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The INDIAN SUBCONTINENT or the SUBCONTINENT, also called the INDIAN CONTINENT, is a southern region of Asia , mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas . Geologically , the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically , it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent usually includes Bangladesh , Bhutan , India , Maldives , Nepal , Pakistan and Sri Lanka .

Sometimes, the term South Asia is used interchangeably with Indian subcontinent. There is no consensus about which countries should be included in each.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Nomenclature

* 3 Definition

* 3.1 Geology * 3.2 Politics * 3.3 Disagreements

* 4 See also * 5 References

ETYMOLOGY

According to the Oxford English Dictionary , the term "subcontinent" signifies a "subdivision of a continent which has a distinct geographical, political, or cultural identity" and also a "large land mass somewhat smaller than a continent". It is first attested in 1845 to refer to the North and South Americas , before they were regarded as separate continents. Its use to refer to the Indian subcontinent is seen from the early twentieth century. It was especially convenient for referring to the region comprising both British India and the princely states under British Paramountcy .

The term Indian subcontinent also has a geological significance. It was, like the various continents, a part of the supercontinent of Gondwana . A series of tectonic splits caused formation of various basins, each drifting in various directions. The geological region called "Greater India" once included Madagascar , Seychelles , Antarctica and Austrolasia along with the Indian subcontinent basin. As a geological term, Indian subcontinent has meant that region formed from the collision of the Indian basin with Eurasia nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene .

NOMENCLATURE

Main article: South Asia

The Indian subcontinent has been a term particularly common in the British Empire and its successors. The region, state Mittal and Thursby, has also been labelled as India (in its classical and pre-modern sense), Greater India , or as South Asia . The BBC
BBC
and some academic sources refer to the region as the "Asian Subcontinent". Some academics refer to it as "South Asian Subcontinent".

The terms "Indian subcontinent" and "South Asia" are sometimes used interchangeably. There is no globally accepted definition on which countries are a part of South Asia or Indian subcontinent.

DEFINITION

Orthographic projection of Indian subcontinent

In dictionary entries, the term subcontinent signifies a large, distinguishable subdivision of a continent.

GEOLOGY

Geologically, the Indian subcontinent was first a part of so-called "Greater India", a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period. The region experienced high volcanic activity and plate subdivisions, creating Madagascar, Seychelles, Antartica, Austrolasia and the Indian subcontinent basin. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene. This geological region largely includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The zone where the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent plates meet remains one of the geologically active areas, prone to major earthquakes.

The English term "subcontinent" mainly continues to refer to the Indian subcontinent. Physiographically , it is a peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east. It extends southward into the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast. Most of this region rests on the Indian Plate and is isolated from the rest of Asia by large mountain barriers.

POLITICS

NASA images of the Indian subcontinent during day and night.

Whether called the Indian subcontinent or South Asia, the definition of the geographical extent of this region varies. Geopolitically , it had formed the whole territory of Greater India , and it generally comprises the countries of India , Pakistan , and Bangladesh . Prior to 1947, most of the Indian subcontinent was part of British India . It generally includes Nepal , Bhutan , and the island country of Sri Lanka and may also include the island country of Maldives . According to anthropologist John R. Lukacs , "the Indian Subcontinent occupies the major landmass of South Asia", while the political science professor Tatu Vanhanen states, "the seven countries of South Asia constitute geographically a compact region around the Indian Subcontinent". The geopolitical boundaries of Indian subcontinent, according to Dhavendra Kumar, include "India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and other small islands of the Indian Ocean". Maldives, the small archipelago southwest of the peninsula, is considered part of the Indian subcontinent.

Parts of Afghanistan are sometimes included in Indian subcontinent as, states Ira M. Lapidus – a professor of History, it is a boundary territory with parts in Central Asia and in Indian subcontinent. The socio-religious history of Afghanistan are related to the Turkish-influenced Central Asia and northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent, now known as Pakistan. Others state Afghanistan being a part of Central Asia is not an accepted practice, and it is "clearly not part of the Indian subcontinent".

