Indigenous education specifically focuses on teaching indigenous
knowledge, models, methods, and content within formal or non-formal
educational systems. The growing recognition and use of indigenous
education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of
indigenous knowledge through the processes of colonialism,
globalization, and modernity. Indigenous communities are able to
"reclaim and revalue their languages and [traditions], and in so
doing, improve the educational success of indigenous students", thus
ensuring their survival as a culture.
Principal Sha (also 6th grade teacher) of the Yangjuan Primary School
in Yanyuan County, Sichuan looks over his student's essays about the
Increasingly, there has been a global shift toward recognizing and
understanding indigenous models of education as a viable and
legitimate form of education. There are many different educational
systems throughout the world, some that are more predominant and
widely accepted. However, members of indigenous communities celebrate
diversity in learning and see this global support for teaching
traditional forms of knowledge as a success. Indigenous ways of
knowing, learning, instructing, teaching, and training have been
viewed by many postmodern scholars as important for ensuring that
students and teachers, whether indigenous or non-indigenous, are able
to benefit from education in a culturally sensitive manner that draws
upon, utilizes, promotes, and enhances awareness of indigenous
traditions, beyond the standard Western curriculum of reading,
writing, and arithmetic.
1 Cultural context of indigenous learning in the Americas
1.1 Classroom structure
1.2 Escuela Unitaria (One-room one-teacher)
2 Indigenous American ways of learning
2.1 Active Participation
3 Criticisms of the Western educational model
5 Educational gap
7 Challenges (as seen with the Na)
8 Associated organizations
9 See also
Cultural context of indigenous learning in the Americas
Further information: Child development of the indigenous peoples of
A growing body of scientific literature has described indigenous ways
of learning, in different cultures and countries. Learning in
indigenous communities is a process that involves all members in the
The learning styles that children use in their indigenous schooling
are the same ones that occur in their community context. These
indigenous learning styles often include: observation, imitation, use
of narrative/storytelling, collaboration, and cooperation, as seen
among American Indian, Alaska Native and Latin American
communities. This is a hands on approach that emphasizes
direct experience and learning through inclusion.The child feels that
they are a vital member of the community, and they are encouraged to
participate in a meaningful way by community members. Children
often effectively learn skills through this system, without being
taught explicitly or in a formal manner. This differs from Western
learning styles, which tend to include methods such as explicit
instruction in which a figure of authority directs the learner's
attention, and testing/ quizzing. Creating an educational
environment for indigenous children that is consistent with
upbringing, rather than an education that follows a traditionally
Western format, allows for a child to retain knowledge more easily,
because they are learning in a way that was encouraged from infancy
within their family and community.
The structure of indigenous American classrooms that reflect the
organization of indigenous communities eliminates the distinction
between the community and classroom and makes it easier for the
students to relate to the material. Effective classrooms modeled
off of the social structure of indigenous communities are typically
focused on group or cooperative learning that provide an inclusive
environment. A key factor for successful indigenous education
practices is the student-teacher relationship. Classrooms are socially
constructed in a way that the teacher shares the control of the
classroom with the students. Rather than taking an authoritative role,
the teacher is viewed as a co-learner to the students, and they
maintain a balance between personal warmth and demand for academic
achievement. For example, in an indigenous Mazahua community in
Mexico, teachers have been observed to let their students move freely
about the classroom while working in order to consult with other
students, as well as using their instructors for occasional
Teachers in indigenous classrooms in a Yup'ik community in Alaska rely
on group work, encourage the students to watch each other as a way to
learn, and avoid singling out students for praise, criticism, or
recitation. Praise, by Western standards, is minimal in indigenous
classrooms, and when it is given it is for effort, not for providing a
correct answer to a question. Classroom discourse in indigenous
classrooms is an example of how the teacher shares control with the
students. Observations in the Yup'ik and Mazahua communities show that
indigenous teachers are less likely to solicit an answer from an
individual student, but rather encourage all of the students to
participate in classroom discourse. In the Yup'ik classroom
direct questions are posed to the group as whole, and the control of
talk is not the sole responsibility of the teacher. Classrooms in
indigenous communities that incorporate indigenous ways of learning
utilize open-ended questioning, inductive/analytical reasoning, and
student participation and verbalization, in group settings.
