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United Progressive Alliance
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v t e

The Prime Minister of India
India
is the leader of the executive of the Government of India. The prime minister is also the chief adviser to the President of India
President of India
and head of the Council of Ministers. They can be a member of any of the two houses of the Parliament of India
Parliament of India
— the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(Council of States) and the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
(House of People) — but has to be a member of the political party or coalition, having a majority in the Lok Sabha. The prime minister is the senior-most member of cabinet in the executive of government in a parliamentary system. The prime minister selects and can dismiss members of the cabinet; allocates posts to members within the government; and is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. The union cabinet headed by the prime minister is appointed by the President of India
President of India
to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive. Union cabinet is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
as per Article 75(3). The prime minister has to enjoy the confidence of a majority in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
and shall resign if they are unable to prove majority when instructed by the president.

Contents

1 Origins and history

1.1 History

1.1.1 1947-1984 1.1.2 1984-1999 1.1.3 2000-present

2 Constitutional framework and position of prime minister 3 Role and power of the prime minister 4 Appointment

4.1 Eligibility 4.2 Oath 4.3 Removal

5 Compensation 6 Deputy prime minister 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Origins and history[edit] India
India
follows a parliamentary system in which the prime minister is the presiding head of the government and chief of the executive of the government. In such systems, the head of state, or, the head of state's official representative (i.e., the monarch, president, or governor-general) usually holds a purely ceremonial position and acts — on most matters — only on the advice of the prime minister. The prime minister — if they are not already — shall become a member of parliament within six months of beginning his/her tenure. A prime minister is expected to work with other central ministers to ensure the passage of bills by the parliament. History[edit] 1947-1984[edit] Since 1947, there have been 14 different prime ministers.[a] The first few decades after 1947 saw the Indian National Congress' almost complete domination over the political map of India. India's first prime minister — Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
— took oath on August 15, 1947. Nehru went on to serve as prime minister for 17 consecutive years, winning four general elections in the process. His tenure ended in May 1964, on his death.[2][3] After the death of Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri — a former home minister and a leader of the Congress party — ascended to the position of prime minister. Shastri's tenure saw the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Shashtri subsequently died of a reported heart attack in Tashkent, after signing the Tashkent Declaration.[4] After Shastri, Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
— Nehru's daughter — was elected as the country's first woman prime minister. Indira's first term in office lasted 11 years, in which she took steps such as nationalization of banks;[5] end of allowances and political posts, which were received by members of the royal families of the erstwhile princely states of British India.[6] In addition, events such as the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971;[7] the establishment of a sovereign Bangladesh;[8] accession of Sikkim
Sikkim
to India, through a referendum in 1975;[9] and India's first nuclear test in Pokhran
Pokhran
occurred during of Indira's first term. In 1975, President
President
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
— on Indira's advice — imposed a state of emergency, therefore, bestowing the government with the power to rule by decree, the period is known for human right violations.[10][11] After widespread protests, the emergency was lifted in 1977, and a general election was to be held. All of the political parties of the opposition — after the conclusion of the emergency — fought together against the Congress, under the umbrella of the Janata Party, in the general election of 1977, and were successful in defeating the Congress. Subsequently, Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
— a former deputy prime minister — became the first non-Congress prime minister of the country. The government of Prime Minister Desai was composed of groups with opposite ideologies, in which unity and coordination were difficult to maintain. Ultimately, after two and a half years as PM; on 28 July 1979, Morarji tendered his resignation to the president; and his government fell. Thereafter, Charan Singh
Charan Singh
— a deputy prime minister in Desai's cabinet — with outside, conditional support from Congress, proved a majority in Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
and took oath as prime minister.[12][13] However, Congress pulled its support shortly after, and Charan Singh
Charan Singh
had to resign; he had a tenure of 5 months, the shortest in the history of the office. In 1980, after a three-year absence, the Congress returned to power with an absolute majority. Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
was elected prime minister a second time.[14] During her second tenure, Operation Blue Star
Operation Blue Star
— an Indian Army
Indian Army
operation inside the Golden Temple, the most sacred site in Sikhism
Sikhism
— was conducted, resulting in reportedly thousands of deaths.[15] Subsequently, on 31 October 1984, Indira was shot dead by Satwant Singh and Beant Singh — two of her bodyguards — in the garden of her residence at 1, Safdarjung Road, New Delhi.[16] 1984-1999[edit] After Indira, the Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
— her eldest son and 40 years old at the time — was sworn in on the evening of 31 October 1984, becoming the youngest person ever to hold the office of prime minister. Rajiv immediately called for a general election. In the subsequent general election, the Congress secured an absolute majority, winning 401 of 552 seats in the Lok Sabha, the maximum number received by any party in the history of India.[17][18] Vishwanath Pratap Singh — first finance minister and then later defence minister in Rajiv's cabinet — uncovered irregularities, in what became to be known as the Bofors scandal, during his stint at the Ministry of Defence; V. P. Singh
V. P. Singh
was subsequently expelled from Congress and formed the Janata Dal
Janata Dal
