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Gyps
Gyps
indicus indicus

The Indian vulture
Indian vulture
( Gyps
Gyps
indicus) is an Old World vulture
Old World vulture
native to India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Nepal. It has been listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
since 2002, as the population severely declined. Indian vultures died of renal failure caused by diclofenac poisoning.[1] It breeds mainly on hilly crags in central and peninsular India. The birds in the northern part of its range once considered a subspecies are now treated as a separate species, the slender-billed vulture Gyps
Gyps
tenuirostris. These were lumped together under the name long-billed vulture.

Contents

1 Description 2 Behaviour 3 Status and conservation

3.1 Population declines 3.2 Captive-breeding programmes

4 References 5 External links

Description[edit] The Indian vulture
Indian vulture
is medium in size and bulky. Its body and covert feathers are pale, its quills are darker. Its wings are broad and its tail feathers short. Its head and neck are almost bald, and its bill is rather long.[2] It usually is 80–103 cm (31–41 in) long and has a wing span of 1.96 to 2.38 m (6.4 to 7.8 ft). It weighs 5.5–6.3 kg (12–14 lb). It is smaller and less heavily built than the Eurasian griffon.[3] It is distinguished from that species by its less buff body and wing coverts. It also lacks the whitish median covert bar shown by griffons. Behaviour[edit] The species breeds mainly on cliffs, but is known to use trees to nest in Rajasthan. It may also breed on high human-made structures (like the Chaturbhuj Temple in the picture). Like other vultures it is a scavenger, feeding mostly from carcasses of dead animals which it finds by soaring over savannah and around human habitation. They often move in flocks. Status and conservation[edit] Population declines[edit]

Long-billed vulture in flight

Main article: Indian vulture
Indian vulture
crisis The Indian vulture
Indian vulture
and the white-rumped vulture, G. bengalensis species have suffered a 99%–97% population decrease in Bangladesh, Pakistan
Pakistan
and India. Between 2000-2007 annual decline rates of this species and the slender-billed vulture averaged over sixteen percent.[4] The cause of this has been identified as poisoning caused by the veterinary drug diclofenac. Diclofenac
Diclofenac
is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and when given to working animals it can reduce joint pain and so keep them working for longer. The drug is believed to be swallowed by vultures with the flesh of dead cattle who were given diclofenac in the last days of life. Diclofenac
Diclofenac
causes kidney failure in several species of vultures. In March 2006 the Indian Government announced its support for a ban on the veterinary use of diclofenac. Another NSAID, meloxicam, has been found to be harmless to vultures and should prove to be an acceptable substitute for diclofenac. When meloxicam production is increased it is hoped that it will be as cheap as diclofenac. As of August 2011 the ban for veterinary use for approximately a year did not prevent diclofenac use across India.[5] Small numbers of birds have bred across peninsular India, in Karnataka
Karnataka
and Tamil Nadu.[6] In essence, the decline in the Indian vulture
Indian vulture
has drastically affect the conservation of the environment. By removing all carcasses, vultures help decreases pollution as well as refrain other animals to feed off of poisonous remains. [7]

At nest (Orchha, India)

Captive-breeding programmes[edit] Captive-breeding programmes for several species of Indian vulture
Indian vulture
have been started. The vultures are long lived and slow in breeding, so the programmes are expected to take decades. Vultures reach breeding age at about five years old. It is hoped that captive-bred birds will be released to the wild when the environment is clear of diclofenac. In early 2014 the Saving Asia's Vultures from Extinction (Save) programme announced that it expects to start releasing captive-bred birds into the wild by 2016.[8] Two captive Himalayan Griffon vultures were released in June, 2016 from Jatayu Conservation Breeding Centre, Pinjore
Jatayu Conservation Breeding Centre, Pinjore
as part of Asia's first vulture re-introduction program. [9] References[edit]

