The INCA EMPIRE (Quechua : Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions" ),
also known as the INCAN EMPIRE and the INKA EMPIRE, was the largest
empire in pre-Columbian America , and possibly the largest empire in
the world in the early 16th century. The administrative, political
and military center of the empire was located in
From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western
South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and
peaceful assimilation, among other methods. At its largest, the empire
joined Peru, large parts of modern
The Incan economy has been described as "feudal, slave, socialist." The economy functioned largely without money and without markets. Instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals, groups, and Inca rulers. "Taxes" consisted of a labor obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers (who theoretically owned all the means of production) reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food and drink in celebratory feasts for their subjects.
* 1 Name
* 2 History
* 3 Society
* 3.1 Population * 3.2 Language * 3.3 Marriage * 3.4 Gender
* 3.5 Religion
* 3.5.1 Deities
* 3.6 Economy
* 4 Government
* 4.1 Beliefs
* 4.2 Organization of the empire
* 4.2.1 Suyu
* 4.3 Laws * 4.4 Administration
* 5 Arts and technology
* 5.1 Monumental architecture
* 5.2 Measures, calendrics and mathematics
* 5.3 Ceramics, precious metals and textiles
* 5.4 Communication and medicine
* 6 People
* 7 See also
* 7.1 Important Incan archeological sites * 7.2 Incan-related * 7.3 General
* 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links
The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, "the four suyu". In Quechua , tawa is four and -ntin is a suffix naming a group, so that a tawantin is a quartet, a group of four things taken together, in this case representing the four suyu ("regions" or "provinces") whose corners met at the capital. The four suyu were: Chinchaysuyu (north), Antisuyu (east; the Amazon jungle), Qullasuyu (south) and Kuntisuyu (west). The name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces. The Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyo or Tahuatinsuyu.
The term Inka means "ruler" or "lord" in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family. The Incas were a very small percentage of the total population of the empire, probably numbering only 15,000 to 40,000, but ruling a population of around 10 million persons. The Spanish adopted the term (transliterated as Inca in Spanish) as an ethnic term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than simply the ruling class. As such the name Imperio inca ("Inca Empire") referred to the nation that they encountered and subsequently conquered.
The Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the
Ayar Manco carried a magic staff made of the finest gold. Where this staff landed, the people would live. They traveled for a long time. On the way, Ayar Cachi boasted about his strength and power. His siblings tricked him into returning to the cave to get a sacred llama . When he went into the cave, they trapped him inside to get rid of him.
Ayar Uchu decided to stay on the top of the cave to look over the Inca people. The minute he proclaimed that, he turned to stone. They built a shrine around the stone and it became a sacred object. Ayar Auca grew tired of all this and decided to travel alone. Only Ayar Manco and his four sisters remained.
Finally, they reached Cusco. The staff sank into the ground. Before
Mama Ocllo had already borne Ayar Manco a child, Sinchi
Roca . The people who were already living in
After that, Ayar Manco became known as Manco Cápac , the founder of the Inca. It is said that he and his sisters built the first Inca homes in the valley with their own hands. When the time came, Manco Cápac turned to stone like his brothers before him. His son, Sinchi Roca, became the second emperor of the Inca.
KINGDOM OF CUSCO
Main article: Kingdom of
Under the leadership of Manco Cápac, the Inca formed the small
city-state Kingdom of
REORGANIZATION AND FORMATION
Pachacuti reorganized the kingdom of
Pachacuti sent spies to regions he wanted in his empire and they brought to him reports on political organization, military strength and wealth. He then sent messages to their leaders extolling the benefits of joining his empire, offering them presents of luxury goods such as high quality textiles and promising that they would be materially richer as his subjects.
Most accepted the rule of the Inca as a fait accompli and acquiesced
peacefully. Refusal to accept Inca rule resulted in military conquest.
