The Info List - Indian Peace Keeping Force

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Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
between 1987 and 1990. It was formed under the mandate of the 1987 Indo-Sri Lankan Accord that aimed to end the Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan Civil War
between militant Sri Lankan Tamil nationalists such as the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and the Sri Lankan military.[1] The main task of the IPKF was to disarm the different militant groups, not just the LTTE. It was to be quickly followed by the formation of an Interim Administrative Council. These were the tasks as per the terms of the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord, signed at the behest of Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. Given the escalation of the conflict in Sri Lanka, and with the pouring of refugees into India, Gandhi took the decisive step to push this accord through. The IPKF was inducted into Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
on the request of Sri Lankan President J. R. Jayewardene under the terms of the Indo- Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Accord.[1] The force was initially not expected to be involved in any significant combat by the Indian High Command.[2] However, within a few months, the IPKF became embroiled in battle with the LTTE
to enforce peace. The differences started with LTTE
trying to dominate the Interim Administrative Council, and also refusing to disarm, which was a pre-condition to enforce peace in the island. Soon, these differences led to the LTTE
attacking the IPKF, at which point the IPKF decided to disarm the LTTE
militants, by force if required. In the two years it was in northern Sri Lanka, the IPKF launched a number of combat operations aimed at destroying the LTTE-led insurgency. Given LTTE's tactics in guerrilla warfare and using women and child soldiers to fight battles, it soon escalated into repeated skirmishes between the IPKF and LTTE. The IPKF began withdrawing from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in 1989, following the election of the V. P. Singh
V. P. Singh
government in India
and on the request of the newly elected Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa.[2] The last IPKF contingents left Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in March 1990.


1 Background

1.1 Indian involvement and intervention 1.2 Indo- Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka

2 Mandate 3 Order of battle

3.1 Indian Army 3.2 Indian Air Force 3.3 Indian Navy 3.4 Indian paramilitary forces

4 Combat operations 5 Analysis

5.1 Casualties 5.2 Intelligence Failures

6 Impact

6.1 Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi 6.2 India's foreign policy

