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Indigenism can refer to several different ideologies associated with indigenous peoples, is used differently by a various scholars and activists, and can be used purely descriptively or carry political connotations.[1]

Contents

1 Who is indigenous? 2 As international human rights movement

2.1 Variation

3 As pan-indigenous political or cultural solidarity 4 As official policy in Latin American nation-states

4.1 Variation

5 As approach to scholarship 6 As ethnic nationalism

6.1 Variations

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Who is indigenous?[edit] Main article: Definitions and identity of indigenous peoples Thus, for the New World, in the Americas as well as in Australia, the question is rather straightforward, while it is less easy to answer in the case of South Africa.[2] The question of who is indigenous may be less than straightforward, depending on the region under consideration. As international human rights movement[edit]

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Indigenous rights

Rights

Ancestral domain Intellectual property Land rights Language Traditional knowledge Treaty rights

Governmental organizations

AADNC ACHPR Arctic Council Bureau of Indian Affairs CDI Council of Indigenous Peoples FUNAI NCIP UNPFII

NGOs and political groups

AFN Amazon Watch CAP COICA CONAIE Cultural Survival EZLN fPcN IPACC IPCB IWGIA NARF ONIC Survival International UNPO

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Issues

Civilizing mission Manifest Destiny

Lands inhabited by indigenous peoples

Discovery doctrine Indigenism

Legal representation

ILO 107 ILO 169 United Nations Declaration

Category

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Anthropologist Ronald Niezen uses the term to describe "the international movement that aspires to promote and protect the rights of the world's 'first peoples'."[1] Variation[edit] New Zealander scholar Jeffrey Sissons has criticized what he calls "eco-indigenism" on the part of international forums such as the Working Group on Indigenous Peoples, which he claims enforces a link between indigenous peoples and traditional economies, and also confuses the issues faced by New World
New World
indigenous, who are mostly urban dwellers and live in states dominated by people descendant from their colonizers, and by ethnic minorities in Asia and Africa who are more likely to live "close to the land" and live in states where the colonizers have long since left (though they may still face persecution from the post-colonial successor state).[3] As pan-indigenous political or cultural solidarity[edit] See also: Indigenous movements in the Americas As used by Cherokee-American scholar Ward Churchill
Ward Churchill
(b. 1947; author of From a Native Son) and Mexican scholar Guillermo Bonfil Batalla (1935-1991), the term refers to the common civilization of which, they argue, all New World
New World
indigenous peoples are a part, and to their common "spirit of resistance" to settler colonialism.[1] As official policy in Latin American nation-states[edit] Main article: Indigenismo In Latin America the term Indigenismo is often used "to describe the ways that colonial nation-states have formulated their vision of Indigenous social inclusion."[1] Variation[edit] One scholar, Alcida Rita Ramos, uses the term not only to refer to official policy, but to all social and political interactions between the state or mainstream society and indigenous peoples, whether initiated by the indigenous or by other parties.[1] As approach to scholarship[edit] Eva Marie Garroutte uses "Radical Indigenism" to mean an attitude towards scholarship on indigenous peoples that does not treat their culture as a curiosity, or of interest solely in order to study the individuals who practise the culture; instead she argues that indigenous people possess entire philosophies of knowledge capable of generating new knowledge through different models of inquiry from those used in Western philosophy. She presents it as a logical next step to post-colonial theories which seek to question Western "ways of knowing" but have not yet proposed alternatives.[4] As ethnic nationalism[edit] See also: ethnic nationalism and primordialism Indigenism, native nationalism, or indigenous nationalism is a kind of ethnic nationalism emphasizing the group's indigeneity to their homeland. This may be embraced by post-colonial anarchism as well as in neo-völkisch or national mysticist nationalism building on historical or pseudohistorical claims of ethnic continuity. While New World
New World
movements usually go by the name indigenism (notably in South America and in Mexico, "indigenismo" is a political force), the term autochthonism is encountered for Eastern European and Central Asian nationalisms.[5] "Autochthonism" is an issue especially in those parts of Europe formerly under Ottoman control, i.e. the Balkans
Balkans
and Romania
Romania
(see rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire). Originating in the 19th century, autochthonist nationalism affected the area throughout the 20th century. Writing in 1937, Nichifor Crainic celebrated Gândirea's role in making nationalism and Orthodoxy priorities in Romania's intellectual and political life:

The term 'ethnic' with its meaning of 'ethnic specificity' imprinted in all sorts of expressions of the people, as a mark of its original properties, has been spread for 16 years by the journal Gândirea. The same thing applies to the terms of autochthonism, traditionalism, Orthodoxy, spirituality and many more which became the shared values of our current nationalist language. — [6]

Variations[edit] Indigenism involves the suppression of certain aspects of history and the emphasis of others (to which there may be no direct continuity), as well as the selection of one of multiple sources of ancestry for a "people". It can be personal, as in W. E. B. Du Bois's black nationalism, despite his Dutch ancestry. It is also relative, since while nativists in the United States
United States
argue that Native Americans and Mestizo Hispanic and Latino American
Hispanic and Latino American
people are more indigenous to the United States
United States
land than European Americans, some counterclaims posit European Americans
European Americans
as more indigenous than the Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of the Americas.[7] The portrayal of the Christian wars against Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
as a Reconquista, or "reconquest" is an indigenist nationalist trope that evokes Iberia's pre-Muslim past. The Hutu Power ideology posited that the Hutu
Hutu
were the first, and therefore the legitimate, inhabitants of Rwanda, justifying the extermination of the Tutsi. The Arab–Israeli conflict involves competing claims to indigenity, with modern disputants to territory claiming a direct line of descent to its ancient inhabitant peoples - some of them mythical - such as the Philistines
Philistines
and the Canaanites.[7]

Indigenist anarchism

Pan-Slavism: Mikhail Bakunin Post-colonial anarchism: Anarchist People of Color, Black anarchism, Afrocentrism Anarchism
Anarchism
in Africa: Négritude Indigenous American: Dylan Miner (Métis), Mujeres Creando
Mujeres Creando
(Bolivia), Milagro Sala
Milagro Sala
(Argentina) Tino Rangatiratanga
Tino Rangatiratanga
in Aotearoa New Zealand

"Continuity theories":

Assyrianism[8] Croatian Illyrian movement English nationalist support for the theory that English is Indigenous to Britain Finnic Settlement continuity theory: see Baltic Finns Gaul-French continuity theory (France) Germanic-German continuity theory (Rudolf Much, Otto Höfler) Illyrian-Albanian continuity theory: see origin of the Albanians and Albanian nationalism India:

Indigenous Aryans, a hypothesis that puts the origins of the Indo-Aryan language family on the Indian subcontinent Proto-Vedic Continuity theory
Proto-Vedic Continuity theory
(Hindu nationalism)

continuity theories in Kurdish nationalism Irish nationalism
Irish nationalism
since 1900 has emphasised the Gaelic origin of most Irish people Lusitanianism (Portuguese nationalism) Macedonism
Macedonism
(Macedonian Slavs) Paleolithic Continuity Theory
Paleolithic Continuity Theory
and Uralic Continuity Theory (Mario Alinei) Protochronism, a national mysticism linking modern Romania
Romania
to the ancient Dacians Sarmatian-Polish continuity theory: see Sarmatism Slovenian Venetic theory continuity theories in Syrian nationalism. Turkish Anatolianism

See also[edit]

Richard J. F. Day Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Historiography and nationalism Identity politics Indianism (arts), Brazil Localism (politics) Multiethnic Indigenist Party
Multiethnic Indigenist Party
of Nicaragua Nativism

References[edit]

