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Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent. The principal schools are classified as either orthodox or heterodox – āstika or nāstika – depending on one of three alternate criteria: whether it believes the Vedas
Vedas
are a valid source of knowledge; whether the school believes in the premises of Brahman
Brahman
and Atman; and whether the school believes in afterlife and Devas.[1][2][3] There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
and Vedanta, and five major heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Cārvāka. However, there are other methods of classification; Vidyaranya for instance identifies sixteen schools of Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
by including those that belong to the Śaiva and Raseśvara traditions.[4][5] The main schools of Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
were formalised chiefly between 1000 BCE to the early centuries of the Common Era. Competition and integration between the various schools was intense during their formative years, especially between 800 BCE and 200 CE. Some schools like Jainism, Buddhism, Yoga, Śaiva and Vedanta
Vedanta
survived, but others, like Ajñana, Charvaka and Ājīvika
Ājīvika
did not. Ancient and medieval era texts of Indian philosophies include extensive discussions on Ontology
Ontology
(metaphysics, Brahman-Atman, Sunyata-Anatta), reliable means of knowledge (epistemology, Pramanas), value system (axiology) and other topics.[6][7][8]

Contents

1 Common themes 2 Orthodox schools 3 Heterodox (Śramaṇic schools)

3.1 Ajñana philosophy 3.2 Jain philosophy 3.3 Buddhist philosophy 3.4 Ājīvika
Ājīvika
philosophy 3.5 Cārvāka philosophy

4 Comparison of Indian philosophies 5 Political philosophy 6 Influence 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Sources

10 Further reading 11 External links

Common themes[edit]

Indian philosophical traditions

Earliest Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
were arranged and codified by Hindu Vedic sages, such as Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
(c. 8th century BCE), who is considered one of the earliest philosophers in recorded history, after Aruni
Aruni
(c. 8th century BCE).[9]

Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
was propagated by Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha (c. 872 – c. 772 BCE) and Mahavira
Mahavira
(c. 549–477 BCE).

Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
was founded by Gautama Buddha
Buddha
(c. 563–483 BCE).

Sikh philosophy
Sikh philosophy
was crystalised in Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
enshrined by Guru Gobind Singh (c. 1666–1708 CE).

Indian philosophies share many concepts such as dharma, karma, samsara, reincarnation, dukkha, renunciation, meditation, with almost all of them focussing on the ultimate goal of liberation of the individual through diverse range of spiritual practices (moksha, nirvana).[10] They differ in their assumptions about the nature of existence as well as the specifics of the path to the ultimate liberation, resulting in numerous schools that disagreed with each other. Their ancient doctrines span the diverse range of philosophies found in other ancient cultures.[11] Orthodox schools[edit] Main articles: Hindu philosophy, Hinduism, Vedas, and Upanishads

Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
has a diversity of traditions and numerous saints and scholars, such as Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
school.

Many Hindu intellectual traditions were classified during the medieval period of Brahmanic-Sanskritic scholasticism into a standard list of six orthodox (Astika) schools (darshanas), the "Six Philosophies" (ṣaḍ-darśana), all of which accept the testimony of the Vedas.[12][13][14]

Samkhya, the rationalism school with dualism and atheistic themes[15][16] Yoga, a school similar to Samkhya
Samkhya
but accepts personally defined theistic themes[17] Nyaya, the realism school emphasizing analytics and logic[18][19] Vaisheshika, the naturalism school with atomistic themes and related to the Nyaya
Nyaya
school[20][21] Purva Mimamsa
Purva Mimamsa
(or simply Mimamsa), the ritualism school with Vedic exegesis and philology emphasis,[22][23] and Vedanta
Vedanta
(also called Uttara Mimamsa), the Upanishadic tradition, with many sub-schools ranging from dualism to nondualism.[24][25]

