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Indian Land Claims Settlements
Indian Land Claims Settlements
are settlements of Native American land claims by the United States Congress, codified in 25 U.S.C. ch. 19. In several instances, these settlements ended live claims of aboriginal title in the United States. The first two—the Rhode Island Claims Settlement Act and the Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act—extinguished all aboriginal title in Rhode Island and Maine, respectively, following initial court rulings in the tribes' favor. The Mohegan Nation (Connecticut) Land Claims Settlement of 1994 also followed a judicial ruling in favor of a tribe, but did not extinguish all aboriginal title in the state. Other tribes had pending land claims. The Passamaquoddy
Passamaquoddy
(1975), Narragansett I and II (1976), and Mohegan (1980, 1982) cases occurred in the U.S. Supreme Court's Oneida I (1974) decision, which held that there was federal subject-matter jurisdiction for such claims. The Florida Indian (Miccosukee) Land Claims Settlement and Florida Indian (Seminole) Land Claims Settlement relate to water rights in the Everglades. In Canada, these settlements involve First Nations.

Contents

1 List of settlements 2 Other compensated extinguishments in the US 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

List of settlements[edit]

Act Passed Tribe Preceding litigation Subject matter Monetary compensation

Rhode Island Claims Settlement Act[1] Sept. 30, 1978 Narragansett Narragansett Tribe of Indians v. S. R.I. Land Dev. Co., 418 F. Supp. 798 (D.R.I. 1976); Narragansett Tribe of Indians v. Murphy, 426 F. Supp. 132 (D.R.I. 1976) Aboriginal title $3,500,000

Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act [modified by Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians
Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians
Supplementary Claims Settlement Act and Aroostock Band of Micmacs Settlement Act][2] Oct. 10, 1980 Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, and Maliseet Joint Tribal Council of the Passamaquoddy
Passamaquoddy
Tribe v. Morton, 388 F. Supp. 649 (D. Me. 1975), aff'd, 528 F.2d 370 (1st Cir. 1975) Aboriginal title $81,500,000

Florida Indian (Miccosukee) Land Claims Settlement[3] Dec. 31, 1982 Miccosukee Miccosukee
Miccosukee
Tribe of Indians of Florida v. Florida, No. 79-cv-253 (S.D. Fl.) Water rights None

Connecticut Indian Land Claims Settlement[4] Oct. 18, 1983 Mashantucket Pequot Tribe W. Pequot Tribe of Indians v. Holdridge Enters., Inc., No. H76-cv-193 (D. Conn.) Aboriginal title $900,000

Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians
Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians
Supplementary Claims Settlement Act [modifying the Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act][5] Oct. 27, 1986 Maliseet N/A Aboriginal title $200,000

Massachusetts Indian Land Claims Settlement[6] Aug. 18, 1987 Wampanoag Wampanoag Tribal Council of Gay Head v. Town of Gay Head, No. 74-cv-5826 (D. Mass.) Aboriginal title $4,500,000

Florida Indian (Seminole) Land Claims Settlement[7] Dec. 31, 1987 Seminole Seminole
Seminole
Tribe of Indians of Florida v. Florida, No. 78-cv-6116 (S.D. Fla.) Water rights None

Puyallup Tribe of Indians Settlement Act of 1989[8] June 21, 1989 Puyallup Excludes land from settlement in: Puyallup Tribe of Indians v. Port of Tacoma, 717 F.2d 1251 (9th Cir. 1983) Aboriginal title $162,000,000

Seneca Nation (New York) Land Claims Settlement[9] Nov. 3, 1990 Seneca 18 Stat. 330; 26 Stat. 558; Seneca Nation of Indians v. United States, 39 Ind. Cl. Comm. 355 (1977) Retroactive federal approval of leases and previous inadequate settlement $60,000,000

Aroostock Band of Micmacs Settlement Act [modifying Maine Indian Land Claims Settlement][10] Nov. 26, 1991 Micmacs N/A Aboriginal title $900,000