Historians Catherine Asher and Cynthia Talbot state that the term "Indian subcontinent" describes a natural physical landmass in South Asia that has been relatively isolated from the rest of Eurasia. Given the passage difficulty through the Himalayas, the sociocultural, religious and political interaction of Indian subcontinent has largely been through the valleys of Afghanistan in its northwest, the valleys of Manipur in its east, and by maritime over sea. More difficult but historically important interaction has also occurred through passages pioneered by the Tibetans . These routes and interactions have led to the diffusion of Hinduism and Buddhism , for example, out of the Indian subcontinent into other parts of Asia, while Islam arrived into the Indian subcontinent through Afghanistan and to its coasts through the maritime routes.

DISAGREEMENTS

Main article: South Asia

The geopolitical definition and the use of terms such as Indian subcontinent, South Asian subcontinent and South Asia is a contested topic.

SEE ALSO

* Geography of South Asia * Company rule in India * British Raj * Partition of India

REFERENCES

* ^ "World Population Prospects". _United Nations: Population Division_. 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Robert Wynn Jones (2011). _Applications of Palaeontology: Techniques and Case Studies_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 267–271. ISBN 978-1-139-49920-0 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Baker, Kathleen M.; Chapman, Graham P. (11 March 2002), _The Changing Geography of Asia_, Routledge, pp. 10–, ISBN 978-1-134-93384-6 , This greater India is well defined in terms of topography; it is the Indian sub-continent, hemmed in by the Himalayas on the north, the Hindu Khush in the west and the Arakanese in the east. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Indian subcontinent". _New Oxford Dictionary of English _ (ISBN 0-19-860441-6 ) New York: Oxford University Press, 2001; p. 929: "the part of Asia south of the Himalayas which forms a peninsula extending into the Indian Ocean, between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal . Historically forming the whole territory of Greater India , the region is now divided into three countries named Bangladesh , India and Pakistan ." * ^ _A_ _B_ Dhavendra Kumar (2012). _Genomics and Health in the Developing World_. Oxford University Press. p. 889. ISBN 978-0-19-537475-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Mariam Pirbhai (2009). _Mythologies of Migration, Vocabularies of Indenture: Novels of the South Asian Diaspora in Africa, the Caribbean, and Asia-Pacific_. University of Toronto Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8020-9964-8 .

