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The Info List - Indian Palm Squirrel





Sciurus brodei Blyth, 1849 Sciurus indicus Lesson, 1835 Sciurus kelaarti Layard, 1851 Sciurus palmarum Linnaeus, 1766 Sciurus pencillatus Leach, 1814

The Indian palm squirrel
Indian palm squirrel
or three-striped palm squirrel (Funambulus palmarum) is a species of rodent in the family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
found naturally in India
India
(south of the Vindhyas) and Sri Lanka. In the late 19th century, the palm squirrel was introduced to Madagascar, Réunion, Mayotte, Comoro Islands, Mauritius, Seychelles
Seychelles
and Australia, where it has since become a minor pest.[3][4] The closely related five-striped palm squirrel, F. pennantii, is found in northern India, and its range partly overlaps with this species.

Contents

1 Description 2 Life cycle 3 Diet and behaviour 4 Importance in Hinduism 5 Subspecies 6 References 7 External links

Description[edit]

Indian palm squirrel, Bangalore, India

Indian palm squirrel

An Indian palm squirrel
Indian palm squirrel
with its pup

The palm squirrel is about the size of a large chipmunk, with a bushy tail slightly shorter than its body. The back is a grizzled, grey-brown colour with three conspicuous white stripes which run from head to tail. The two outer stripes run from the forelegs to the hind legs only. It has a creamy-white belly and a tail covered with interspersed, long, black and white hair. The ears are small and triangular. Juvenile squirrels have significantly lighter coloration, which gets progressively darker as they age. Albinism
Albinism
is rare, but exists in this species. Life cycle[edit]

An Indian palm squirrel
Indian palm squirrel
nest

The gestation period is 34 days; breeding takes place in grass nests during the autumn. Litters of two or three are common, and average 2.75. The young are weaned after about 10 weeks and are sexually mature at 9 months. Adult weight is 100 g. Little is known about their longevity, but one specimen lived 5.5 years in captivity.[5]

A pair of baby three striped Indian palm squirrels, a week after they were rescued. The squirrels had fallen from a coconut tree.

Diet and behaviour[edit] These squirrels eat mainly nuts and fruits. They are fairly vocal, with a cry that sounds like "chip chip chip" when danger is present. They are opportunists in urban areas, and can be easily domesticated and trained to accept food from humans. Naturally active, their activity reaches levels of frenzy during the mating season. They tend to be very protective of their food sources, often guarding and defending them from birds and other squirrels. Unlike some other species of squirrel, the Indian palm squirrel
Indian palm squirrel
does not hibernate. Importance in Hinduism[edit] Squirrels are considered sacred in India
India
and are not to be harmed. They are even fed by many Hindu
Hindu
families, mainly because of their association with Lord Rama. A legend explains the stripes on the back of most of the squirrels. During the construction of the Rama Setu
Rama Setu
(bridge) at Rameswaram
Rameswaram
by Lord Rama
Lord Rama
and the Vanara Sena, a little squirrel also contributed in its own little way. It rolled in the beach sand and then ran to the end of the bridge to shake off the sand from its back (chanting Lord Rama's name all along). Lord Rama, pleased by the creature's dedication, caressed the squirrel's back and ever since, the Indian squirrel carried white stripes on its back, which are believed to be the mark of Lord Rama's fingers.[6] Lord Rama
Lord Rama
and the squirrel are mentioned in one of the hymns of the Alvars. Subspecies[edit] Generally four valid subspecies are described according to the geographic distribution. But many more subspecies are also described, but not given validity.[7]

Valid subspecies

Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum bellaricus Wroughton, 1916 Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum palmarum (Linnaeus, 1766) Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum brodiei (Blyth, 1849) Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum robertsoni Wroughton, 1916

Invalid subspecies

? Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum bengalensis Wroughton, 1916 ? Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum comorinus Wroughton, 1905 ? Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum gossei Wroughton and Davidson, 1919 ? Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum kelaarti (Layard, 1851) ? Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum matugamensis Lindsay, 1926 ? Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum olympius Thomas and Wroughton, 1915 ? Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum penicillatus (Leach, 1814) ? Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum favonicus Thomas and Wroughton, 1915

References[edit]

^ Nameer, P. O. & Molur, S. (2008). " Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 January 2009.  ^ Thorington, R.W., Jr.; Hoffmann, R.S. (2005). "Family Sciuridae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference (3rd ed.). The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 754–818. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4. OCLC 26158608.  ^ Long, J. L. (2003). Introduced Mammals of the World: Their History, Distribution and Influence. Csiro Publishing, Collingwood, Australia. ISBN 9780643099166 ^ Farmnote 113/2000, Government of Western Australia
Australia
Department and Agriculture and Food, retrieved 8/14/2008 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-01. Retrieved 2008-08-14.  ^ Human Ageing Genomic Resources, AnAge database, retrieved 7/30/2007 AnAge entry for Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum ^ http://www.ecoheritage.cpreec.org/Viewcontall.php?$mFJyBfK$MkoNJ@juGn2 ^ http://www.planet-mammiferes.org/drupal/en/node/35?class=&where_classif=10&1_=1&2_=2&3_=4&4_=21&5_=30&6_=125&7_=225&8_=1003&9_=&10_=&11_=&go=&

External links[edit]

Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum on Wikispecies

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum

v t e

Extant species of family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(subfamily Callosciurinae)