Mohegan Nation (Connecticut) Land Claims Settlement[11] Oct. 19, 1994 Mohegan people Mohegan Tribe v. Connecticut, 483 F. Supp. 597 (D. Conn. 1980), aff'd, 638 F.2d 612 (2d Cir. 1980), cert. denied, 452 U.S. 968 (1981), on remand, 528 F. Supp. 1359 (D. Conn. 1982) Aboriginal title None

Crow
Crow
Boundary Settlement[12] Nov. 2, 1994 Crow

Indian reservation
Indian reservation
boundary surveying error $35,000,000

Santo Domingo Pueblo
Pueblo
Claims Settlement[13] Nov. 1, 2000 Pueblo United States v. Thompson, 941 F.2d 1074 (10th Cir. 1991); Pueblo
Pueblo
of Santo Domingo v. Rael, Civil No. 83-1888 (D. N.M.) Aboriginal title $23,000,000

Torres-Martinez Desert Cahiilla Indian Claims Settlement[14] Dec. 27, 2000 Torres-Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians United States ex rel. Torres-Martinez Band of Mission Indians v. Imperial Irrigation Dist., No. 82-cv-1790 (S.D. Cal.), Nos. 93-cv-55389, 93-cv-55398, and 93-cv-55402, No. 92-cv-55129 (9th Cir.); Torres-Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians v. Imperial Irrigation Dist., No. 91-cv-1670 (S.D. Cal.) Indian reservation
Indian reservation
flooding $14,200,000

Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chickasaw
Chickasaw
Nation Claims Settlement[15] Dec. 13, 2002 Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw (Ct. Cl.); United States v. Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation, 480 U.S. 700 (1987), Nos. 218-cv-89L and 630-cv-89L (Ct. Cl. 1989); (E.D. Ok. 1997); excluding Choctaw
Choctaw
Nation v. Oklahoma, 397 U.S. 620 (1970) Mismanagement of tribal resources $40,000,000

Pueblo
Pueblo
De San Ildefonso Claims Settlement[16] Sept. 27, 2006 Pueblo Pueblo
Pueblo
of San Ildefonso v. United States, No. 660-87L (Ct. Cl.); prior history: United States v. Pueblo
Pueblo
of San Ildefonso, 513 F.2d 1383 (Ct. Cl. 1975); Pueblo
Pueblo
of San Ildefonso v. United States, 35 Fed. Cl. 777 (1996) Aboriginal title, inter alia $6,900,000

Other compensated extinguishments in the US[edit]

Decisions of the Indian Claims Commission Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act
(ANCSA) South Carolina v. Catawba Indian Tribe, 476 U.S. 498 (1986): settled for $50,000,000 by the Catawba Indian Tribe of South Carolina Land Claims Settlement Act of 1993, Pub. L. No. 103-116, 107 Stat 1118 (codified at 25 U.S.C. § 941)

See also[edit]

Australia

National Native Title Tribunal (NNTT)

Canada

Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Sahtu Dene and Metis Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement Yukon Land Claims

New Zealand

Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements

Notes[edit]

^ Pub. L. No. 95-395, 92 Stat. 813 (codified at 25 U.S.C. §§ 1701--16). ^ Pub. L. No. 96-420, 94 Stat. 1785 (codified at 25 U.S.C. §§ 1721--35). ^ Pub. L. No. 97-399, 96 Stat. 2012 (codified at 25 U.S.C. §§ 1741--50). ^ Pub. L. No. 98-134, 97 Stat. 851 (codified at 25 U.S.C. §§ 1751--60). ^ Pub. L. No. 99-566, 100 Stat 3184 (codified at 25 U.S.C. § 1724). ^ Pub. L. No. 100-95, 101 Stat. 704 (codified at 25 U.S.C. § 1771). ^ Pub. L. No. 100-228, 101 Stat. 1556 (codified at 25 U.S.C. § 1772). ^ Pub. L. No. 101-41, 103 Stat. 83 (codified at 25 U.S.C. § 1773). ^ Pub. L. No. 101-503, 104 Stat. 1292 (codified at 25 U.S.C. § 1774). ^ Pub. L. No. 102-171, 105 Stat. 1143 (codified at 25 U.S.C. § 1721). ^ Pub. L. No. 103-377, 108 Stat. 3501 (codified at 25 U.S.C. § 1775). ^ Pub. L. No. 103-444, 108 Stat. 4632 (codified at 25 U.S.C. § 1776). ^ Pub. L. No. 106-425, 114 Stat. 1890 (codified at 25 U.S.C. § 1777). ^ Pub. L. No. 106-568, 114 Stat. 2906 (codified at 25 U.S.C. § 1778). ^ Pub. L. No. 107-331, 116 Stat. 2845 (codified at 25 U.S.C. § 1779). ^ Pub. L. No. 109-286, 120 Stat. 1218 (codified at 25 U.S.C. § 1780).