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ John McLeod, _The history of India_, page 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0-313-31459-4 Milton Walter Meyer, _South Asia: A Short History of the Subcontinent_, pages 1, Adams Littlefield, 1976, ISBN 0-8226-0034-X Jim Norwine & Alfonso González, _The Third World: states of mind and being_, pages 209, Taylor Christopher P. Cooper (2005). _Worldwide destinations: the geography of travel and tourism_. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-5997-0 . Judith Schott & Alix Henley, _Culture, Religion, and Childbearing in a Multiracial Society_, pages 274, Elsevier Health Sciences, 1996, ISBN 0-7506-2050-1 Raj S. Bhopal, _Ethnicity, race, and health in multicultural societies_, pages 33, Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-19-856817-7 Lucian W. Pye & Mary W. Pye, _Asian Power and Politics_, pages 133, Harvard University Press, 1985, ISBN 0-674-04979-9 Mark Juergensmeyer, _The Oxford handbook of global religions_, pages 465, Oxford University Press US, 2006, ISBN 0-19-513798-1 Sugata Bose Liam D. Anderson (2013). _An Atlas of Middle Eastern Affairs_. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-136-64862-5 . , Quote: "To the east, Iran, as a Gulf state, offers a generally accepted limit to the Middle East. However, Afghanistan, also a Muslim state, is then left in isolation. It is not accepted as a part of Central Asia and it is clearly not part of the Indian subcontinent". * ^ _A_ _B_ Michael Mann (2014). _South Asia’s Modern History: Thematic Perspectives_. Taylor & Francis. pp. 13–15. ISBN 978-1-317-62445-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Jona Razzaque (2004). _Public Interest Environmental Litigation in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh_. Kluwer Law International. pp. 3 with footnotes 1 and 2. ISBN 978-90-411-2214-8 . * ^ "subcontinent". _ Oxford English Dictionary _ (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press . September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) * ^ "Indian subcontinent". _ Oxford English Dictionary _ (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press . September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) * ^ _A_ _B_ Hinsbergen, D. J. J. van; Lippert, P. C.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; McQuarrie, N.; Doubrovine; et al. (2012). "Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia". _Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences_. 109 (20): 7659–7664, for geologic Indian subcontinent see Figure 1. doi :10.1073/pnas.1117262109 . CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ _A_ _B_ Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby, _Religions of South Asia: An Introduction_, page 3, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 9781134593224 * ^ _A_ _B_ Kathleen M. Baker and Graham P. Chapman, _The Changing Geography of Asia_, page 10, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 9781134933846 * ^ Lizzie Crouch and Paula McGrath, "Humanity\'s global battle with mosquitoes", Health check, BBC
BBC
World Service * ^ K. Alan Kronstadt, _Terrorist Attacks in Mumbai, India, and Implications for U. S. Interests_, page 7, Diane Publishing, 2011, ISBN 9781437929539 * ^ Aijazuddin Ahmad, _ Geography of the South Asian Subcontinent: A Critical Approach_, page 17, Concept Publishing Company, 2009, ISBN 9788180695681 * ^ Ayesha Jalal, _Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia_, page xiii, Harvard University Press, 2009, ISBN 9780674039070 * ^ _Webster\'s Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged_, Merriam-Webster, 2002. Retrieved 6 December 2016; Quote: "a large landmass smaller than a continent; especially: a major subdivision of a continent " * ^ Subcontinent, Oxford English Dictionaries (2012), Retrieved 6 December 2016; Quote: "A large distinguishable part of a continent..." * ^ Bethany D. Rinard Hinga (2015). _Ring of Fire: An Encyclopedia of the Pacific Rim\'s Earthquakes, Tsunamis, and Volcanoes_. ABC-CLIO. pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-1-61069-297-7 . * ^ Alexander E. Gates; David Ritchie (2006). _Encyclopedia of Earthquakes and Volcanoes_. Infobase. pp. 116–118. ISBN 978-0-8160-7270-5 . * ^ McLeod, John (1 January 2002). "The History of India". Greenwood Publishing Group – via Google Books. * ^ Milton Walter Meyer, _South Asia: A Short History of the Subcontinent_, pages 1, Adams Littlefield, 1976, ISBN 0-8226-0034-X * ^ Dhavendra Kumar (2012). _Genomics and Health in the Developing World_. Oxford University Press. pp. 889–890. ISBN 978-0-19-537475-9 . * ^ John McLeod, _The history of India_, page 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0-313-31459-4 * ^ "Asia" > Geologic history – Tectonic framework. _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2009: "The paleotectonic evolution of Asia terminated some 50 million years ago as a result of the collision of the Indian subcontinent with Eurasia. Asia’s subsequent neotectonic development has largely disrupted the continents pre-existing fabric. The neotectonic units of Asia are Stable Asia, the Arabian and Indian cratons, the Alpide plate boundary zone (along which the Arabian and Indian platforms have collided with the Eurasian continental plate), and the island arcs and marginal basins."

* ^ John McLeod, _The history of India_, page 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0-313-31459-4 Stephen Adolphe Wurm, Peter Mühlhäusler & Darrell T. Tryon, _Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas_, pages 787, International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies, Published by Walter de Gruyter, 1996, ISBN 3-11-013417-9 Haggett, Peter (2001). _Encyclopedia of World Geography (Vol. 1)_. Marshall Cavendish. p. 2710. ISBN 0-7614-7289-4 . * ^ John R. Lukacs, _The People of South Asia: the biological anthropology of India, Pakistan, and Nepal_, page 59, Plenum Press, 1984, ISBN 9780306414077 * ^ Tatu Vanhanen, _Prospects of Democracy: A Study of 172 Countries_, page 144, Routledge, 1997, ISBN 9780415144063 * ^ Ira M. Lapidus (2014). _A History of Islamic Societies_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 269, 698–699. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9 .

* ^ Louis D Hayes (2014). _The Islamic State in the Post-Modern World: The Political Experience of Pakistan_. Ashgate. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-1-4724-1262-1 . ; Robert Wuthnow (2013). _The Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion_. Routledge. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-1-136-28493-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Asher, Catherine B.; Talbot, Cynthia (2006-03-16), _ India Before Europe_, Cambridge University Press, pp. 5–8, 12–14, 51, 78–80, ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7 * ^ John L. Esposito; Emad El-Din Shahin (2016). _The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics_. Oxford University Press. pp. 453–456. ISBN 978-0-19-063193-2 .