These are often coupled into three groups for both historical and conceptual reasons: Nyaya-Vaishesika, Samkhya-Yoga, and Mimamsa-Vedanta. The Vedanta
Vedanta
school is further divided into six sub-schools: Advaita
Advaita
(monism/nondualism), also includes the concept of Ajativada, Visishtadvaita
Visishtadvaita
(monism of the qualified whole), Dvaita (dualism), Dvaitadvaita (dualism-nondualism), Suddhadvaita, and Achintya Bheda Abheda schools. Besides these schools Mādhava Vidyāraṇya also includes the following of the aforementioned theistic philosophies based on the Agamas and Tantras:[4]

Pasupata, school of Shaivism
Shaivism
by Nakulisa Saiva, the theistic Sankhya school Pratyabhijña, the recognitive school Raseśvara, the mercurial school Pāṇini
Pāṇini
Darśana, the grammarian school (which clarifies the theory of Sphoṭa)

The systems mentioned here are not the only orthodox systems, they are the chief ones, and there are other orthodox schools. These systems, accept the authority of Vedas
Vedas
and are regarded as orthodox (astika) schools of Hindu philosophy; besides these, schools that do not accept the authority of the Vedas
Vedas
are heterodox (nastika) systems such as Buddhism, Jainism, Ajivika
Ajivika
and Cārvāka.[26][27][28] This orthodox-heterodox terminology is a construct of Western languages, and lacks scholarly roots in Sanskrit. According to Andrew Nicholson, there have been various heresiological translations of Āstika and Nāstika in 20th century literature on Indian philosophies, but quite many are unsophisticated and flawed.[3]

Cārvāka / Charvaka is a materialistic and atheistic school of thought and, is noteworthy as evidence of a materialistic movement within Hinduism.[29]

Heterodox (Śramaṇic schools)[edit] Main article: Śramaṇa Several Śramaṇic movements have existed before the 6th century BCE, and these influenced both the āstika and nāstika traditions of Indian philosophy.[30] The Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movement gave rise to diverse range of heterodox beliefs, ranging from accepting or denying the concept of soul, atomism, antinomian ethics, materialism, atheism, agnosticism, fatalism to free will, idealization of extreme asceticism to that of family life, strict ahimsa (non-violence) and vegetarianism to permissibility of violence and meat-eating.[31] Notable philosophies that arose from Śramaṇic movement were Jainism, early Buddhism, Cārvāka, Ajñana and Ājīvika.[32] Ajñana philosophy[edit] Main article: Ajñana Ajñana was one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of ancient Indian philosophy, and the ancient school of radical Indian skepticism. It was a Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movement and a major rival of early Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism. They have been recorded in Buddhist and Jain texts. They held that it was impossible to obtain knowledge of metaphysical nature or ascertain the truth value of philosophical propositions; and even if knowledge was possible, it was useless and disadvantageous for final salvation. They were sophists who specialised in refutation without propagating any positive doctrine of their own.

Rishabhanatha, believed to have lived over a million years ago, is considered the founder of Jain philosophy.

Jain philosophy[edit] Main articles: Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
and Jainism Jainism
Jainism
came into formal being after Mahavira
Mahavira
synthesised philosophies and promulgations of the ancient Śramaṇic traditions, during the period around 550 BC, in the region that is present day Bihar
Bihar
in northern India.[citation needed] Jainism, like Buddhism, is a Śramaṇic religion and rejected the authority of the Vedas. However, like all Indian religions, it shares the core concepts such as karma, ethical living, rebirth, samsara and moksha. Jainism
Jainism
places strong emphasis on asceticism ahimsa (non-violence) and anekantavada (relativity of viewpoints) as a means of spiritual liberation, ideas that influenced other Indian traditions.[33] According to Dundas, outside of the Jain tradition, historians date the Mahavira
Mahavira
as about contemporaneous with the Buddha in the 5th-century BC, and accordingly the historical Parshvanatha, based on the c. 250-year gap, is placed in 8th or 7th century BC.[34] Buddhist philosophy[edit] Main articles: Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
and Early Buddhism

The Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
is based on the teachings of the Buddha.

Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
is a system of thought which started with the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, or "awakened one". Buddhism
Buddhism
is founded on elements of the Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movement, which flowered in the first half of the 1st millennium BCE, but its foundations contain novel ideas not found or accepted by other Sramana movements. Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism
Hinduism
mutually influenced each other and shared many concepts, states Paul Williams, however it is now difficult to identify and describe these influences.[35] Buddhism rejected the Vedic concepts of Brahman
Brahman
(ultimate reality) and Atman (soul, self) at the foundation of Hindu philosophies.[36][37][38] Buddhism
Buddhism
shares many philosophical views with other Indian systems, such as belief in karma – a cause-and-effect relationship, samsara – ideas about cyclic afterlife and rebirth, dharma – ideas about ethics, duties and values, impermanence of all material things and of body, and possibility of spiritual liberation (nirvana or moksha).[39][40] A major departure from Hindu and Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
is the Buddhist rejection of an eternal soul (atman) in favour of anatta (non-Self).[41]

Monastic life has been a part of all Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
traditions. Mendicant caves of extinct Ājīvikas in Bihar.[42]

Ājīvika
Ājīvika
philosophy[edit] Main article: Ājīvika The philosophy of Ājīvika
Ājīvika
was founded by Makkhali Gosala, it was a Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movement and a major rival of early Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism.[43] Ājīvikas were organised renunciates who formed discrete monastic communities prone to an ascetic and simple lifestyle.[44] Original scriptures of the Ājīvika
Ājīvika
school of philosophy may once have existed, but these are currently unavailable and probably lost. Their theories are extracted from mentions of Ajivikas in the secondary sources of ancient Indian literature, particularly those of Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
which polemically criticized the Ajivikas.[45] The Ājīvika
Ājīvika
school is known for its Niyati doctrine of absolute determinism (fate), the premise that there is no free will, that everything that has happened, is happening and will happen is entirely preordained and a function of cosmic principles.[45][46] Ājīvika considered the karma doctrine as a fallacy.[47] Ājīvikas were atheists[48] and rejected the authority of the Vedas, but they believed that in every living being is an ātman – a central premise of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism.[49][50] Cārvāka philosophy[edit] Main article: Cārvāka Cārvāka or Lokāyata was a philosophy of scepticism and materialism, founded in the Mauryan
Mauryan
period. They were extremely critical of other schools of philosophy of the time. Cārvāka deemed Vedas
Vedas
to be tainted by the three faults of untruth, self-contradiction, and tautology.[51] Likewise they faulted Buddhists and Jains, mocking the concept of liberation, reincarnation and accumulation of merit or demerit through karma.[52] They believed that, the viewpoint of relinquishing pleasure to avoid pain was the "reasoning of fools".[51] Comparison of Indian philosophies[edit] The Indian traditions subscribed to diverse philosophies, significantly disagreeing with each other as well as orthodox Hinduism and its six schools of Hindu philosophy. The differences ranged from a belief that every individual has a soul (self, atman) to asserting that there is no soul,[53] from axiological merit in a frugal ascetic life to that of a hedonistic life, from a belief in rebirth to asserting that there is no rebirth.[54]

Comparison of ancient Indian philosophies

Ājīvika Early Buddhism Cārvāka Jainism Orthodox schools of Hinduism (Non-Śramaṇic)

Karma Denies[47][55] Affirms[54] Denies[54] Affirms[54] Affirms

Samsara, Rebirth Affirms Affirms[56] Denies[57] Affirms[54] Some school affirm, some not[58]

Ascetic life Affirms Affirms Affirms[54] Affirms Affirms as Sannyasa[59]

Rituals, Bhakti Affirms Affirms, optional[60] (Pali: Bhatti) Denies Affirms, optional[61] Theistic school: Affirms, optional[62] Others: Deny[63][64]

Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and Vegetarianism Affirms Affirms, Unclear on meat as food[65]

Strongest proponent of non-violence; Vegetarianism to avoid violence against animals[66] Affirms as highest virtue, but Just War affirmed Vegetarianism encouraged, but choice left to the Hindu[67][68]