References[edit]

Jeff Benedict, Without Reservation: How a Controversial Indian Tribe Rose to Power and Built the World's Largest Casino (2001). John C. Christie, Jr., The Catawba Indian Land Claim: A Giant Among Indian Land Claims, 24 Am. Indian Culture & Res. J. 173 (2000). Kim Isaac Eisler, Revenge of the Pequots: How a Small Native American Tribe Created the World's Most Profitable Casino (2002). Nicole Friederichs, A Reason to Revisit Maine's Indian Claims Settlement Acts: The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 35 Am. Indian L. Rev. 497 (2011). Brett Duval Fromson, Hitting the Jackpot: The Inside Story of the Richest Indian Tribe in History (2004). Granville Ganter, Sovereign Municipalities? Twenty Years After the Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act of 1980, in Enduring Legacies: Native American Treaties and Contemporary Controversies (Bruce Elliott Johansen ed., 2004). Gavin Kentch, A Corporate Culture? The Environmental Justice Challenges of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, 81 Miss. L.J. 813 (2012). Dean J. Kotlowski, Out of the Woods: The Making of the Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act, 30 Am. Indian Culture & Res. J. 63 (2006). Alfred R. Light, The Myth of Everglades
Everglades
Settlement, 11 St. Thomas L. Rev. 55 (1998). Barbara S. Monahan, Florida's Seminole
Seminole
Indian Land Claims Agreement: Vehicle for an Innovative Water Rights Compact, 15 Am. Indian L. Rev. 341 (1991).

External links[edit]

Full text of 25 U.S.C. tit. 19

v t e

Aboriginal title
Aboriginal title
in the United States

Statutes

Colonial era

Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions
Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions
(1629 New Netherland) Royal Proclamation of 1763
Royal Proclamation of 1763
(British North America) Confederation Congress Proclamation of 1783

United States

Northwest Ordinance
Northwest Ordinance
(1787) Nonintercourse Act
Nonintercourse Act
(1790, 1793, 1796, 1799, 1802, and 1834) Removal Act (1830) Dawes Act
Dawes Act
(1887) Diminishment Curtis Act of 1898 Reorganization Act (1934) Indian Claims Commission
Indian Claims Commission
Act (1946) Indian Land Claims Settlements
Indian Land Claims Settlements
(1978–2006) Indian Claims Limitations Act
Indian Claims Limitations Act
(1982)

Precedents

Marshall Court

Johnson v. M'Intosh
Johnson v. M'Intosh
(1823) Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation v. Georgia (1831)

Taney Court

Fellows v. Blacksmith
Fellows v. Blacksmith
(1857) New York ex rel. Cutler v. Dibble
New York ex rel. Cutler v. Dibble
(1858)

1890—1950

Seneca Nation of Indians v. Christy
Seneca Nation of Indians v. Christy
(1896) United States v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co.
United States v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co.
(1941)

Warren Court

Tee-Hit-Ton Indians v. United States
Tee-Hit-Ton Indians v. United States
(1955) Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation
Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation
(1960)

Burger Court

Oneida Indian Nation of New York v. County of Oneida
Oneida Indian Nation of New York v. County of Oneida
(1974) Wilson v. Omaha Indian Tribe (1979) County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State
County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State
(1985) South Carolina v. Catawba Indian Tribe
South Carolina v. Catawba Indian Tribe
(1986)