* ^ Akhilesh Pillalamarri, South Asia or India: An Old Debate Resurfaces in California, The Diplomat, 24 May 2016; Ahmed, Mukhtar (2014), _Ancient Pakistan – An Archaeological History: Volume II: A Prelude to Civilization_, Foursome, p. 14, ISBN 978-1-4959-4130-6

* v * t * e

Continents of the world

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

Afro-Eurasia

Americas

Eurasia

Oceania

* FORMER SUPERCONTINENTS Gondwana * Laurasia * Pangaea * Pannotia * Rodinia * Columbia * Kenorland * Nena * Sclavia * Ur * Vaalbara

* HISTORICAL CONTINENTS Amazonia * Arctica * Asiamerica * Atlantica * Avalonia * Baltica * Cimmeria * Congo craton * Euramerica * Kalaharia * Kazakhstania * Laurentia * North China * Siberia * South China * East Antarctica * India

* SUBMERGED CONTINENTS Kerguelen Plateau * Zealandia

* POSSIBLE FUTURE SUPERCONTINENTS Pangaea Ultima * Amasia * Novopangaea

* MYTHICAL AND HYPOTHESISED CONTINENTS Atlantis * Kumari Kandam * Lemuria * Meropis * Mu * Hyperborea * Terra Australis

* _See also Regions of the world _ * _ Continental fragment _

* BOOK * CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East

* Maghreb

* Barbary Coast * Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains ( Middle Atlas ) * Sahara * Western Sahara * Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt * Middle Egypt * Lower Egypt * Cataracts of the Nile * Bashmur

* Nubia

* Lower Nubia

* Nile Valley * Nile Delta * Darfur * Gulf of Aqaba * Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia * Swahili coast * East African Rift * Great Rift Valley * Afar Triangle * Danakil Desert * Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift Valley * Gregory Rift Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands * Gulf of Aden * Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region) * Sudanian Savanna * East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe

* Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland * Pool Malebo * Congo Basin * Chad Basin * Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau * Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast * Gold Coast * Slave Coast * Ivory Coast * Cape Palmas * Cape Mesurado * Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna * Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa * Sudan (region) * Niger Delta * Inner Niger Delta * Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar) * Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland * Succulent Karoo * Nama Karoo * Bushveld * Highveld * Fynbos * Cape Floristic Region * Kalahari Desert * Okavango Delta * False Bay * Hydra Bay * Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa * Francophone Africa * Lusophone Africa * Arabophone Africa * Sub-Saharan Africa * Tropical Africa * Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada * Western Canada * Canadian Prairies * Northern Canada * Atlantic Canada * French Canada * English Canada

* Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor * Peace River Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield * Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island) * Vancouver island * Gulf Islands * Strait of Georgia * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Labrador Peninsula * Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula * Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) * Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay * Hudson Bay * James Bay * Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula * Mountain States * Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest * Rocky Mountains * West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains * Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South * Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt * Black Belt * Corn Belt * Cotton Belt * Frost Belt * Rice Belt * Rust Belt * Sun Belt * Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico * Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico * Soconusco * Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca * La Huasteca * Bajío * Valley of Mexico * Mezquital Valley * Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula * Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies

* Antilles

* Greater Antilles

* Lesser Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles * Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago * Southern Caribbean

* Aridoamerica * Mesoamerica * Oasisamerica * Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America

NORTH

* Caribbean South America * West Indies * Los Llanos * The Guianas * Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula * Paraguaná Peninsula * Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego * Patagonia * Pampas * Pantanal * Gran Chaco * Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes * Altiplano * Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin * Caatinga * Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea * Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana

* Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana * Khwarezm * Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields

* Yedisan * Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains

* Volga region * Idel-Ural * Kolyma * Transbaikal * Pryazovia * Bjarmaland * Kuban * Zalesye * Ingria * Novorossiya * Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau * Altai Mountains * Pamir Mountains * Tian Shan * Badakhshan * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia * Northeast

* Far East

* Russian Far East * Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North

* Siberia

* Baikalia ( Lake Baikal ) * Transbaikal * Khatanga Gulf * Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula * Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf * Yenisei Basin * Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc * Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula * Gobi Desert * Taklamakan Desert * Greater Khingan * Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia * Inner Mongolia * Outer Mongolia * China proper

* Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria * Inner Manchuria * Northeast China Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet

* Tarim Basin * Northern Silk Road * Hexi Corridor * Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang * Jiangnan * Jianghuai * Guanzhong * Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan

* Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau * Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula * Gulf of Tonkin * Yangtze River Delta * Pearl River Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East