and — with the help of several anti-Congress parties — also formed the National Front, a coalition of many political parties.[19] In the general election of 1989, the National Front — with outside support from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Left Front — came to power.[20] V. P. Singh
V. P. Singh
was elected prime minister.[20] During a tenure of less than a year, V. P. Singh
V. P. Singh
and his government accepted the Mandal Commission's recommendations.[21] V. P. Singh's tenure came to an end after he ordered the arrest of BJP leader Lal Krishna Advani,[22] as a result, BJP withdrew its outside support to the government, V. P. Singh
V. P. Singh
lost the subsequent vote-of-no-confidence 146-320 and had to resign.[23] After V. P. Singh's resignation, Chandra Shekhar
Chandra Shekhar
— home minister in V. P. Singh's cabinet — along with 64 members of parliament (MPs) floated the Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya),[24] and proved a majority in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
with support from Congress.[25] But his premiership did not last long, Congress proceeded to withdraw its support; Chandra Shekhar's government fell as a result, and new elections were announced.[26] In the general election of 1991, Congress — under the leadership of P. V. Narasimha Rao
P. V. Narasimha Rao
— formed a minority government; Rao became the first PM of South Indian origin.[27] After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, India
India
was on the brink of bankruptcy, so, Rao took steps to liberalise the economy, and appointed Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
— an economist and a former governor of the Reserve Bank of India
India
— as finance minister.[27] Rao and Manmohan then took various steps to liberalise the economy,[27] these resulted in an unprecedented economic growth in India.[28] His premiership, however, was also a witness to the demolition of the Babri Masjid, which resulted in the death of about 2,000 people.[29] Rao, however, did complete five continuous years in office, becoming the first prime minister outside of the Nehru—Gandhi family to do so.[27] After the end of Rao's tenure in May 1996, the nation saw four prime ministers in a span of three years, viz., two tenures of Atal Bihari Vajpayee; one tenure of H. D. Deve Gowda
H. D. Deve Gowda
from from 1 June 1996 to 21 April, 1997; and one tenure of I. K. Gujral
I. K. Gujral
from 21 April 1997 to 19 March 1998. The government of Prime Minister Vajpayee — elected in 1998 — took some concrete steps. In May 1998 — after a month in power — the government announced the conduct of five underground nuclear explosions in Pokhran.[30] In response to these tests, many western countries, including the United States, imposed economic sanctions on India,[31] but, due to the support received from Russia, France, the Gulf countries and some other nations, the sanctions — were largely — not considered successful.[32][33] A few months later in response to the Indian nuclear tests, Pakistan also conducted nuclear tests.[34] Given the deteriorating situation between the two countries, the governments tried to improve bilateral relations. In February 1999, the India
India
and Pakistan signed the Lahore
Lahore
Declaration, in which the two countries announced their intention to annul mutual enmity, increase trade and use their nuclear capabilities for peaceful purposes.[35] In May 1999, All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) withdrew from the ruling National Democratic Alliance coalition;[36] Vajpayee's government — hence — became a caretaker one after losing a motion-of-no-confidence 269-270, this coincided with the Kargil War
Kargil War
with Pakistan.[37] In the subsequent October 1999 election, BJP-led NDA and its affiliated parties secured a comfortable majority in the Lok Sabha, winning 299 of 444 seats in the lower house.[38] 2000-present[edit] Vajpayee continued the process of economic liberalization during his reign, resulting in economic growth.[39] In addition to the development of infrastructure and basic facilities, the government took several steps to improve the infrastructure of the country, such as, the National Highways Development Project
National Highways Development Project
(NHDP) and the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY; IAST: ;lit. Prime Minister Rural Road Scheme),[40] for the development of roads. But during his reign, the 2002 Gujarat communal riots in the state of Gujarat took place; resulting the about 2,000 deaths.[41] Prime Minister Vajpayee's tenure as prime minister came to an end in May 2004, making him the first non-Congress PM to complete a full five-year tenure.[39] In the 2004 election, the Congress emerged as the largest party in a hung parliament; Congress-led United Progressive Alliance
United Progressive Alliance
(UPA) — with outside support from the Left Front, the Samajwadi Party
Samajwadi Party
(SP) and Bahujan Samaj Party
Bahujan Samaj Party
(BSP) among others — proved a majority in the Lok Sabha,[42] and Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
was elected prime minister; becoming the first Sikh prime minister of the nation.[42] During his tenure, the country retained the economic momentum gained during Prime Minister Vajpayee's tenure.[43] Apart from this, the government succeeded in getting the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005,[44] and the Right to Information Act, 2005
Right to Information Act, 2005
passed in the parliament.[45] Further, the government strengthened India's relations with nations like Afghanistan;[46][47] Russia;[48] and the United States, culminating with the ratification of India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement near the end of Manmohan's first term.[49][50][51] At the same time, the November 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks also happened during Manmohan's first term in office.[52][53] In the general election of 2009, the mandate of UPA increased.[54][55] Prime Minister Manmohan's second term, however, was surrounded by accusations of high-level scandals and corruption.[56][57] Manmohan resigned as prime minister on 17 May 2014, after Congress' defeat in the 2014 general election.[58][59][60] In the general election of 2014, the BJP-led NDA got an absolute majority, winning 312 out of 543 Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
seats; Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
— the Chief Minister of Gujarat — was elected prime minister; becoming the first prime minister to have been born in an independent India.[61] Constitutional framework and position of prime minister[edit] The Constitution envisions a scheme of affairs in which the President of India
India
is the head of state; in terms of Article 53 with office of the prime minister being the head of Council of Ministers to assist and advise the president in the discharge of his/her constitutional functions. To quote, Article 53, 74 and 75 provide as under;