Escuela Unitaria (One-room one-teacher)
Escuela Unitaria is a one-room one-teacher style of schooling that is
used in some rural communities, which utilizes ways of learning common
in some indigenous or indigenous-heritage communities in the Americas.
The school serves up to six grades in a single classroom setting with
smaller groups (divided by grade level) in the classroom. Community
involvement is strongly implemented in the management of the school.
Learning activities are not just inside the classroom but also outside
in the agricultural environment. Children are self-instructed and the
content involves the students' rural community and family
participation. The school is structured to meet cultural needs and
match available resources. This classroom setting allows for a
collaborative learning environment that includes the teacher, the
students, and the community. Integration of cultural knowledge within
the curriculum allows students to participate actively and to have a
say in the responsibilities for classroom activities.
Indigenous American ways of learning
In many indigenous communities of the Americas, children often begin
to learn through their eagerness to be active participants in their
communities. Through this, children feel incorporated as valued
members when given the opportunity to contribute to everyday social
and cultural activities . For example, in a traditional village in
Yucatán, Mexico, great importance is placed on engaging in mature
activities to help children learn how to participate and contribute
appropriately. Adults rarely force children to contribute; rather,
they provide children with a great range of independence in deciding
what to do with their time. Therefore, children are likely to
demonstrate that they want to be a productive member of the community
because they have been a part of a social, collaborative culture that
views everyday work as something that everyone can partake and help
A main model of learning is to incorporate children in various
activities where they are expected to be active contributors. The
different forms of activities can vary from momentary interactions to
broad societal foundations and how those complement their community's
traditions. In Maya Belize culture, girls as young as four can
work alongside their mothers when washing clothes in the river –
rather than being given verbal instructions, they observe keenly,
imitate to the best of their ability, and understand that their
inclusion is crucial to the community. Rather than being separated
and directed away from the mature work, the indigenous heritage
children are expected to observe and pitch in.
Indigenous communities in the Americas emphasize the ability for
community members of all ages to be able to collaborate. In this kind
of environment, children learn not only how to participate alongside
others, but are also likely to demonstrate an eagerness to contribute
as a part of their community. Integration of younger and older
children provides the opportunity for different levels of observation,
listening, and participation to occur [Rogoff et al. (2010)]. Soon
after or even during an activity, children are often seen to take it
upon themselves to participate in the same previous social and
cultural activities that they observed and participated in . By
encouraging child immersion in activities rather than specifically
asking for their participation, children have the freedom to construct
their own knowledge with self-motivation to continue cultural
practices alongside others .
Children in many indigenous cultures of the Americas actively
participate and contribute to their community and family activities by
observing and pitching in (link to LOPI page) while informally
learning to socialize and gaining a sense of responsibility amongst
other skills. A mother reported that being an active participant in
everyday activities provides children with the opportunity to gain
direction in learning and working that other environments may not
provide. For instance, 15-year-old Josefina and her family own a
small restaurant in an Indigenous community in Nocutzepo, Mexico where
the entire family collaborates to ensure the restaurant functions
smoothly. This includes everyone from the grandmother who tends to the
fire for cooking to 5-year-old Julia who contributes by carrying the
pieces of firewood. Josefina is one of the seven family members that
pitches in towards the family food stand. Through observation and
listening, she learned that the food stand was the family's main
source of income. Overtime, Josefina took it upon herself to pitch in
and take over the food stand, thus learning responsibility,
cooperation, and commitment. Nobody instructed or demanded her to help
with the family business, but she learned the community's expectations
and way of living. The inclusive and welcoming environment of the
marketplace setting encourages children to participate in everyday
social practices and take initiative to learn about their culture,
facilitating communal collaboration.