7 Controversies 8 War Memorial 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Notes and Further reading

11 External links

Background[edit] See also: Operation Poomalai Sri Lanka, from the early 1980s, was facing increasingly violent ethnic strife in the Sri Lankan Civil War. The origins of the Sri Lankan Civil War can be traced to the independence of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in 1948, after the end of British rule. At the time, a Sinhalese majority government was instituted. This government, which included the Tamil Congress, passed legislation deemed discriminatory by some against the native Tamil minority in Sri Lanka. In the 1970s, two major Tamil parties, the Tamil Congress
Tamil Congress
and a split, the Federal Party united to form the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF), a separatist Tamil nationalist group that agitated for a separate state of Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
in north and eastern Sri Lanka[3] that would grant the Tamils greater autonomy within the federal structure. However, the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka, enacted in August 1983, classified all separatist movements as unconstitutional,[1][1] Outside the TULF, Tamil factions advocating more militant courses of action soon emerged, and the ethnic divisions eventually led to violent civil war.[3] Indian involvement and intervention[edit] Initially, under Indira Gandhi[4][5] and later under Rajiv Gandhi, the Indian Government sympathised with the Tamil insurrection in Sri Lanka because of the strong support for the Tamil cause within the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Emboldened by this support, supporters in Tamil Nadu provided a sanctuary for the separatists and helped the LTTE smuggle arms and ammunition into Sri Lanka, making them the strongest force on the island. In fact in 1982, the LTTE
supremo Prabhakran was arrested by the police in Tamil Nadu, for a shoot-out with his rival Uma Maheswaran, in the middle of the city. Both of them were arrested and later released by the police. This activity was left unchecked as India's regional and domestic interests wanted to limit foreign intervention on what was deemed as a racial issue between the Tamils and the Sinhalese. To this end, the Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
government sought to make it clear to Sri Lankan president Junius Richard Jayewardene
Junius Richard Jayewardene
that armed intervention in support of the Tamil movement was an option India
would consider if diplomatic solutions should fail.[6] The first round of civil violence flared in 1983 when the killing of 13 soldiers of the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army sparked anti-Tamil pogroms—the Black July
Black July
riots—in which approximately 400 Tamils were killed. The riots only aided in the deterioration of the ethnic relations. Militant factions, including the LTTE, at this time recruited in large numbers and continued building on popular Tamil dissent and stepped up the guerrilla war. By May 1985, the guerrillas were strong enough to launch an attack on Anuradhapura, attacking the Bodhi Tree shrine–a sacred site for Buddhist Sinhalese–followed by a rampage through the town. At least 150 civilians died in the hour-long attack. Gandhi's government attempted to re-establish friendly relations with the various factions in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
while maintaining diplomatic efforts to find a solution to the conflict as well as limiting overt aid to the Tamil fighters.[6][7] The Sri Lankan government, deducing a decline in support for the Tamil rebels from India, tried to rearming itself extensively for its anti-insurgent role with support from Pakistan, Israel, Singapore, and South Africa.[6][8] In 1986, the campaign against the insurgency was stepped up. In 1987, retaliating against an increasingly bloody insurgent movement, the Vadamarachchi Operation (Operation Liberation) was launched against LTTE
strongholds in Jaffna
Peninsula. The operation involved nearly 4,000 troops, supported by helicopter gunships as well as ground-attack aircraft.[6] In June 1987, the Sri Lankan Army laid siege on the town of Jaffna.[9] This resulted in large-scale civilian casualties and created a condition of humanitarian crisis.[10] India, which had a substantial Tamil population in South India
faced the prospect of a Tamil backlash at home, called on the Sri Lankan government to halt the offensive in an attempt to negotiate a political settlement. However, the Indian efforts were unheeded. Added to this, in the growing involvement of Pakistani advisers, it was necessary for Indian interest to mount a show of force.[6] Failing to negotiate an end to the crisis with Sri Lanka, India