The executive powers of the Union shall be vested in the president and shall be exercised either directly or through subordinate officers, in accordance with the Constitution. — Article 53(1), Constitution of India

There shall be a Council of Ministers with the prime minister at the head to aid and advise the president who shall, in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice. — Article 74(1), Constitution of India

The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President
President
and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the President
President
on the advice of the Prime Minister. — Article 75(1), Constitution of India

Like most parliamentary democracies, the president's duties are mostly ceremonial as long as the constitution and the rule of law is obeyed by the cabinet and the legislature. The Prime Minister of India
India
is the head of government and has the responsibility for executive power. The president's constitutional duty is to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law per Article 60. In the constitution of India, the prime minister is mentioned in only four of its articles (Articles 74, 75, 78 and 366), however he plays a crucial role in the Government of India
India
by enjoying majority in the Lok Sabha. Role and power of the prime minister[edit]

Agencies under the prime minister.

The prime minister leads the functioning and exercise of authority of the Government of India. The President of India
President of India
invites a person (subject to eligibility) who is commanding support of majority members of Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
to form the Government of India
Government of India
— also known as the central government or Union government — at the national level and exercise its powers.[62] In practice the prime minister nominates the members of their council of ministers to the president.[63][64][65] They also work upon to decide a core group of ministers (known as the cabinet),[63] as in charge of the important functions and ministries of the Government of India. The prime minister is responsible for aiding and advising the president in distribution of work of the government to various ministries and offices and in terms of the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961.[66] The co-ordinating work is generally allocated to the Cabinet Secretariat.[67] While the work of the government is generally divided into various Ministries, the prime minister may retain certain portfolios if they are not allocated to any member of the cabinet. The prime minister, in consultation with the cabinet, schedules and attends the sessions of the Houses of Parliament and is required to answer the question from the Members of Parliament to them as the in-charge of the portfolios in the capacity as Prime Minister of India.[68] Some specific ministries/department are not allocated to anyone in the cabinet but the prime minister themself. The prime minister is usually always in charge/head of:

Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions (as Minister of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions) Cabinet Secretariat Appointments Committee of the Cabinet NITI Aayog Department of Atomic Energy Department of Space Nuclear Command Authority