In Indigenous American communities, the inclusion of children in
communal activities motivates them to engage with their social world,
helping them to develop a sense of belonging. Active participation
involves children undertaking initiative and acting autonomously.
Similarly, Learning by Observing and Pitching In (LOPI) supports
informal learning which generates self-sovereignty. The
combination of children's inclusion, development of independence, and
initiative for contribution are common elements identified in
Indigenous American ways of learning.
Education in Indigenous communities is primarily based on joint
engagement in which children are motivated to "pitch-in" in collective
activities through developing solidarity within family, resulting in
reciprocal bonds. Learning is viewed as an act of meaningful
and productive work, not as a separate activity. When asked to
self-report about their individual contributions, Indigenous Mexican
heritage children placed emphasis on the community rather than on
individual role. Their contributions emphasized collaboration and
mutual responsibility within the community. A study was conducted
with children who had immigrated from indigenous communities in rural
Mexico. The children were less likely to view activities that
Westernized culture regarded as "chores" to be a type of work. These
children felt that activities such as taking care of siblings,
cooking, and assisting in cleaning were activities that help the
family. When asked how they viewed participation in household
work, children from two Mexican cities reported they contribute
because it is a shared responsibility of everyone in the family. They
further reported that they want to pitch in to the work because
helping and contributing allows them to be more integrated in ongoing
family and community activities. Many Mexican-heritage children
also reported being proud of their contributions, while their families
reported the contributions of children are valued by everyone
Learning through collaborative work is often correlated with children
learning responsibility. 2. Many children in Indigenous Yucatec
families often attempt and are expected to help around their homes
with household endeavors. It is common to see children offer their
help off of the their own accord, such as Mari, an 18 month old child
from an indigenous family watched her mother clean the furniture with
a designated cleaning leaf. Mari then took it upon herself to pick a
leaf from a nearby bush and attempted to scrub the furniture as
well. Although Mari was not using the proper type of leaf, by
attempting to assist in cleaning the furniture, she demonstrated that
she wanted to help in a household activity. Mari’s mother supported
and encouraged Mari’s participation by creating an environment where
she is able to pitch in, even if not in a completely accurate manner.
Parents often offer guidance and support in Indigenous American
cultures when the child needs it—as they believe this encourages
children to be self-motivated and responsible.
Children from indigenous communities of the Americas are likely to
pitch in and collaborate freely without being asked or instructed to
do so. For example, P’urepecha children whose mothers followed more
traditional indigenous ways of living demonstrated significantly more
independent collaboration when playing Chinese checkers than
middle-class children whose mothers had less involvement in indigenous
practices of the Americas. Similarly, when mothers from the Mayan
community of San Pedro were instructed to construct a 3-D jigsaw
puzzle with their children, mothers who practiced traditional
indigenous culture showed more cooperative engagements with their
children than mothers with less traditional practices. These
studies exemplify the idea that children from families that practice
traditional indigenous American cultures are likely to exhibit a
motivation to collaborate without instruction. Therefore, being in an
environment where collaboration is emphasized, serves as an example
for children in Indigenous American communities to pitch in out of
their own self-motivation and eagerness to contribute.
In many indigenous communities of the Americas, children rely on
assessment to master a task. Assessment can include the evaluation of
oneself, as well as evaluation from external influences, like parents,
family members, or community members. Assessment involves feedback
given to learners from their support; this can be through acceptance,
appreciation or correction. The purpose of assessment is to assist the
learner as they actively participate in their activity. While
contributing in the activity, children are constantly evaluating their
learning progress based on the feedback of their support. With this
feedback, children modify their behavior in mastering their task. 
In the Mexican Indigenous heritage community of Nocutzepo, there is
available feedback to a learner by observing the results of their
contribution and by observing if their support accepted or corrected
them. For example, a 5-year-old girl shapes and cooks tortillas with
her mother, when the girl would make irregular tortilla shapes her
mother would focus her daughter's attention to an aspect of her own
shaping. By doing this, the young girl would imitate her mother's
movements and improve her own skills.