announced on 2 June 1987 that it wound send a convoy of unarmed ships to northern Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
to provide humanitarian assistance[11] but this was intercepted by the Sri Lankan Navy and forced to turned back.[12] Following the failure of the naval mission the decision was made by the Indian government to mount an airdrop of relief supplies in aid of the beleaguered civilians over the besieged city of Jaffna. On 4 June 1987, in a bid to provide relief, the Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
mounted Operation Poomalai. Five Antonov An-32s under fighter cover flew over Jaffna
to airdrop 25 tons of supplies, all the time keeping well within the range of Sri Lankan radar coverage. At the same time the Sri Lankan Ambassador to New Delhi, Bernard Tilakaratna, was summoned to the Foreign Office to be informed by the Minister of State, External Affairs, K. Natwar Singh, of the ongoing operation and also indicated that the operation was expected not to be hindered by the Sri Lankan Air Force. The ultimate aim of the operation was both to demonstrate the seriousness of the domestic Tamil concern for the civilian Tamil population and reaffirming the Indian option of active intervention to the Sri Lankan government.[10] Indo- Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Accord[edit] Main article: Indo- Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Accord Following Operation Poomalai, faced with the possibility of an active Indian intervention and lacking any possible ally, the President, J. R. Jayewardene, offered to hold talks with the Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
government on future moves.[9] The siege of Jaffna
was soon lifted, followed by a round of negotiations that led to the signing of the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord on 29 July 1987[13] that brought a temporary truce. Crucially however, the negotiations did not include the LTTE
as a party to the talks. The signing of the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord
Indo-Sri Lankan Accord
on 29 July 1987[13] brought a temporary truce to the Sri Lankan Civil War. Under the terms of the agreement,[14][15] Colombo
agreed to a devolution of power to the provinces, the Sri Lankan troops were withdrawn to their barracks in the north, the Tamil rebels were to disarm.[16] Mandate[edit] Amongst the provisions undersigned by the Indo- Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Accord was the commitment of Indian military assistance should this be requested for by the Sri Lankan Government, as well as the provision of an Indian Peace Keeping Force that would "guarantee and enforce the cessation of hostilities".[6][14] It was on these grounds, and on the request of President J. R. Jayewardene, that Indian troops were inducted to Northern Sri Lanka. J N Dixit, the then Indian ambassador to Colombo, in an interview to rediff.com in 2000 described that ostensibly, Jayawardene's decision to request Indian assistance came in the face of increasing civil riots and violence within the southern Sinhala majority areas, including the capital Colombo
that were initiated by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna
Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna
and the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Freedom Party that necessitated the withdrawal of the Sri Lankan Army from the Tamil areas of northern Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
to maintain order.[2] Order of battle[edit] Originally a reinforced division with small naval and air elements, the IPKF at its peak deployed four divisions and nearly 80,000 men with one mountain (4th) and three Infantry Divisions (36th, 54th, 57th) as well as supporting arms and services. At the peak of its operational deployment, IPKF operations also included a large Indian Paramilitary Force and Indian Special
Forces elements. Indeed, Sri Lanka was first theatre of active operation for the Indian Navy Commandos. The main deployment of the IPKF was in northern and eastern Sri Lanka. Upon its withdrawal from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
the IPKF was renamed the 21st Corps and was headquartered near Bhopal
and became a quick reaction force for the Indian Army. Indian Army[edit] The first Indian Army
Indian Army
troops to be inducted into Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
were a ten thousand strong force from the 54th Infantry division, composed of elements of the Sikh Light Infantry, the Maratha Light Infantry
Maratha Light Infantry
and the Mahar Regiment
Mahar Regiment
which flew into Palay airbase,[17] from 30 July onwards. This was followed later by the 36th Infantry division. By August, the 54th Infantry Division under the command of Maj Gen Harkirat Singh and the 340th Indian Inf Bde had landed in Sri Lanka. By 1987, the IPKF consisted of[10]