Following conquest the local rulers were executed. The ruler's
children were brought to
EXPANSION AND CONSOLIDATION
Traditionally the son of the Inca ruler led the army. Pachacuti's son
Túpac Inca Yupanqui began conquests to the north in 1463 and
continued them as Inca ruler after Pachacuti's death in 1471. Túpac
Inca's most important conquest was the Kingdom of
Chimor , the Inca's
only serious rival for the Peruvian coast. Túpac Inca's empire
stretched north into modern-day
Túpac Inca's son
Huayna Cápac added a small portion of land to the
north in modern-day
For as is well known to all, not a single village of the highlands or the plains failed to pay the tribute levied on it by those who were in charge of these matters. There were even provinces where, when the natives alleged that they were unable to pay their tribute, the Inca ordered that each inhabitant should be obliged to turn in every four months a large quill full of live lice, which was the Inca's way of teaching and accustoming them to pay tribute.
INCA CIVIL WAR AND SPANISH CONQUEST
Spanish conquistadors led by
Francisco Pizarro and his brothers
explored south from what is today
When they returned to
The Spanish horsemen, fully armored, had technological superiority
over the Inca forces. The traditional mode of battle in the
Their first engagement was the Battle of Puná , near present-day Guayaquil , Ecuador, on the Pacific Coast; Pizarro then founded the city of Piura in July 1532. Hernando de Soto was sent inland to explore the interior and returned with an invitation to meet the Inca, Atahualpa, who had defeated his brother in the civil war and was resting at Cajamarca with his army of 80,000 troops.
Pizarro and some of his men, most notably a friar named Vincente de Valverde , met with the Inca, who had brought only a small retinue. Through an interpreter Friar Vincente read the " Requerimiento " that demanded that he and his empire accept the rule of King Charles I of Spain and convert to Christianity. Because of the language barrier and perhaps poor interpretation, Atahualpa became somewhat puzzled by the friar's description of Christian faith and was said to have not fully understood the envoy's intentions. After Atahualpa attempted further enquiry into the doctrines of the Christian faith, the Spanish became frustrated and impatient. They attacked the Inca\'s retinue and captured Atahualpa as hostage.
Atahualpa offered the Spaniards enough gold to fill the room he was imprisoned in and twice that amount of silver. The Inca fulfilled this ransom, but Pizarro deceived them, refusing to release the Inca afterwards. During Atahualpa's imprisonment Huáscar was assassinated elsewhere. The Spaniards maintained that this was at Atahualpa's orders; this was used as one of the charges against Atahualpa when the Spaniards finally executed him, in August 1533.
The Spanish installed Atahualpa's brother
Manco Inca Yupanqui in
power; for some time Manco cooperated with the Spanish while they
fought to put down resistance in the north. Meanwhile, an associate of
Diego de Almagro
After the fall of the Inca
The effects of smallpox on the Inca empire were even more
devastating. Beginning in
The number of people inhabiting Tawantinsuyu at its peak is uncertain, with estimates ranging from 4-37 million. Most population estimates are in the range of 6 to 14 million. In spite of the fact that the Inca kept excellent census records using their quipus , knowledge of how to read them was lost as almost all of them were destroyed by the Spaniards.
Main article: Quechua languages
Since the Inca
The language imposed by the Incas diverted from its original phonetics as some societies formed their own regional varieties. The diversity of Quechua at that point and even today does not come directly from the Incas, who were just a part of the reason for Quechua's diversity. The civilizations within the empire that had previously spoken Quechua kept their own variety distinct from the Quechua the Incas spread. Although these dialects of Quechua had a similar linguistic structure, they differed according to the region in which they were spoken.
Although most of the societies within the empire accepted Quechua,
the Incas allowed several societies to keep their original languages,
such as Aymara , which remains in use in contemporary Bolivia, where
it is the primary indigenous language and in various regions
surrounding Bolivia. The linguistic body of the Inca
In the Incan Empire, the age of marriage differed for men and women. Men typically married at the age of 20, while women usually got married around 4 years earlier at the age of 16. Men who were highly ranked in society could have multiple wives, but those lower in the ranks could only take a single wife.
Marriage typically remained within similar social classes and resembled a more business-like agreement. Once married, the women were expected to cook, collect food and watch over the children and livestock. Girls and mothers would also work around the house to keep it orderly to please the public inspectors. These duties remained the same even after she became pregnant with the added responsibility of praying and making offerings to Kanopa, who was the god of pregnancy.