Feedback given by the mother
helped the young girl evaluate her own work and correct it.
Chippewa culture, assessment and feedback are offered
in variety of ways. Generally,
Chippewa children are not given much
praise for their contributions. On occasion, the parents offer
assessment through rewards given to the child. These rewards are given
as feedback for work well done, and come in the form of a toy carved
out of wood, a doll of grass, or maple sugar. When children do not
meet expectations, and fail in their contributions,
make sure not to use ridicule as a means of assessment. The Chippewa
also recognize the harmful effects of excessive scolding to a child's
Chippewa parents believes that scolding a child too
much would "make them worse", and holds back the child's ability to
For the Chillihuani community in Peru, parents bring up children in a
manner that allows them to grow maturely with values like
responsibility and respect. These values ultimately influence how
children learn in this community. Parents from the Chillihuani
community offer assessment of their children through praise, even if
the child's contribution is not perfect. Additionally, feedback can
come in the form of responsibility given for a difficult task, with
less supervision. This responsibility is an important aspect of the
learning process for children in Chillihuani because it allows them
advance their skills. At only five years old, children are expected to
herd sheep, alpaca and llamas with the assistance of an older sibling
or adult relative. By age 8, children take on the responsibility of
herding alone even in unfavorable weather conditions. Children are
evaluated in terms of their ability to handle difficult tasks and then
complemented on a job well done by their parents. This supports the
learning development of the child's skills, and encourages their
Criticisms of the Western educational model
As mentioned above, there has been a modern-day global shift towards
recognizing the importance of indigenous education. One reason for
this current awareness is the rapid spread of Western educational
models throughout the world. Starting in the 19th century when Native
Americans were forced into U.S. government boarding schools up until
today when volunteers build schools in various remote villages, there
is a strong, and some might say blind, belief that a Western education
or schooling is the only way to provide a "better life" for indigenous
children. The film "Schooling the World: The White Man's Last Burden"
addresses this issue of modern education and its destruction of
unique, indigenous cultures and individuals' identities. Shot in the
Buddhist culture of Ladakh in the northern Indian Himalayas, the film
fuses the voices of the Ladakhi people and commentary from an
anthropologist/ethnobotanist, a National Geographical
Explorer-in-Residence, and an architect of education programs. In
essence, the film examines the definitions of wealth and poverty, in
other words, knowledge and ignorance. Furthermore, it reveals the
effects of trying to institute a global education system or central
learning authority, which can ultimately demolish "traditional
sustainable agricultural and ecological knowledge, in the breakup of
extended families and communities, and in the devaluation of ancient
spiritual traditions." Finally, the film promotes a deeper
dialogue between cultures, suggesting that there is no single way to
learn. No two human beings are alike because they develop under
different circumstances, learning, and education.
The director and editor of the film Carol Black writes, "One of the
most profound changes that occurs when modern schooling is introduced
into traditional societies around the world is a radical shift in the
locus of power and control over learning from children, families, and
communities to ever more centralized systems of authority." Black
continues by explaining that in many non-modernized societies,
children learn in a variety of ways, including free play or
interaction with multiple children, immersion in nature, and directly
helping adults with work and communal activities. "They learn by
experience, experimentation, trial and error, by independent
observation of nature and human behavior, and through voluntary
community sharing of information, story, song, and ritual." Most
importantly, local elders and traditional knowledge systems are
autonomous in comparison to a strict Western education model. Adults
have little control over children's "moment-to-moment movements and
choices." Once learning is institutionalized, both the freedom of
the individual and his/her respect for the elder's wisdom are ruined.