54th Air Assault Division. ( Major General
Major General
Harkirat Singh (General Officer Commanding), Brigadier
Kulwant Singh, Dy GOC):- Became an infantry division later due to lack of airlift capacity within the Indian armed forces.

10 Para Commando. (Jaffna) – an attached unit 65 Armoured regiment-with T-72
tanks, played a major role in the operations. The regiment was deployed in all parts of the island where the operations were taking place. 6th Battalion, Brigade of the Guards
Brigade of the Guards
(Col BR Bhatia, SC) 91 Infantry Brigade (Jaffna)

5th Battalion of the Madras Regiment 8th Battalion of the Mahar Regiment 1 Maratha Light Infantry
Maratha Light Infantry

76 Infantry Brigade ( Brigadier
I.M. Dhar) (Mannar, Vavuniya, Mulliativu) 47 Infantry Brigade (Trincomalee-Batticoloa-Amparai)

36 Infantry Division.[citation needed]

115 Infantry Brigade.(Jaffna)

5th Bn The First Gorkha Rifles. (5/1 GR). (Battle of Urumparai, Battle of Nallur Temple Jaffana, Battle of Manipai) 72 Infantry Brigade.(Jaffna) 4 Bn./5 Gorkha Regiment. 13 Sikh LI
Sikh LI

41 Infantry Brigade. (Jaffna)

5 Rajputana Rifles

57th Infantry Division, trained in jungle warfare, 4th Mountain division, only two brigades used. Independent Units

340 Independent Infantry Brigade (Amphibious). (Trincomalee) The Indian Marines 18 Infantry Brigade. (Jaffna) 5 Para Battalion.

Indian Air Force[edit] Soon after its intervention in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and especially after the confrontation with the LTTE, the IPKF received a substantial commitment from the Indian Air Force, mainly transport and helicopter squadrons under the command of Gp.Capt. M.P Premi, including:[18]

No. 33 Squadron- Antonov An-32s No 109 and No. 119 Helicopter Units – Mil Mi-8
Mil Mi-8
helicopters. No. 125 HU – Mil Mi-24s. No. 664 AOP Squadron Chetak and Cheetah

Indian Navy[edit] The Indian Navy
Indian Navy
regularly rotated naval vessels through Sri Lanka waters, mostly smaller vessels such as patrol boats.