Free will Denies[46] Affirms[69] Affirms Affirms Affirms[70]

Maya Affirms[71] Affirms (prapañca)[72] Denies Affirms Affirms[73][74]

Atman (Soul, Self) Affirms Denies[53] Denies[75] Affirms[76]:119 Affirms[77]

Creator God Denies Denies Denies Denies Theistic schools: Affirm[78] Others: Deny[79][80]

Epistemology (Pramana) Pratyakṣa, Anumāṇa, Śabda Pratyakṣa, Anumāṇa[81][82] Pratyakṣa[83] Pratyakṣa, Anumāṇa, Śabda[81] Various, Vaisheshika (two) to Vedanta
Vedanta
(six):[81][84] Pratyakṣa (perception), Anumāṇa (inference), Upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), Arthāpatti (postulation, derivation), Anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof), Śabda (Reliable testimony)

Epistemic authority Denies: Vedas Affirms: Buddha
Buddha
text[85] Denies: Vedas Denies: Vedas Affirms: Jain Agamas Denies: Vedas Affirm: Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads,[note 1] Affirm: other texts[85][87]

Salvation (Soteriology) Samsdrasuddhi[88] Nirvana (realize Śūnyatā)[89]

Siddha[90] Moksha, Nirvana, Kaivalya Advaita, Yoga, others: Jivanmukti[91] Dvaita, theistic: Videhamukti

Metaphysics (Ultimate Reality)

Śūnyatā[92][93]

Anekāntavāda[94] Brahman[95][96]

Political philosophy[edit] The Arthashastra, attributed to the Mauryan
Mauryan
minister Chanakya, is one of the early Indian texts devoted to political philosophy. It is dated to 4th century BCE and discusses ideas of statecraft and economic policy. The political philosophy most closely associated with India
India
is the one of ahimsa (non-violence) and Satyagraha, popularised by Mahatma Gandhi during the Indian struggle for independence. It was influenced by the Indian Dharmic philosophy, particularly the Buddha, Bhagvata Gita, as well as secular writings of authors such as Leo Tolstoy, Henry David Thoreau and John Ruskin.[97] In turn it influenced the later movements for independence and civil rights, especially those led by Martin Luther King, Jr. and to a lesser extent Nelson Mandela.[98] Influence[edit] In appreciation of complexity of the Indian philosophy, T S Eliot wrote that the great philosophers of India
India
"make most of the great European philosophers look like schoolboys".[99][100] Arthur Schopenhauer used Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
to improve upon Kantian
Kantian
thought. In the preface to his book The World As Will And Representation, Schopenhauer writes that one who "has also received and assimilated the sacred primitive Indian wisdom, then he is the best of all prepared to hear what I have to say to him"[101] The 19th century American philosophical movement Transcendentalism
Transcendentalism
was also influenced by Indian thought[102][103] See also[edit]

India
India
portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portal Jainism
Jainism
portal Buddhism
Buddhism
portal

Affectionism Indian logic Indian art M Hiriyanna Svayam bhagavan Trikaranasuddhi

Notes[edit]

^ Elisa Freschi (2012): The Vedas
Vedas
are not deontic authorities and may be disobeyed, but still recognized as an epistemic authority by a Hindu;[86] (Note: This differentiation between epistemic and deontic authority is true for all Indian religions)