"Family and community are sidelined…The teacher has control over the
child, the school district has control over the teacher, the state has
control over the district, and increasingly, systems of national
standards and funding create national control over states." When
indigenous knowledge is seen as inferior to a standard school
curriculum, an emphasis is placed on an individual's success in a
broader consumer culture instead of on an ability to survive in
his/her own environment. Black concludes with a comment, "We assume
that this central authority, because it is associated with something
that seems like an unequivocal good – 'education' – must itself be
fundamentally good, a sort of benevolent dictatorship of the
intellect." From a Western perspective, centralized control over
learning is natural and consistent with the principles of freedom and
democracy; and yet, it is this same centralized system or method of
discipline that does not take into account the individual, which in
the end stamps out local cultures.
For indigenous learners and instructors, the inclusion of these
methods into schools often enhances educational effectiveness by
providing an education that adheres to an indigenous person's own
inherent perspectives, experiences, language, and customs, thereby
making it easier for children to transition into the realm of
adulthood. For non-indigenous students and teachers, such an education
often has the effect of raising awareness of individual and collective
traditions surrounding indigenous communities and peoples, thereby
promoting greater respect for and appreciation of various cultural
In terms of educational content, the inclusion of indigenous knowledge
within curricula, instructional materials, and textbooks has largely
the same effect on preparing students for the greater world as other
educational systems, such as the Western model.
There is value in including Indigenous knowledge and education in the
public school system. Students of all backgrounds can benefit from
being exposed to Indigenous education, as it can contribute to
reducing racism in the classroom and increase the sense of community
in a diverse group of students. There are a number of sensitive
issues about what can be taught (and by whom) that require responsible
consideration by non-Indigenous teachers who appreciate the importance
of interjecting Indigenous perspectives into standard mainstream
schools. Concerns about misappropriation of Indigenous ways of knowing
without recognizing the plight of Indigenous Peoples and "giving back"
to them are legitimate. Since most educators are non-Indigenous, and
because Indigenous perspectives may offer solutions for current and
future social and ecological problems, it is important to refer to
Indigenous educators and agencies to develop curriculum and teaching
strategies while at the same time encouraging activism on behalf of
Indigenous Peoples. One way to bring authentic Indigenous experiences
into the classroom is to work with community elders. They can help
facilitate the incorporation of authentic knowledge and experiences
into the classroom. Teachers must not shy away from bringing
controversial subjects into the classroom. The history of Indigenous
people should be delved into and developed fully. There are many
age appropriate ways to do this, including the use of children's
literature, media, and discussion. Individuals are recommended to
reflect regularly on their teaching practice to become aware of areas
of instruction in need of Indigenous perspectives.
Some indigenous people view education as an important tool to improve
their situation by pursuing economic, social and cultural development;
it provides them with individual empowerment and
self-determination. Education is also a means for employment; it's
a way for socially marginalized people to raise themselves out of
poverty. However, some education systems and curricula lack knowledge
about indigenous peoples ways of learning, causing an Educational Gap
for indigenous people. Factors for the Education Gap include lower
school enrollments, poor school performance, low literacy rates, and
higher dropout rates. Some schools teach indigenous children to be
"socialized" and to be a national asset to society by assimilating,
"Schooling has been explicitly and implicitly a site of rejection of
indigenous knowledge and language, it has been used as a means of
assimilating and integrating indigenous peoples into a 'national'
society and identity at the cost of their indigenous identity and
Intercultural learning is an example of how to
build a bridge for the educational gap.
Other factors that contribute to the Education Gap in Indigenous
cultures are socioeconomic disadvantage, which includes access to
healthcare, employment, incarceration rates, and housing. According to
the Australian Government Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet
in their 2015 Closing the Gap Report, the country is not on track to
halve the gap in reading, writing and numeracy achievements for
Indigenous students. The government reported that there had been no
overall improvement in Indigenous reading and numeracy since 2008.
Indigenous knowledge is particularly important to modern environmental
management in today's world. Environmental and land management
strategies traditionally used by indigenous peoples have continued
relevance. Indigenous cultures usually live in a particular bioregion
for many generations and have learned how to live there sustainably.
