
(1987) M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
(1988) B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
and Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
(1990) Rajiv Gandhi, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
(1991) Abul Kalam Azad, J. R. D. Tata, and Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1992) Gulzarilal Nanda, Aruna Asaf Ali, and A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
(1997) M. S. Subbulakshmi
M. S. Subbulakshmi
and Chidambaram Subramaniam
Chidambaram Subramaniam
(1998) Jayaprakash Narayan, Amartya Sen, Gopinath Bordoloi, and Ravi Shankar (1999)

2001–present

Lata Mangeshkar
Lata Mangeshkar
and Bismillah Khan
Bismillah Khan
(2001) Bhimsen Joshi
Bhimsen Joshi
(2008) C. N. R. Rao
C. N. R. Rao
and Sachin Tendulkar
Sachin Tendulkar
(2014) Madan Mohan Malaviya
Madan Mohan Malaviya
and Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
(2015)

v t e

Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress

Seva Dal Minority Congress Youth Congress National Students Union of India
India
(NSUI) Indian National Trade Union Congress
Indian National Trade Union Congress
(INTUC)

History

Statewise Election history of Congress Party Nehru–Gandhi family Congress Radio 10 Janpath The Emergency Bofors scandal INA Defence Committee Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
(Organisation) Breakaway parties Congress Karma Parishad Congress core group

Internal Organisations

Congress President Working President Congress Working Committee Central Election Committee All India
India
Congress Committee

Pradesh Congress Committees (PCC)

Andhra Pradesh CC Assam PCC Bihar
Bihar
PCC Chhattisgarh PCC Gujarat
Gujarat
PCC Karnataka PCC Kerala PCC Maharashtra PCC Mizoram
Mizoram
PCC Mumbai
Mumbai
PCC Punjab PCC Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
PCC Telangana PCC Uttarakhand PCC West Bengal
West Bengal
PCC

Presidents

Banerjee Naoroji Tyabji Yule Wedderburn Mehta Charlappa Banerjee Naoroji Webb Banerjee Sayani Nair A. M. Bose Dutt Chandavarkar Wacha Banerjee L. Ghosh H. Cotton Gokhale Naoroji R. Ghosh (1907–1908) Malaviya Wedderburn Dar Mudholkar Bahadur B. N. Bose Sinha Mazumdar Besant Malaviya Imam M. Nehru Rai C. Vijayaraghavachariar Khan Das M. Ali A. K. Azad Mahatma Gandhi Naidu Iyengar Ansari Motilal Nehru Jawaharlal Nehru S. V. Patel Malaviya (1932–1933) Nellie Sengupta Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
(1934–1935) Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(1936–1937) S. C. Bose (1938–1939) A. K. Azad (1940–1946) J. B. Kripalani Sitaramayya (1948–1949) Tandon Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(1951–1954) Dhebar (1955–1959) Indira Gandhi Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (1960–1963) K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
(1964–1967) S. Nijalingappa
S. Nijalingappa
(1968–1969) Jagjivan Ram
Jagjivan Ram
(1970–1971) S. D. Sharma (1972–1974) Baruah (1975–1977) Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
(1978–1984) Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
(1985–1991) Narasimha Rao (1992–1996) Kesri (1996–1998) Sonia Gandhi
Sonia Gandhi
(1998–2017) Rahul Gandhi
Rahul Gandhi
(2017-present)

Leaders in the Lok Sabha

Gandhi Rao Pawar S. Gandhi Mukherjee Shinde Kharge

Leaders in the Rajya Sabha

Manmohan Singh Vora Patel Sharma Azad Ramesh Antony Digvijay Chidambaram Singhvi Sibal

Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 86791938 LCCN: n79064593 ISNI: 0000 0001 2096 5502 GND: 118689436 SELIBR: 187915 SUDOC: 026880490 BNF: cb11904029j (data) NLA: 35111318 NDL: 00440484 NKC: mzk2002173850 BNE: XX1108

.