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ John Bowker, Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, p. 259 ^ Wendy Doniger (2014). On Hinduism. Oxford University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-19-936008-6.  ^ a b Andrew J. Nicholson (2013), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy
Philosophy
and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231149877, Chapter 9 ^ a b Cowell and Gough, p. xii. ^ Nicholson, pp. 158-162. ^ Roy W. Perrett (2001). Indian Philosophy: Metaphysics. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-8153-3608-2.  ^ Stephen H Phillips (2013). Epistemology
Epistemology
in Classical India: The Knowledge Sources of the Nyaya
Nyaya
School. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-51898-0.  ^ Arvind Sharma (1982). The Puruṣārthas: a study in Hindu axiology. Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University. ; Purusottama Bilimoria; Joseph Prabhu; Renuka M. Sharma (2007). Indian Ethics: Classical traditions and contemporary challenges. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-3301-3.  ^ Ben-Ami Scharfstein (1998), A comparative history of world philosophy: from the Upanishads
Upanishads
to Kant, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 9-11 ^ Kathleen Kuiper (2010). The Culture of India. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 174–178. ISBN 978-1-61530-149-2.  ^ Sue Hamilton (2001). Indian Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–17, 136–140. ISBN 978-0-19-157942-4.  ^ Flood, op. cit., p. 231–232. ^ Michaels, p. 264. ^ Nicholson 2010. ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga
Yoga
- An Indian Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415648875, pages 43-46 ^ Tom Flynn and Richard Dawkins (2007), The New Encyclopedia of Unbelief, Prometheus, ISBN 978-1591023913, pages 420-421 ^ Edwin Bryant (2011, Rutgers University), The Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali
Patanjali
IEP ^ Nyaya
Nyaya
Realism, in Perceptual Experience and Concepts in Classical Indian Philosophy, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Philosophy
(2015) ^ Nyaya: Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
Encyclopædia Britannica (2014) ^ Dale Riepe (1996), Naturalistic Tradition in Indian Thought, ISBN 978-8120812932, pages 227-246 ^ Analytical philosophy in early modern India
India
J Ganeri, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ^ Oliver Leaman (2006), Shruti, in Encyclopaedia of Asian Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415862530, page 503 ^ Mimamsa Encyclopædia Britannica (2014) ^ JN Mohanty (2001), Explorations in Philosophy, Vol 1 (Editor: Bina Gupta), Oxford University Press, page 107-108 ^ Oliver Leaman (2000), Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415173582, page 251; R Prasad (2009), A Historical-developmental Study of Classical Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
of Morals, Concept Publishing, ISBN 978-8180695957, pages 345-347 ^ Roy Perrett (2000), Indian Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, page 88 ^ Sushil Mittal & Gene Thursby (2004), The Hindu World, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415772273, pages 729-730 ^ Flood 1996, pp. 82, 224–49. ^ Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
and Charles A. Moore. A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy'249. ISBN 0-691-01958-4. ^ Reginald Ray (1999), Buddhist Saints in India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195134834, pages 237-240, 247-249 ^ Padmanabh S Jaini (2001), Collected papers on Buddhist Studies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120817760, pages 57-77 ^ AL Basham (1951), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048, pages 94-103 ^ Jay L. Garfield; William Edelglass (2011). The Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy. Oxford University Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-19-532899-8.  ^ Dundas 2002, pp. 30–31. ^ Paul Williams (2008). Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. Routledge. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-1-134-25057-8.  ^ Robert Neville (2004). Jeremiah Hackett, ed. Philosophy
Philosophy
of Religion for a New Century: Essays in Honor of Eugene Thomas Long. Jerald Wallulis. Springer. p. 257. ISBN 978-1-4020-2073-5. , Quote: "[Buddhism's ontological hypotheses] that nothing in reality has its own-being and that all phenomena reduce to the relativities of pratitya samutpada. The Buddhist ontological hypothesese deny that there is any ontologically ultimate object such a God, Brahman, the Dao, or any transcendent creative source or principle." ^ Anatta
Anatta
Buddhism, Encyclopædia Britannica (2013) ^ [a] Christmas Humphreys (2012). Exploring Buddhism. Routledge. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-1-136-22877-3.  [b] Gombrich (2006), page 47, Quote: "(...) Buddha's teaching that beings have no soul, no abiding essence. This 'no-soul doctrine' (anatta-vada) he expounded in his second sermon." ^ Brian K. Smith (1998). Reflections on Resemblance, Ritual, and Religion. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 14. ISBN 978-81-208-1532-2.  ^ Peter J. Claus; Sarah Diamond; Margaret Ann Mills (2003). South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Routledge. pp. 322–323. ISBN 978-0-415-93919-5.  ^ [a] Anatta, Encyclopædia Britannica (2013), Quote: " Anatta
Anatta
in Buddhism, the doctrine that there is in humans no permanent, underlying soul. The concept of anatta, or anatman, is a departure from the Hindu belief in atman ("the self")."; [b] Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791422175, page 64; "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence."; [c] John C. Plott et al (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120801585, page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism"; [d] Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist 'No-Self' Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy
Philosophy
Now; [e] David Loy (1982), Enlightenment in Buddhism
Buddhism
and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta: Are Nirvana
Nirvana
and Moksha
Moksha
the Same?, International Philosophical Quarterly, Volume 23, Issue 1, pages 65-74 ^ Pia Brancaccio (2014). Cave Architecture of India, in Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer. pp. 1–9. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-3934-5_9848-1. ISBN 978-94-007-3934-5.  ^ Jeffrey D Long (2009), Jainism: An Introduction, Macmillan, ISBN 978-1845116255, page 199 ^ Basham 1951, pp. 145-146. ^ a b Basham 1951, Chapter 1. ^ a b James Lochtefeld, "Ajivika", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0823931798, page 22 ^ a b Ajivikas World Religions Project, University of Cumbria, United Kingdom ^ Johannes Quack (2014), The Oxford Handbook of Atheism (Editors: Stephen Bullivant, Michael Ruse), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199644650, page 654 ^ Analayo (2004), Satipaṭṭhāna: The Direct Path to Realization, ISBN 978-1899579549, pages 207-208 ^ Basham 1951, pp. 240-261, 270-273. ^ a b Cowell and Gough, p. 4 ^ Bhattacharya, Ramkrishna. Materialism
Materialism
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Sources[edit]

