The Info List - Independence

is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory.


1 Definition of independence

1.1 Distinction between independence and autonomy

2 Declarations of independence 3 Historical overview 4 Continents 5 Notes 6 See also 7 References

Definition of independence[edit] Whether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question of violence as legitimate means to achieving sovereignty.[1] While some revolutions seek and achieve national independence, others aim only to redistribute power — with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratization — within a state, which as such may remain unaltered. The Russian October Revolution, for example, was not intended to seek national independence (though it did result in independence for Poland, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia
and Estonia). In contrast, the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
was intended to achieve independence from the beginning. Causes for a country or province wishing to seek independence are many. The means can extend from peaceful demonstrations, like in the case of the Indian independence movement, to a violent war like in the case of Algeria. Distinction between independence and autonomy[edit] Autonomy refers to a kind of independence which has been granted by an overseeing authority that itself still retains ultimate authority over that territory (see Devolution). A protectorate refers to an autonomous region that depends upon a larger government for its protection as an autonomous region. Declarations of independence[edit] Sometimes, a state wishing to achieve independence from a dominating power will issue a declaration of independence; the earliest surviving example is Scotland's Declaration of Arbroath
Declaration of Arbroath
in 1320, with the most recent example being Azawad's declaration of independence in 2012. Declaring independence and attaining it however, are quite different. A well-known successful example is the U.S. Declaration of Independence
issued in 1776. The dates of established independence (or, less commonly, the commencement of revolution), are typically celebrated as a national holiday known as an independence day. Historical overview[edit] Historically, there have been three major periods of declaring independence:

from the 1770s, beginning with the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
through the 1830s, when the last royalist bastions fell at the close of the Spanish American wars of independence; the immediate aftermath of the First World War
First World War
following the breakup of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires; and 1945 to circa 1979, when seventy newly independent states emerged from the European colonial empires.[2]


Continent No. Last Country
to Gain Independence


54   South Sudan
South Sudan


35   Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis


44[c]   East Timor
East Timor


50[c]   Montenegro
(2006)   Kosovo


14   Palau


8 de facto condominium international


^ Independence
from the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
declared. ^ Independence
from the United Kingdom. ^ a b Part of Transcaucasian Region, at the crossroads of Europe
and Asia. Physiographically, Armenia falls entirely in Western Asia, while Georgia and Azerbaijan are mostly in Asia
with small portions north of the Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
divide in Europe. ^ Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity. It is recognised by 110 UN members the Cook Islands, Niue
and Taiwan. Claimed by Serbia
as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo
and Metohija under UN administration. ^ An independent state in free association with the United States.

See also[edit]

constitution Independence
referendum List of national independence days List of sovereign states by date of formation Lists of active separatist movements Secession Special
Committee on Decolonization War of Independence Unilateral declaration of independence United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories


Wikiquote has quotations related to: Independence

^ Benjamin, Walter (1996) [1921]. Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings, Volume 1: 1913–1926. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 236–252. ISBN 0-674-94585-9.  ^ David Armitage, The Declaration of Independence
in World Context, Organization of American Historians, Magazine of History, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pp. 61–66 (2004) ^ "Kosovo" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-16. Retrieved 30 July