Indian Naval Air Arm

No. 321 Squadron of the Indian Navy- HAL Chetaks No. 310 Squadron of the Indian Navy- Breguet Alizé

(also the Marine Commando Force or MCF) – Took part in Operation Pawan (Hindi, "wind") in 1987 and in the raid on an LTTE base at Guru Nagar. MARCOS
operators (including Lt Singh) boarded two Gemini rafts off the coast of Jaffna
City and towed two wooden rafts of explosives into a channel leading to the city's Guru Nagar Jetty. Avoiding mines, eight men and two officers shifted to the wooden rafts and paddled to the jetty then fixed demolition charges to the jetty and LTTE
speedboats. The commandos were detected but laid down suppressive fire and detonated the explosives before retreating to the Geminis without taking casualties. Two nights later, commandos swam back into the harbour amidst heavy patrolling by the LTTE
to destroy the remaining speedboats. They were again detected and sustained minor injuries. These actions helped recapture Trincomalee
and Jaffna harbours from the LTTE. For leading these actions the 30-year-old Lt. Singh Arvind Singh became the youngest officer to receive the Maha Vir Chakra Award.[citation needed]

Indian paramilitary forces[edit]

Central Reserve Police Force Indian Coast Guard

Combat operations[edit] Main article: Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War Analysis[edit] Casualties[edit] The IPKF suffered around 1,200 killed in action and several thousand wounded. The LTTE
casualties are not known. Intelligence Failures[edit] The Indian intelligence agencies failed to consistently provide accurate information to the forces. One example is the Jaffna
football ground massacre. The LTTE's disinformation machinery leaked information to the Indian army that the LTTE
leader Velupillai Prabhakaran was hiding in a building near the Jaffna
university football ground.[citation needed] A major operational plan was chalked out by the Indian generals to capture him alive. The plan involved airdropping commandos on the ground, while tank formations would move to surround the area, to prevent anyone from the stadium and its surrounding buildings to escape. However, when the plan was executed, the Indian troops came under heavy attack from hidden LTTE
sharpshooters. the tanks moving on the ground were ensnared by anti-tank mines placed by the LTTE
fighters. This resulted in heavy losses for the Indian side.[19] According to later accounts, the LTTE
leader, Prabhakaran was not in the area at the time of the operation.[20] The IPKF complained that accurate maps of the operational theaters were not made available to them by the various intelligence agencies.[citation needed] There was also a case where an agent of Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) was killed in an ambush set up by the IPKF. He had been acting on orders to carry out back channel diplomacy and peacetalks with the LTTE.[citation needed] Impact[edit] The IPKF mission while having gained tactical successes, did not succeed in its intended goals. On 21 May 1991, the LTTE
assassinated Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
for his role in sending the IPKF to Sri Lanka. The primary impact of the IPKF, has been that it shaped India's counter-insurgency techniques and military doctrine. On the international scene, it does not find significant mention in National or International military history. The political fallout, the IPKF's casualties, as well as the deterioration of international relations has however shaped India's foreign policy towards the Sri Lankan conflict. (see below) Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi[edit] The decision to send the IPKF in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
was taken by then prime-minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi, who held office until 1989. The operation in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
was one of the factors that led to the ouster of the Rajiv Gandhi-led Congress government in 1989. Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
was assassinated at a rally at Sriperumbudur
on 21 May 1991, while he was campaigning for re-election during the 1991 Indian General Election, by a suicide bomber, who was a member of the LTTE, named Dhanu. India's foreign policy[edit] The debacle that was IPKF's intervention in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
is raised at times in Indian political discourse whenever the situation in Sri Lanka shows signs of deteriorating, and there is a question of intervening; or, in Sri Lankan politics (particularly by the LTTE), when it is proposed that India, or, more broadly, other foreigners, ought to have a role in promoting peace on the island nation. As a result, relations between India
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
became extremely sour and India
vowed never to offer any military help to Sri Lanka again. This policy has not been changed since and no defence pact has been signed between India
and Sri Lanka. India
has never been directly involved in the peace talks between the LTTE
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
but has supported Norway's efforts. Controversies[edit] The IPKF's role in the Sri Lankan conflict was much maligned by voices both there and at home at the time. It was alleged by the LTTE
to have engaged in a number of incidents of human rights violation. Some neutral organisations also alleged the IPKF and LTTE
engaged with scant regard for civilian safety and to have violated human rights. These allegations led to considerable outcry and public resentment within Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
as well as India, especially in Tamil Nadu, where the IPKF came to be viewed as an invading and oppressing force. Indian forces were accused of indulging in number of civilian massacres, Involuntary disappearances
Involuntary disappearances
and rapes during their time in the Northeastern province of Sri Lanka.[21][22] These include complicity in the incidents such as Valvettiturai
massacre in which on 2, 3, and 4 August 1989 over 50 Tamils were massacred by the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Valvettiturai, Jaffna. In addition to the killings over 100 homes, shops and other property were also burnt and destroyed.[23] Another notable incident was the Jaffna
teaching hospital massacre on 22 October 1987, following a confrontation with Tamil militants near the hospital, IPKF quickly entered the hospital premises and massacred over 70 civilians. These civilians included patients, two doctors, three nurses and a paediatric consultant who were all in uniform. The hospital never completely recovered after this massacre.[24][25][26] The IPKF was also accused of complicity in murder of Sinhalese civilians in the 1987 Trincomalee
massacre where according to Asian Times in August 1987, a number of majority Sinhalese civilians were massacred. The then Sri Lankan government accused the Madras Regiment
Madras Regiment
posted in the Trincomalee
district of complicity, although the Indian officials denied responsibility, they withdrew the Madras Regiment
Madras Regiment
from Trincomalee
district.[27] War Memorial[edit] The Sri Lankan government had mooted the idea of a war memorial to those soldiers of the IPKF who lost their lives during the peacekeeping mission, in the early Nineties during President Premadasa's rule. The memorial was finally constructed in Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte [2] on the outskirts of Colombo
in 2008. The names of the 1200 soldiers who died are inscribed on black marble. The first official memorial service was held on 15 August 2010 when the Indian High Commissioner to Sri Lanka, Shri Ashok Kantha laid a wreath to honour the dead. The absence of a representative of the Sri Lankan government has been criticised by Indian ex-servicemen who had served in the conflict.[28] A renovated memorial for IPKF soldiers in Palaly, Jaffna, has been declared open in June 2015. The names of 33 who died in the operations in the Northern Province during 1987–1990 have been inscribed on a wall at the memorial site.[29] See also[edit]