Dundas, Paul (2002) [1992], The Jains (Second ed.), Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X  Nicholson, Andrew J. (2010), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy
Philosophy
and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press 

Further reading[edit]

Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary (Fourth Revised and Enlarged ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0567-4.  Basham, A.L. (1951). History and Doctrines of the Ājīvikas (2nd ed.). Delhi, India: Moltilal Banarsidass (Reprint: 2002). ISBN 81-208-1204-2.  originally published by Luzac & Company Ltd., London, 1951. Balcerowicz, Piotr (2015). Early Asceticism
Asceticism
in India: Ājīvikism and Jainism
Jainism
(1st ed.). Routledge. p. 368. ISBN 9781317538530.  Cowell, E. B.; Gough, A. E. (2001). The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu Philosophy: Trubner's Oriental Series. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-24517-3.  Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43878-0  Gandhi, M.K. (1961). Non-Violent Resistance (Satyagraha). New York: Schocken Books.  Jain, Dulichand (1998). Thus Spake Lord Mahavir. Chennai: Sri Ramakrishna Math. ISBN 81-7120-825-8.  Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. New York: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08953-1.  Radhakrishnan, S (1929). Indian Philosophy, Volume 1. Muirhead library of philosophy (2nd ed.). London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.  Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, CA (1967). A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princeton. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.  Stevenson, Leslie (2004). Ten theories of human nature. Oxford University Press.  4th edition. Hiriyanna, M. (1995). Essentials of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidas. ISBN 978-81-208-1304-5. 

External links[edit]

A History of Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
HTML ebook (vol. 1) (vol. 2) (vol. 3) (vol. 4) (vol. 5) A recommended reading guide from the philosophy department of University College, London: London Philosophy
Philosophy
Study Guide — Indian Philosophy Articles at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Indian Psychology Institute The application of Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
to contemporary issues in Psychology A History of Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
by Surendranath Dasgupta (5 Volumes) at archive.org Indian Idealism by Surendranath Dasgupta at archive.org The Essentials of Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
by Prof. Mysore Hiriyanna at archive.org Outlines of Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
by Prof. Mysore Hiriyanna at archive.org Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
by Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(2 Volumes) at archive.org History of Philosophy
Philosophy
– Eastern and Western Edited by Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (2 Volumes) at archive.org Indian Schools of Philosophy
Philosophy
and Theology (Jiva Institute)

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