INDEPENDENCE is a condition of a nation , country , or state in which
its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise
self-government , and usually sovereignty , over the territory. The
opposite of independence is a dependent territory .
* 1 Definition of independence
* 1.1 Distinction between independence and autonomy
* 2 Declarations of independence
* 3 Historical overview
* 4 Continents
* 5 Notes
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 Article note
DEFINITION OF INDEPENDENCE
Whether the attainment of independence is different from revolution
has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question
of violence as a legitimate means to achieving sovereignty. While
some revolutions seek and achieve national independence, others aim
only to redistribute power — with or without an element of
emancipation, such as in democratization — within a state, which as
such may remain unaltered. The Russian October
Revolution , for
example, was not intended to seek national independence (though it did
result in independence for Poland ,
Estonia ). In contrast, the
American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War was intended to
achieve independence from the beginning. Causes for a country or
province wishing to seek independence are many. The means can extend
from peaceful demonstrations, like in the case of the Indian
independence movement , to a violent war like in the case of Algeria .
DISTINCTION BETWEEN INDEPENDENCE AND AUTONOMY
Autonomy refers to a kind of independence which has been granted by
an overseeing authority that itself still retains ultimate authority
over that territory (see
Devolution ). A protectorate refers to an
autonomous region that depends upon a larger government for its
protection as an autonomous region.
DECLARATIONS OF INDEPENDENCE
Sometimes, a state wishing to achieve independence from a dominating
power will issue a declaration of independence ; the earliest
surviving example is
Declaration of Arbroath
Declaration of Arbroath in 1320, with
the most recent example being
Azawad 's declaration of independence in
2012. Declaring independence and attaining it however, are quite
different. A well-known successful example is the U.S. Declaration of
Independence issued in 1776. The dates of established independence
(or, less commonly, the commencement of revolution), are typically
celebrated as a national holiday known as an independence day .
Historically, there have been three major periods of declaring
* from the 1770s, beginning with the American Revolutionary War
through the 1830s, when the last royalist bastions fell at the close
Spanish American wars of independence ;
* the immediate aftermath of the
First World War
First World War following the
breakup of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires;
* and 1945 to circa 1979, when seventy newly independent states
emerged from the European colonial empires .
South Sudan (2011)
United States (1776 )
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis (1983)
China (2070 BC)
East Timor (2002)
San Marino (301)
Kosovo (2008 )
de facto condominium international
* ^ Unilateral recognition of independence by the
United Kingdom but
continued British military occupation.
Independence from the
Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain declared .
Independence from the
United Kingdom .
* ^ A B Part of Transcaucasian Region , at the crossroads of Europe
and Asia. Physiographically , Armenia falls entirely in Western
while Georgia and Azerbaijan are mostly in
Asia with small portions
north of the
Caucasus Mountains divide in Europe.
* ^ The Xia dynasty (Chinese: 夏朝; pinyin: Xià Cháo;
Wade–Giles: Hsia-Ch'ao; IPA: ; c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC) is the first
dynasty in traditional Chinese history.
Kingdom of the Franks becomes the first Christian State after
the fall of the Western
Roman Empire .
* ^ Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity. It is
recognised by 110 UN members the
Cook Islands ,
Serbia as the Autonomous Province of
Kosovo and Metohija
under UN administration .
* ^ An independent state in free association with the United States
* List of countries by
List of sovereign states by date of formation
Lists of active separatist movements
Special Committee on Decolonization
* Wars of independence
Unilateral declaration of independence
United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
* ^ Benjamin, Walter (1996) . Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings,
Volume 1: 1913–1926. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 236–252.
ISBN 0-674-94585-9 .
* ^ David Armitage , The Declaration of
Independence in World
Organization of American Historians
Organization of American Historians , Magazine of History,
Volume 18, Issue 3, Pp. 61–66 (2004)
* ^ "Kosovo" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-16.
Retrieved 30 July 2015.
The dates of independence, as they have been ported into many
articles from the
CIA World Factbook
CIA World Factbook are defined as follows: For most
countries, when sovereignty was achieved ... For the other countries,
the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense,
but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional
founding date or the date of unification, federation , confederation ,
establishment, or fundamental change in the form of government, such
as state succession .
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