The prime minister represents the country in various delegations, high level meetings and international organisations that require the attendance of the highest government office[69] and also addresses to the nation on various issues of national or other importance.[70] Per Article 78 of the constitution, the official communication between the union cabinet and the president are through the prime minister. Other wise constitution recognises the prime minister as a member of the union cabinet only outside the sphere of union cabinet. Appointment[edit] Eligibility[edit] According to Article 84 of the Constitution of India, which sets the principle qualification for member of Parliament, and Article 75 of the Constitution of India, which sets the qualifications for the minister in the Union Council of Minister, and the argument that the position of prime minister has been described as primus inter pares (first among equals),[71] A prime minister must:

be a citizen of India. be a member of the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
or the Rajya Sabha. If the person chosen as the prime minister is neither a member of the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
nor the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
at the time of selection, they must become a member of either of the houses within six months. be above 25 years of age if they are a member of Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
or above 30 years of age if they are a member of the Rajya Sabha. not hold any office of profit under the Government of India
Government of India
or the government of any State or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments.

If however a candidate is elected as the prime minister they must vacate their post from any private or government company and may take up the post only on completion of their term. Oath[edit] The prime minister is required to make and subscribe in the presence of President of India
President of India
before entering office, the oath of office and secrecy, as per the Third Schedule of the Constitution of India. Oath of office:

I, <name>, do swear in the name of God/solemnly affirm that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India
India
as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India, that I will faithfully and conscientiously discharge my duties as prime minister for the Union and that I will do right to all manner of people in accordance with the Constitution and the law, without fear or favour, affection or ill-will. — Constitution of India, Third Schedule, Part I

Oath of secrecy:

I, <name>, do swear in the name of God/solemnly affirm that I will not directly or indirectly communicate or reveal to any person or persons any matter which shall be brought under my consideration or shall become known to me as prime minister for the Union except as may be required for the due discharge of my duties as such Minister. — Constitution of India, Third Schedule, Part II

Removal[edit] Upon ceasing to possess the requisite qualifications to be a member of Parliament subject to the Representation of the People Act, 1951.[72] Compensation[edit] By Article 75 of the constitution of India, remuneration of the prime minister as well as other ministers are to be decided by the Parliament[73] and is renewed from time to time. The original remuneration for prime minister and other ministers were specified in the Part B of the second schedule of the constitution, which was later removed by an amendment. In 2010, the prime minister's office reported that he did not receive a formal salary, but was only entitled to monthly allowances.[74] That same year The Economist
The Economist
reported that, on a purchasing power parity basis, the prime minister received an equivalent of $4106 per year. As a percentage of the country's per-capita GDP (Gross Domestic Product), this is the lowest of all countries The Economist
The Economist
surveyed.[75]

Prime minister
Prime minister
monthly pay and allowances

Salary in Oct 2009 Salary in Oct 2010 Salary in Jul 2012

₹100,000 (US$1,500) ₹135,000 (US$2,100) ₹160,000 (US$2,500)

Reference [1]

The 7, Lok Kalyan Marg
7, Lok Kalyan Marg
( earlier name was Race Course Road) in New Delhi, serves as the official place of residence for the Prime Minister of India. For ground travel, the prime minister uses the highly modified armoured BMW 7 Series (F01), while for air travel, an aircraft designated by the call sign Air India
India
One is used. The Special Protection Group
Special Protection Group
is charged with protecting the sitting prime minister and his/her family. Deputy prime minister[edit] Main article: Deputy Prime Minister of India

Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Patel
was the first Deputy Prime Minister of India.

The post of Deputy Prime Minister of India
Deputy Prime Minister of India
is not technically a constitutional post, nor is there any mention of it in an Act of the parliament.[76] But historically, on various occasions, different governments have assigned one of their senior ministers as the 'deputy prime minister'. There is neither constitutional requirement for filling the post of deputy PM, nor does the post provide any kind of special powers.[76] Typically, senior cabinet ministers like the finance minister or the home minister are appointed as deputy prime minister. The post is considered to be the senior most in the cabinet after the prime minister and represents the government in his/her absence. Generally, deputy prime ministers have been appointed to strengthen the coalition governments. The first holder of this post was Vallabhbhai Patel, who was also the home minister in Jawaharlal Nehru's cabinet. See also[edit]

India
India
portal

List of Presidents of India List of Prime Ministers of India Deputy Prime Minister of India List of Prime Ministers of India
India
by longevity Air transports of heads of state and government Official state car

Notes[edit]

^ Not including Gulzarilal Nanda
Gulzarilal Nanda
who served, twice, as acting prime minister.

References[edit]

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