In modern times, this ability often puts truly indigenous cultures in
a unique position of understanding the interrelationships, needs,
resources, and dangers of their bioregion. This is not true of
indigenous cultures that have been eroded through colonialism or
genocide or that have been displaced.
The promotion of indigenous methods of education and the inclusion of
traditional knowledge also enables those in Western and post-colonial
societies to re-evaluate the inherent hierarchy of knowledge systems.
Indigenous knowledge systems were historically denigrated by Western
educators; however, there is a current shift towards recognizing the
value of these traditions. The inclusion of aspects of indigenous
education requires us to acknowledge the existence of multiple forms
of knowledge rather than one, standard, benchmark system.
A prime example of how indigenous methods and content can be used to
promote the above outcomes is demonstrated within higher education in
Canada. Due to certain jurisdictions' focus on enhancing academic
success for Aboriginal learners and promoting the values of
multiculturalism in society, the inclusion of indigenous methods and
content in education is often seen as an important obligation and duty
of both governmental and educational authorities.
Many scholars in the field assert that indigenous education and
knowledge has a "transformative power" for indigenous communities that
can be used to foster "empowerment and justice." The shift to
recognizing indigenous models of education as legitimate forms is
therefore important in the ongoing effort for indigenous rights, on a
Challenges (as seen with the Na)
There are numerous practical challenges to the implementation of
indigenous education. Incorporating indigenous knowledge into formal
Western education models can prove difficult. However, the discourse
surrounding indigenous education and knowledge suggests that
integrating indigenous methods into traditional modes of schooling is
an "ongoing process of 'cultural negotiation.'"
Indigenous education often takes different forms than a typical
Western model, as the practices of the Na ethnic group of southwest
China illustrate. Because Na children learn through example,
traditional Na education is less formal than the standard Western
model. In contrast to structured hours and a classroom setting,
learning takes places throughout the day, both in the home and in
adults' workplaces. Based on the belief that children are "fragile,
soulless beings", Na education focuses on nurturing children rather
than on punishing them. Children develop an understanding of
cultural values, such as speech taboos and the "reflection" of
individual actions "on the entire household." Playing games
teaches children about their natural surroundings and builds physical
and mental acuity. Forms of indigenous knowledge, including weaving,
hunting, carpentry, and the use of medicinal plants, are passed on
from adult to child in the workplace, where children assist their
relatives or serve as apprentices for several years.
However, increasing modernity is a challenge to such modes of
instruction. Some types of indigenous knowledge are dying out because
of decreased need for them and a lack of interest from youth, who
increasingly leave the village for jobs in the cities. Furthermore,
formal Chinese state schooling "interferes with informal traditional
learning." Children must travel a distance from their villages to
attend state schools, removing them from traditional learning
opportunities in the home and workplace. The curriculum in state
schools is standardized across China and holds little relevance to the
lives of the Na. Na children are required to learn Mandarin Chinese,
Chinese and global history, and Han values, as opposed to their native
language, local history, and indigenous values. Methods of instruction
rely on rote learning rather than experiential learning, as employed
in Na villages.
Several individuals and organizations pay for children's school fees
and build new schools in an attempt to increase village children's
access to education. Yet such well-intended actions do not affect the
schools' curriculum, which means there is no improvement in the
sustainability of the children's native cultures. As a result,
such actions may actually "be contributing to the demise of the very
culture" they are trying to preserve.
Many organizations work to promote indigenous methods of education.
The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
makes particular reference to the educational rights of indigenous
peoples in Article 14. It emphasizes the responsibility of states
to adequately provide access to education for indigenous people,
particularly children, and when possible, for education to take place
within their own culture and to be delivered in their own language.