* Red Sea * Caspian Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz * Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Aden * Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula

* Najd * Hejaz * Tihamah * Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia

* Hadhramaut * Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia * Lower Mesopotamia * Sawad * Nineveh plains * Akkad (region)

* Canaan * Aram * Eber-Nari * Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq

* Levant

* Southern Levant * Transjordan * Jordan Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights * Hula Valley * Gaza Strip * West Bank * Galilee * Gilead * Judea * Samaria * Arabah * Anti-Lebanon Mountains * Sinai Peninsula * Arabian Desert * Syrian Desert * Fertile Crescent * Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian plateau * Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus

* Caucasus mountains

* Greater Caucasus * Lesser Caucasus

* North Caucasus

* South Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland * Alborz * Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia * Cilicia * Cappadocia * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India * Indian subcontinent * Himalayas * Hindu Kush * Western Ghats * Eastern Ghats * Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta * Pashtunistan * Punjab * Balochistan * Thar Desert * Indus Valley * Indus River Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain * Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab * Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau * Coromandel Coast * Konkan * False Divi Point * Hindi Belt * Lakshadweep * Bay of Bengal * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar * Trans-Karakoram Tract * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Andaman and Nicobar Islands * Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina * Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon * Visayas * Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand * East Indies * Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific * Tropical Asia * Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia * Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia * Baltoscandia * Sápmi * West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia * Iceland * Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor * Nemunas Delta * Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans * Aegean Islands * Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus * Greater Caucasus * Kabardia

* European Russia

* Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states * Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux * Low Countries * Northwest * British Isles * English Channel * Channel Islands * Cotentin Peninsula * Normandy * Brittany * Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Pyrenees * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula * Insular Italy * Tuscan Archipelago * Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea * Donbass * Sloboda Ukraine * Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * European Plain * Eurasian Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe * Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain * Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia * Karelia * East Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand

* South Island

* North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia * New Caledonia * Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia * Capital Country * Eastern Australia * Lake Eyre basin * Murray–Darling basin * Northern Australia * Nullarbor Plain * Outback

* Southern Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia * Great Victoria Desert * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula * Fleurieu Peninsula * Yorke Peninsula * Eyre Peninsula * Mornington Peninsula * Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago * Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji * New Caledonia * Papua New Guinea * Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia * Palau

* Guam * Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru * Northern Mariana Islands * Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island
Easter Island
* Hawaiian Islands * Cook Islands

* French Polynesia
Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands * Society Islands * Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands * Mangareva Islands * Samoa * Tokelau * Tonga * Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic Peninsula * East Antarctica * West Antarctica * Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic Alaska * British Arctic Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Finnmark * Greenland * Northern Canada * Northwest Territories * Nunavik * Nunavut * Russian Arctic * Sakha * Sápmi * Yukon * North American Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth 's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf * Barents Sea * Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea * East Siberian Sea * Greenland Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea * Pechora Sea * Queen Victoria Sea * Wandel Sea * White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea * Aegean Sea * Alboran Sea * Archipelago Sea * Argentine Sea * Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea * Baltic Sea * Bay of Biscay * Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy * Black Sea * Bothnian Sea * Caribbean Sea * Celtic Sea * English Channel * Foxe Basin * Greenland Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine * Gulf of Mexico * Gulf of Saint Lawrence * Gulf of Sidra * Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay * Ionian Sea * Irish Sea * Irminger Sea * James Bay * Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea * Ligurian Sea * Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Myrtoan Sea * North Sea * Norwegian Sea * Sargasso Sea * Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov * Sea of Crete * Sea of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea * Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea * Arabian Sea * Bali Sea * Bay of Bengal * Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden * Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Suez * Java Sea * Laccadive Sea * Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf * Red Sea * Timor Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea * Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea * Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea * Coral Sea * East China Sea * Gulf of Alaska * Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand * Gulf of Tonkin * Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea * Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan * Sea of Okhotsk * Seto Inland Sea * Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea * Solomon Sea * South China Sea * Sulu Sea * Tasman Sea * Visayan Sea * Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea * Bellingshausen Sea * Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea * D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea * Lazarev Sea * Mawson Sea * Riiser-Larsen Sea * Ross Sea * Scotia Sea * Somov Sea * Weddell Sea

ENDORHEIC BASINS

* Aral Sea * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea * Sea of Galilee * Salton Sea

* BOOK * CATEGORY

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