Foreign intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War Annai Poopathy Black July Hunger strike of LTC Thileepan India- Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Accord Jaffna
hospital massacre Jaffna
University Helidrop Operation Pawan Operation Poomalai State terrorism in Sri Lanka Valvettiturai
massacre (1989) Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan Civil War


^ a b c The Peace Accord and the Tamils in Sri Lanka.Hennayake S.K. Asian Survey, Vol. 29, No. 4. (Apr. 1989), pp. 401–415. ^ a b c " J N Dixit
J N Dixit
(ex-Indian Ambassador to Colombo) speaking to Rediff.com". Retrieved 26 November 2014.  ^ a b John Pike. " Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
(LTTE), World Tamil Association (WTA), World Tamil Movement (WTM), Federation of Associations of Canadian Tamils (FACT), Ellalan Force. GlobalSecurity.org". Retrieved 26 November 2014.  ^ India's search for power:Indira Gandhi's Foreign Policy.1966–1982. Mansingh S. New Delhi:Sage 1984. p282 ^ "A commission, before it proceeded to draw up criminal proceedings against others, must recommend Indira Gandhi's posthumous prosecution Mitra A. Rediff on Net". Retrieved 26 November 2014.  ^ a b c d e f India's Regional Security Doctrine. Hagerty D.T. Asian Survey, Vol. 31, No. 4. (Apr. 1991), pp. 351–363 ^ "Research and Analysis Wing. Fas.org". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 22 April 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2014.  ^ The Colombo
Chill. Bobb D. India
Today. 31 March 1986. p. 95. ^ a b India
Airlifts Aid to Tamil Rebels", The New York Times. 5 June 1987 ^ a b c " Operation Poomalai
Operation Poomalai
Intervenes" Bharat-rakshak.com Archived 7 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Indians To Send convoy to Sri Lanka", The New York Times. 2 June 1987 ^ "Indian Flotilla is turned back by Sri Lankan Naval Vessels," The New York Times. 4 June 1987 ^ a b Background Note: Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
United States Department of State ^ a b "ETHNIC POLITICS AND CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM: THE INDO-SRI LANKAN ACCORD. Marasinghe M.L. Int Compa Law Q.Vol. 37. p551-587" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2014.  ^ "Sri Lanka: The Untold Story Chapter 35: Accord turns to discord". Retrieved 26 November 2014.  ^ "New Delhi & the Tamil Struggle. The Indo Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Agreement. Satyendra N. Tamil Nation". Retrieved 26 November 2014.  ^ "Sri Lanka- war without end, peace without hope. Colonel(retd) A A Athale". Retrieved 26 November 2014.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 September 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2007.  The Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
in Sri Lanka ^ citation needed ^ Asia Times: India/Pakistan ^ "Statistics on civilians affected by war from 1974 – 2004" (PDF). NESOHR. Retrieved 2008-11-15.  ^ McDowell, Chris (1996). A Tamil Asylum Diaspora: Sri Lankan Migration, Settlement and Politics in Switzerland (Studies in Forced Migration). Berghahn Books. ISBN 1-57181-917-7.  p.181 ^ Sebastian, Rita (24 August 1989). "Massacre at Point Pedro". The Indian Express. pp. 8–9.  ^ Gunaratna, Rohan (1993). Indian intervention in Sri Lanka: The role of India's intelligence agencies. South Asian Network on Conflict Research. ISBN 955-95199-0-5.  p.246 ^ Richardson, John (2005). Paradise Poisoned: Learning About Conflict, Terrorism and Development from Sri Lanka's Civil Wars. International Centre for Ethnic Studies. ISBN 955-580-094-4.  p.546 ^ Somasundaram, D. (1997). "Abandoning jaffna hospital: Ethical and moral dilemmas". Medicine, Conflict and Survival. 13 (4): 333–347. doi:10.1080/13623699708409357.  ^ "Chapter 36: Indians rule the roost". Asian Times. Retrieved 2007-01-30.  ^ Patranobis, Sutirtho. At IPKF Memorial, India
finally pays homage.[permanent dead link] Hindustan Times, 15 Aug 2010, Colombo. Retrieved 17 August 2010. ^ "Renovated memorial for IPKF soldiers"http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/renovated-memorial-for-ipkf-soldiers/article7298952.ece

Notes and Further reading[edit]

^ Dixit, J. N. (2003) Assignment Colombo. Vijitha Yapa Publications, Colombo, ISBN 955-8095-34-6 ^ Adele Balasingham. (2003) The Will to Freedom – An Inside View of Tamil Resistance. Fairmax Publishing Ltd, 2nd ed. ISBN 1-903679-03-6 ^ Narayan Swamy, M. R. (2002) Tigers of Lanka: from Boys to Guerrillas. Konark Publishers; 3rd ed. ISBN 81-220-0631-0 ^ 18 anniversary of Jaffna
hospital massacre Tamilnet.com report ^ Asian Time series on Indian -Pakistan involvement in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
by K.T.Rajasingham ^ SRI LANKA: THE UNTOLD STORY Chapter 35: Accord turns to discord By K.T.Rajasingham

External links[edit]

India's VietNam Civilians Affected by War in Northeast Ceylon The Indian Army
Indian Army
in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
1987–1990 Indian Jawan- A Tribute to the Indian Soldier Overview of Mission Case Study in Operations Other Than War Tamil Nation on Rajiv Gandhi's War Crimes

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