Indigenous peoples have founded and actively run several of these
organizations. On a global scale, many of these organizations engage
in active knowledge transfer in an effort to protect and promote
indigenous knowledge and education modes. One such organization, the
Indigenous Education Institute (IEI), aims to apply indigenous
knowledge and tradition to a contemporary context, with a particular
focus on astronomy and other science disciplines. Another such
organization is the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education
Consortium (WINHEC), which was launched during the World Indigenous
Peoples Conference on Education (WIPCE) at Delta Lodge, Kananakis
Calgary in Alberta, Canada in August 2002. The founding members
were Australia, Hawai'i, Alaska, the American Indian Higher Education
Consortium of the United States, Canada, the Wänanga of Aotearoa (New
Zealand), and Saamiland (North Norway). The stated aims of WINHEC
include the provision of an international forum for indigenous peoples
to pursue common goals through higher education.
Traditional ecological knowledge
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
Critical pedagogy of place
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Chippewa child life and its cultural
background". Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology,
Bulletin 146, pp. 55-60, 114-117.
^ Bolin, I. (2006). Growing up in a culture of respect: Childrearing
in highland Peru. Austin: University of Texas Press.
^ Schooling The World. "The Film". Last modified 2011,
http://www.schoolingtheworld.org/film/. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
^ a b c d e f Carol Black, "Occupy Your Brain: On Power, Knowledge,
and the Re-occupation of Common Sense", Schooling the World Blog,
January 13, 2012, http://schoolingtheworld.org/blog/.
^ Wilson, Theresa. (2001). Best Practices for Teaching Aboriginal
Children: From an Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Perspective. Retrieved
^ BC Teacher's Federation. Aboriginal Education Beyond Words: Creating
Racism-Free Schools for Aboriginal Learners. Retrieved from
^ St; Denis, Verna (2011). "Silencing Aboriginal Curricular Content
and Perspecties Through Multiculturalism: "There Are Other children
Here". Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies. 33 (4):
^ a b Champagne, Duane (2009). Contemporary Education. New York:
United Nations: State of the world's indigenous peoples.
^ May S.; Aikman S. (2003). Indigenous Education: Addressing current
issues and developments, Comparative Education.
^ Hall, L.B., Sefa Deo, G.J., & Rosenberg, D.G. Indigenous
Knowledges in Global Contexts: Multiple Readings of Our World
(Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2000)
^ In the Canadian province of Manitoba for instance, collaborative
efforts between the government and post-secondary institutions (both
universities and colleges) has resulted in the implementation of 13
Access Programs (spanning several disciplines and program focus
areas). These Access programs often place emphasis on indigenous
methods and content in the delivery of post-secondary education and
training, while also providing students with a variety of other
culturally sensitive supports (such as elders and mentors) in order to
enhance their success in higher education. Advocates of such programs
will often highlight the fact that, between 2001/02 and 2005/06 (most
recent available data) a total of 800 students successfully graduated
from these programs with post-secondary credentials, while an average
of 70.8 per cent of all students enrolled during these same years were
Aboriginal. Statistics cited according to pp. 141–143 of the
Manitoba Council on Post-Secondary Education Statistical Compendium
For the Academic Years Ending in 2006  According to these
advocates, the inclusion of indigenous models of education in those
Access Programs that are intended for Aboriginal learners, is an
important factor contributing to the completion of post-secondary
education for the estimated 566 Aboriginal students who would not
otherwise have been likely to achieve this same level of success.
^ a b Semali, L.M. & Kincheloe, J.L. What is Indigenous Knowledge?
(New York: Falmer Press, 1999)
^ a b c d e f g Tami Blumenfield, "Na Education in the Face of
Modernity", Landscapes of Diversity: Indigenous Knowledge, Sustainable
Livelihoods and Resource Governance in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia
^ "United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples".
United Nations. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
^ Indigenous Education Institute. "About IEI." Last modified 2012.
http://www.indigenouseducation.org/ Retrieved 8 April 2012.
^ World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium. "About
WINHEC." Last modified 2005. http://www.win-hec.org/ Retrieved 8 April
^ World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium. "Summary of
Major Events Which Created WINHEC." Last modified 2005.
http://www.win-hec.org/ Retrieved 8