^ a b c d e de Costa, Ravi (2005). "Indigenism". Globalization and Autonomy Online Compendium. Vancouver: UBC Press.  ^ Lee (2006), p. 459: "As Murumbi (1994) has pointed out, the black peoples of Africa, whether hunter-gatherers, herders, farmers, or city dwellers, can all claim great antiquity on the continent. Thus any distinctions between indigenous and non-indigenous must necessarily be invidious ones. A case in point: the Government of Botswana, home of over half of all the San peoples of Africa, refused to participate in the 1993–2003 UN Decade of the Indigenous People, on the grounds that in their country everyone was indigenous (Mogwe, 1992). " ^ First Peoples: Indigenous Cultures and Their Futures (2005), pp 23-28 ^ http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/schools/cas_sites/sociology/pdf/Brill-article.pdf. ^ Leon Volovici, Nationalist Ideology and Antisemitism: The Case of Romanian Intellectuals in the 1930s, Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism Pergamon Press, 1991, ISBN 978-0-08-041024-1, p. 80; Lucian Boia, History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness, Central European University Press, 2001, ISBN 978-963-9116-97-9, p. 240.; Karl Kaser, Elisabeth Katschnig-Fasch, Gender and Nation in South Eastern Europe: Anthropological Yearbook of European Cultures, Vol. 14, LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster, 2006, ISBN 978-3-8258-8802-2, p. 89. ^ Crainic, in Caraiani, note 23 ^ a b Zerubavel, Eviatar (2004). Time Maps: Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past. University of Chicago Press. pp. 103–106.  ^ Adam H. Becker, The Ancient Near East in the Late Antique Near East: Syriac Christian Appropriation of the Biblical East in Gregg Gardner, Kevin Lee Osterloh (eds.) Antiquity in antiquity: Jewish and Christian pasts in the Greco-Roman world, p. 396, 2008, Mohr Siebeck, ISBN 978-3-16-149411-6

Churchill, Ward (1996). From a Native Son. Boston: South End Press. ISBN 0-89608-553-8.  Ronald Niezen, The Origins of Indigenism - Human Rights and the Politics of Identity, University of California Press (2003), ISBN 978-0-520-23554-0. Richard Borshay Lee, "Twenty-first century indigenism", Anthropological Theory, Vol. 6, No. 4, 455-479 (2006)

External links[edit]

https://web.archive.org/web/20080515113302/http://indigenist.blogspot.com/ (South American "indigenism") Indigenism at the Infoshop OpenWiki

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Ethnicity

Related concepts

Clan Ethnic group

Ethnolinguistic group Ethnoreligious group

Indigenous peoples Ingroups and outgroups Meta-ethnicity Metroethnicity Minority group Monoethnicity Nation Nationality Panethnicity Polyethnicity Population Race Symbolic ethnicity Tribe

Ethnology

Anthropology Ethnic studies Ethnoarchaeology Ethnobiology

Ethnobotany Ethnozoology Ethnoecology

Ethnocinema Ethnogeology Ethnography

Autoethnography Clinical Critical Cyber- Netnography Online Person-centered Salvage Transidioethnography Video

Ethnohistory Ethnolinguistics Ethnology Ethnomathematics Ethnomethodology Ethnomuseology Ethnomusicology Ethnophilosophy Ethnopoetics Ethnoscience Ethnosemiotics Ethnotaxonomy

Groups by region

Africa

Arab League

Americas

Indigenous Canada Mexico United States Central America South America

Asia

Central Asia East Asia Northern Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West Asia

Australia

Indigenous

Europe Oceania

Indigenous European

Identity and ethnogenesis

Cross-race effect Cultural assimilation Cultural identity Demonym Development Endonym Ethnic flag Ethnic option Ethnic origin Ethnic religion Ethnicity in census Ethnofiction Ethnonym Folk religion Historical Imagined community Kinship Legendary progenitor Lineage-bonded society Mythomoteur Mores Nation-building Nation state National language National myth Origin myth Pantribal sodality Tribal name Tribalism Urheimat

Multiethnic society

Consociationalism Diaspora politics Dominant minority Ethnic democracy Ethnic enclave Ethnic interest group Ethnic majority Ethnic media Ethnic pornography Ethnic theme park Ethnoburb Ethnocracy Indigenous rights Middleman minority Minority rights Model minority Multinational state

Ideology and ethnic conflict

Ethnic bioweapon Ethnic cleansing Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnic nationalism Ethnic nepotism Ethnic penalty Ethnic slur Ethnic stereotype Ethnic violence Ethnocentrism Ethnocide Ethnosymbolism Indigenism Separatist movement

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