^ a b BirdLife International (2016). " Gyps
Gyps
indicus". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. International Union for Conservation of Nature.  ^ Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. (2001). Raptors of the world. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.ISBN 0-618-12762-3 ^ "The Peregrine Fund". The Peregrine Fund. 2010-11-03. Retrieved 2011-05-31.  ^ "BirdLife Fact Sheet: Indian vulture". BirdLife International. Retrieved 11 August 2014.  ^ Jagga, Raakhi (7 August 2011). "Banned diclofenac still kills vultures". Express India. Retrieved 11 August 2014.  ^ Oppili, P. (7 November 2013). "Long-billed Vulture
Vulture
sighted after 40 years". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 August 2014.  ^ Prakash, Vibhu; Bishwakarma, Mohan Chandra; Chaudhary, Anand; Cuthbert, Richard; Dave, Ruchi; Kulkarni, Mandar; Kumar, Sashi; Paudel, Khadananda; Ranade, Sachin (2012-11-07). "The Population Decline of Gyps
Gyps
Vultures in India
India
and Nepal Has Slowed since Veterinary Use of Diclofenac
Diclofenac
was Banned". PLOS ONE. 7 (11): e49118. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049118. ISSN 1932-6203.  ^ Kinver, Mark (31 Jan 2014). "Project targets 2016 for Asian vultures release". BBC News. Retrieved 2 February 2014.  ^ "Asia's first vulture re-introduction programme launched in Haryana". 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gyps
Gyps
indicus.

Conserving Asia's critically endangered vultures Vulture
Vulture
Territory Facts and Characteristics: Long Billed Griffon "Saving Asia's Vultures from Extinction" Consortium Conservation of Vultures in Konkan region

v t e

Vultures

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves

Cathartidae (New World vultures)

Cathartes

Turkey vulture
Turkey vulture
( Cathartes
Cathartes
aura) Lesser yellow-headed vulture
Lesser yellow-headed vulture
( Cathartes
Cathartes
burrovianus) Greater yellow-headed vulture
Greater yellow-headed vulture
( Cathartes
Cathartes
melambrotus)

Coragyps

American black vulture (Coragyps atratus)

Sarcoramphus

King vulture
King vulture
(Sarcoramphus papa)

Gymnogyps

California condor
California condor
(Gymnogyps californianus)

Vultur

Andean condor
Andean condor
(Vultur gryphus)

Accipitridae: Gypaetinae (eagle-vultures)

Eutriorchis

Madagascan serpent eagle
Madagascan serpent eagle
(Eutriorchis astur)

Gypohierax

Palm-nut vulture
Palm-nut vulture
(Gypohierax angolensis)

Polyboroides

Madagascan harrier-hawk
Madagascan harrier-hawk
( Polyboroides
Polyboroides
radiatus) African harrier-hawk ( Polyboroides
Polyboroides
typus)

Neophron

Egyptian vulture
Egyptian vulture
(Neophron percnopterus)

Gypaetus

Bearded vulture
Bearded vulture
(Gypaetus barbatus)

Accipitridae: Gypinae (Old World vultures)

Sarcogyps

Red-headed vulture
Red-headed vulture
(Sarcogyps calvus)

Trigonoceps

White-headed vulture
White-headed vulture
(Trigonoceps occipitalis)

Aegypius

Cinereous vulture
Cinereous vulture
(Aegypius monachus)

Torgos

Lappet-faced vulture
Lappet-faced vulture
(Torgos tracheliotos)

Necrosyrtes

Hooded vulture
Hooded vulture
(Necrosyrtes monachus)

Gyps

White-rumped vulture
White-rumped vulture
( Gyps
Gyps
bengalensis) Himalayan vulture
Himalayan vulture
( Gyps
Gyps
himalayensis) White-backed vulture
White-backed vulture
( Gyps
Gyps
africanus) Rüppell's vulture
Rüppell's vulture
( Gyps
Gyps
rueppellii) Griffon vulture
Griffon vulture
( Gyps
Gyps
fulvus) Indian vulture
Indian vulture
( Gyps
Gyps
indicus) Slender-billed vulture
Slender-billed vulture
( Gyps
Gyps
tenuirostris) Cape vulture
Cape vulture
( Gyps
Gyps
coprothere)

Related topics

Diclofenac Indian vulture
Indian vulture
crisis

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q248086 ADW: Gyps_indicus ARKive: gyps-indicus eBird: indvul1 EoL: 1047562 GBIF: 2480385 iNaturalist: 5369 ITIS: 175489 IUCN: 22729731 NCBI: 341

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