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Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India
India
was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
with king George VI
George VI
as its head of state. Although the country shared its head of state with the United Kingdom, it was a fully sovereign independent state. It was created by the Indian Independence Act 1947
Indian Independence Act 1947
and was transformed into the Republic of India
Republic of India
by the promulgation of the Constitution of India
Constitution of India
in 1950.[2] The king was represented by the Governor-General of India. However, the governor-general was not designated viceroy, as had been customary under the British Raj. The office of Viceroy
Viceroy
was abolished on Indian independence. Two governors-general held office in India
India
between independence and its transformation into a republic: Lord Mountbatten of Burma (1947–48) and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (1948–50). Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
was Prime Minister of India
Prime Minister of India
throughout this period.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Partition of India

1.1.1 Aftermath

1.2 Conflict with Pakistan 1.3 Republic of India

2 Government

2.1 Monarchy

2.1.1 List of monarchs

2.2 List of Governors-General 2.3 List of Prime Ministers

3 See also 4 References

History[edit] Partition of India[edit] Main article: Partition of India The Partition of British India
India
on 15 August 1947[3] led to the creation of two sovereign states, both dominions: Pakistan
Pakistan
(which later split into the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Pakistan
and the People's Republic of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in 1971) and India
India
(later the Republic of India). India
India
received 82.5% of the total munitions, arms, and transport from the combined military of the Raj, and 70% of the manpower. Since the 1920s the Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
had been demanding Pūrṇa Swarāj (complete self-rule) for the Indian nation and the establishment of the Dominion
Dominion
of India
India
and the Dominion
Dominion
of Pakistan was a major victory for the Swarajis. Nevertheless, the Partition was controversial among the people, and resulted in significant political instability and displacement.[4] Aftermath[edit] Most of the 552 princely states within Indian territory acceded to the Dominion
Dominion
of India
India
due to the work of the civil servant V. P. Menon. The Hindu-majority Junagadh State
Junagadh State
located in modern-day Gujarat attempted to accede to Pakistan
Pakistan
under the Muslim Nawab Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III. It was annexed militarily by the Indian government. Similarly, the State of Hyderabad
State of Hyderabad
sought to remain independent and was also annexed by India
India
in 1948.[4] Conflict with Pakistan[edit] See also: Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 The newly created states of Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
both joined the Commonwealth, a platform for cooperation between the countries that had been part of the British Empire. Nevertheless, they soon found themselves at war beginning in October 1947, over the contested princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistani militants entered the state, alarming Maharaja Hari Singh
Hari Singh
who appealed to India
India
for military intervention, in exchange for the signing of the Instrument of Accession and annexation into India. The region is contested to this day and two other Indo- Pakistan
Pakistan
wars occurred as part of the Kashmir conflict.[4] Hostilities and Mahatma Gandhi's attempt to reconcile the two nations via a fast led to his assassination in 1948 by Nathuram Godse, further increasing tensions between the two new states. The Dominion
Dominion
of India
India
began working towards a constitution based on liberal democracy immediately after independence. Republic of India[edit] Main article: India The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of India, drafted by a committee headed by B. R. Ambedkar, on 26 November 1949. India became a federal, democratic republic after its constitution came into effect on 26 January 1950, henceforth celebrated as Republic Day. The governmental structure was similar to that of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
but within a federal system. Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
became the first President of India. Government[edit] Monarchy[edit] The sovereign and head of state of the dominion of India
India
was a hereditary monarch, George VI, who was also the sovereign of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the other dominions in the British Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations. His constitutional roles were mostly carried out by the Governor-General of India. The royal succession was governed by the Act of Settlement 1701. The monarchy was abolished on 26 January 1950, when India
India
became a republic within the Commonwealth, the first Commonwealth
Commonwealth
country to do so.

List of monarchs[edit] The King in relation to independent India
India
held the following official style and titles:

15 August 1947 to 22 June 1948: His Majesty George the Sixth, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India[5] 22 June 1948 to 26 January 1950: His Majesty George the Sixth, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith [6]

House of Windsor

Portrait Name Birth Death Monarch From Monarch Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)

King George VI 14 December 1895 6 February 1952 15 August 1947 26 January 1950 Son of George V, Emperor of India

List of Governors-General[edit]

Standard of the Governor-General (1947–1950)

Main article: List of Governors-General of India

Name (birth–death) Picture Took office Left office Appointer

Governors-General India, 1947–1950

The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma[7] (1900–1979)

15 August 1947 21 June 1948 George VI

Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (1878–1972)

21 June 1948 26 January 1950

List of Prime Ministers[edit] Main article: List of Prime Ministers of India

№ Name (birth–death); constituency Portrait Party (Alliance) Term of office[8] Elections (Lok Sabha) Council of Ministers Appointed by

1 Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964) MP for Phulpur

Indian National Congress 15 August 1947 26 January 1950

— Nehru I Lord Mountbatten

See also[edit]

Commonwealth
Commonwealth
realms portal India
India
portal Monarchy portal

Interim Government of India History of the Republic of India Indian independence movement

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Partition of India.

^ "Press Communique' - State Emblem" (PDF). Press Information Bureau of India
India
- Archive. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 February 2018.  ^ Winegard, Timothy C. (2011), Indigenous Peoples of the British Dominions and the First World War, Cambridge University Press, pp. 2–, ISBN 978-1-107-01493-0  ^ Section 1 of the Indian Independence Act, 1947 ^ a b c India: A History. New York, USA: Grove Press. 2000. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.  ^ Heraldic.org website ^ "No. 38330". The London Gazette. 22 June 1948. p. 3647.  Royal Proclamation of 22 June 1948, made in accordance with the Indian Independence Act 1947, 10 & 11 GEO. 6. CH. 30. ('Section 7: ...(2) The assent of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is hereby given to the omission from the Royal Style and Titles of the words "Indiae Imperator" and the words "Emperor of India" and to the issue by His Majesty for that purpose of His Royal Proclamation under the Great Seal of the Realm.') ^ Created Earl Mountbatten of Burma on 28 October 1947. ^ "Former Prime Ministers". PM India. Retrieved 2 January 2015. 

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