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Suborder: Sciuromorpha

Callosciurus

Ear-spot squirrel
Ear-spot squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
adamsi) Kloss's squirrel
Kloss's squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
albescens) Kinabalu squirrel
Kinabalu squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
baluensis) Grey-bellied squirrel
Grey-bellied squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
caniceps) Pallas's squirrel
Pallas's squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
erythraeus) Finlayson's squirrel
Finlayson's squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
finlaysonii) Inornate squirrel
Inornate squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
inornatus) Mentawai squirrel ( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
melanogaster) Black-striped squirrel
Black-striped squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
nigrovittatus) Plantain squirrel
Plantain squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
notatus) Borneo black-banded squirrel
Borneo black-banded squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
orestes) Phayre's squirrel
Phayre's squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
phayrei) Prevost's squirrel
Prevost's squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
prevostii) Irrawaddy squirrel ( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
pygerythrus) Anderson's squirrel
Anderson's squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
quinquestriatus)

Dremomys (Red-cheeked squirrels)

Bornean mountain ground squirrel
Bornean mountain ground squirrel
(Dremomys everetti) Red-throated squirrel
Red-throated squirrel
(Dremomys gularis) Orange-bellied Himalayan squirrel
Orange-bellied Himalayan squirrel
(Dremomys lokriah) Perny's long-nosed squirrel
Perny's long-nosed squirrel
(Dremomys pernyi) Red-hipped squirrel
Red-hipped squirrel
(Dremomys pyrrhomerus) Asian red-cheeked squirrel
Asian red-cheeked squirrel
(Dremomys rufigenis)

Exilisciurus

Philippine pygmy squirrel
Philippine pygmy squirrel
( Exilisciurus
Exilisciurus
concinnus) Least pygmy squirrel
Least pygmy squirrel
( Exilisciurus
Exilisciurus
exilis) Tufted pygmy squirrel
Tufted pygmy squirrel
( Exilisciurus
Exilisciurus
whiteheadi)

Glyphotes

Sculptor squirrel
Sculptor squirrel
(Glyphotes simus)

Hyosciurus

Montane long-nosed squirrel
Montane long-nosed squirrel
( Hyosciurus heinrichi) Lowland long-nosed squirrel
Lowland long-nosed squirrel
( Hyosciurus ileile)

Lariscus (striped ground squirrels)

Four-striped ground squirrel
Four-striped ground squirrel
( Lariscus hosei) Three-striped ground squirrel
Three-striped ground squirrel
( Lariscus insignis) Niobe ground squirrel
Niobe ground squirrel
( Lariscus niobe) Mentawai three-striped squirrel
Mentawai three-striped squirrel
( Lariscus obscurus)

Menetes

Berdmore's ground squirrel
Berdmore's ground squirrel
(Menetes berdmorei)

Nannosciurus

Black-eared squirrel
Black-eared squirrel
(Nannosciurus melanotis)

Prosciurillus

Secretive dwarf squirrel
Secretive dwarf squirrel
( Prosciurillus
Prosciurillus
abstrusus) Whitish dwarf squirrel
Whitish dwarf squirrel
( Prosciurillus
Prosciurillus
leucomus) Celebes dwarf squirrel
Celebes dwarf squirrel
( Prosciurillus
Prosciurillus
murinus) Sanghir squirrel
Sanghir squirrel
( Prosciurillus
Prosciurillus
rosenbergii) Weber's dwarf squirrel
Weber's dwarf squirrel
( Prosciurillus
Prosciurillus
weberi)

Rhinosciurus

Shrew-faced squirrel
Shrew-faced squirrel
(Rhinosciurus laticaudatus)

Rubrisciurus

Red-bellied squirrel
Red-bellied squirrel
(Rubrisciurus rubriventer)

Sundasciurus

Subgenus Aletesciurus: Davao squirrel
Davao squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
davensis) Horse-tailed squirrel
Horse-tailed squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
hippurus) Northern Palawan tree squirrel
Northern Palawan tree squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
juvencus) Mindanao squirrel
Mindanao squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
mindanensis) Culion tree squirrel
Culion tree squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
moellendorffi) Philippine tree squirrel
Philippine tree squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
philippinensis) Palawan montane squirrel
Palawan montane squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
rabori) Samar squirrel
Samar squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
samarensis) Southern Palawan tree squirrel
Southern Palawan tree squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
steerii)

Subgenus Sundasciurus: Brooke's squirrel
Brooke's squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
brookei) Fraternal squirrel
Fraternal squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
fraterculus) Jentink's squirrel
Jentink's squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
jentinki) Low's squirrel
Low's squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
lowii) Slender squirrel
Slender squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
tenuis)

Tamiops (Asiatic striped squirrels)

Himalayan striped squirrel
Himalayan striped squirrel
(Tamiops mcclellandii) Maritime striped squirrel
Maritime striped squirrel
(Tamiops maritimus) Cambodian striped squirrel
Cambodian striped squirrel
(Tamiops rodolphii) Swinhoe's striped squirrel
Swinhoe's striped squirrel
(Tamiops swinhoei)

Funambulus

Subgenus Funambulus: Layard's palm squirrel
Layard's palm squirrel
( Funambulus
Funambulus
layardi) Indian palm squirrel
Indian palm squirrel
( Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum) Nilgiri palm squirrel
Nilgiri palm squirrel
( Funambulus
Funambulus
sublineatus) Dusky palm squirrel ( Funambulus
Funambulus
obscurus) Jungle palm squirrel
Jungle palm squirrel
( Funambulus
Funambulus
tristriatus)

Subgenus Prasadsciurus: Northern palm squirrel
Northern palm squirrel
( Funambulus
Funambulus
pennantii)

Category

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q305626 ADW: Funambulus_palmarum EoL: 1040600 EPPO: FUNAPA GBIF: 2437246 iNaturalist: 45938 ITIS: 632352 IUCN: 8701 MSW: 12400572

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