Rehnquist Court

Idaho v. Coeur d'Alene Tribe of Idaho
Idaho v. Coeur d'Alene Tribe of Idaho
(1997) Idaho v. United States
Idaho v. United States
(2001) City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York
City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York
(2005)

By state

Alaska California Hawaii Indiana Louisiana Maine Michigan New Mexico New York Oklahoma Rhode Island Vermont

Compare

Indigenous land rights Aboriginal title

in Australia

Tribal sovereignty in the United States

List of federally recognized tribes

Federal recognition of Native Hawaiians

Legal status of Hawaii

v t e

Rights of Native Americans in the United States

Case law

Johnson v. M'Intosh
Johnson v. M'Intosh
(1823) Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation v. Georgia (1831) Worcester v. Georgia
Worcester v. Georgia
(1832) Fellows v. Blacksmith
Fellows v. Blacksmith
(1857) New York ex rel. Cutler v. Dibble
New York ex rel. Cutler v. Dibble
(1858) Standing Bear v. Crook
Standing Bear v. Crook
(D. Neb. 1879) Ex parte Crow
Crow
Dog (1883) Elk v. Wilkins
Elk v. Wilkins
(1884) Seneca Nation of Indians v. Christy
Seneca Nation of Indians v. Christy
(1896) Talton v. Mayes
Talton v. Mayes
(1896) Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock
Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock
(1903) United States v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co.
United States v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co.
(1941) Tee-Hit-Ton Indians v. United States
Tee-Hit-Ton Indians v. United States
(1955) Williams v. Lee
Williams v. Lee
(1959) Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation
Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation
(1960) Menominee Tribe v. United States
Menominee Tribe v. United States
(1968) McClanahan v. Arizona State Tax Commission
McClanahan v. Arizona State Tax Commission
(1973) Oneida Indian Nation of New York v. County of Oneida
Oneida Indian Nation of New York v. County of Oneida
(1974) Bryan v. Itasca County
Bryan v. Itasca County
(1976) United States v. Antelope
United States v. Antelope
(1977) Santa Clara Pueblo
Pueblo
v. Martinez (1978) Merrion v. Jicarilla Apache Tribe
Merrion v. Jicarilla Apache Tribe
(1982) Solem v. Bartlett
Solem v. Bartlett
(1984) County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State
County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State
(1985) South Carolina v. Catawba Indian Tribe, Inc.
South Carolina v. Catawba Indian Tribe, Inc.
(1986) Hodel v. Irving
Hodel v. Irving
(1987) Mississippi Band of Choctaw
Choctaw
Indians v. Holyfield (1989) South Dakota v. Bourland
South Dakota v. Bourland
(1993) Idaho v. Coeur d'Alene Tribe of Idaho
Idaho v. Coeur d'Alene Tribe of Idaho
(1997) Idaho v. United States
Idaho v. United States
(2001) United States v. Lara
United States v. Lara
(2004) City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York
City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York
(2005) Cobell v. Salazar
Cobell v. Salazar
(D.C. Cir. 2009) Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl
Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl
(2013)

Legislation

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act American Indian Religious Freedom Act Burke Act Civilization Act Curtis Act Dawes Act Diminishment Indian Arts and Crafts Act Indian Child Welfare Act Indian Citizenship Act Indian Civil Rights Act Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Indian Removal Act Indian Reorganization Act Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act Nationality Act Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Native American Languages Act Nonintercourse Act Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act

Related

Aboriginal title Bureau of Indian Affairs Cherokee
Cherokee
Commission Dawes Rolls Eagle feather law

Eagle-bone whistle

Federal recognition of Native Hawaiians

Legal status of Hawaii

Hunting license In the Courts of the Conqueror National Indian Gaming Commission Native American gaming Native American Rights Fund Public Law 280 Recognition of sacred sites State recognized tribes Treaty rights Tribal sovereignty

Federally recognized tribes

.