It was typical for marriages to begin on a trial basis with both men and women having a say in the longevity of the marriage. If the man felt that it wouldn’t work out, or if the woman wanted to return to her parent’s home the marriage would end. Once the marriage was final, the only way the two could be divorced was if they did not have a child together .
The Inca called newborn infants wawa, a term that they also used for newborn animals. This term was used for all newborn beings without regard to their biological sex. Babies were not given human social status until they reached two or three years of age due to the high infant mortality rates. It was at this time that a ceremony was held called rutuchikuy in which the infant was given its first haircut, name and introduced to the extended family. Also in this ceremony, children advanced from the description of wawa to warma, a gender neutral term for a child who has not developed the language skill set. By the time children reached the age of seven, they had completed gender specific tasks and were referred to as gender specific terms, Thaski for girls and maqt’a for boys.
Inca myths were transmitted orally until early Spanish colonists recorded them; however, some scholars claim that they were recorded on quipus, Andean knotted string records.
The Inca believed in reincarnation . Death was a passage to the next world that was full of difficulties. The spirit of the dead, camaquen, would need to follow a long road and during the trip the assistance of a black dog that could see in the dark was required. Most Incas imagined the after world to be like that of the European notion of heaven, with flower-covered fields and snow-capped mountains.
It was important to the Inca that they not die as a result of burning or that the body of the deceased not be incinerated. Burning would cause their vital force to disappear and threaten their passage to the after world. Those who obeyed the Inca moral code – ama suwa, ama llulla, ama quella (do not steal, do not lie, do not be lazy) – "went to live in the Sun's warmth while others spent their eternal days in the cold earth". The Inca nobility practiced cranial deformation . They wrapped tight cloth straps around the heads of newborns to shape their soft skulls into a more conical form, thus distinguishing the nobility from other social classes.
The Incas made human sacrifices . As many as 4,000 servants, court officials, favorites and concubines were killed upon the death of the Inca Huayna Capac in 1527. The Incas performed child sacrifices around important events, such as the death of the Sapa Inca or during a famine. These sacrifices were known as qhapaq hucha .
Main article: Inca Government
Sapa Inca was conceptualized as divine and was effectively head
of the state religion. The
Willaq Umu (or Chief Priest) was second to
the emperor. Local religious traditions continued and in some cases
such as the Oracle at
Pachacamac on the Peruvian coast, were
officially venerated. Following Pachacuti, the
Sapa Inca claimed
descent from Inti, who placed a high value on imperial blood; by the
end of the empire, it was common to incestuously wed brother and
sister. He was "son of the sun," and his people the intip churin, or
"children of the sun," and both his right to rule and mission to
conquer derived from his holy ancestor. The
Sapa Inca also presided
over ideologically important festivals, notably during the
, or "warriors' cultivation," attended by soldiers, mummified rulers,
nobles, clerics and the general population of
ORGANIZATION OF THE EMPIRE
The Inca Empire's southern border defined by the Maule or Maipo River (scholars differ). Inca troops never crossed the Bío Bío River .
The four suyus or quarters of the empire.
The most populous suyu was Chinchaysuyu, which encompassed the former
Chimu empire and much of the northern Andes. At its largest extent, it
extended through much of modern
The largest suyu by area was Qullasuyu, named after the Aymara
-speaking Qulla people. It encompassed the Bolivian
The second smallest suyu, Antisuyu, was northwest of
Kuntisuyu was the smallest suyu, located along the southern coast of modern Peru, extending into the highlands towards Cusco.
The Inca state had no separate judiciary or codified laws . Customs, expectations and traditional local power holders governed behavior. The state had legal force, such as through tokoyrikoq (lit. "he who sees all"), or inspectors. The highest such inspector, typically a blood relative to the Sapa Inca, acted independently of the conventional hierarchy, providing a point of view for the Sapa Inca free of bureaucratic influence.
Colonial sources are not entirely clear or in agreement about Inca
government structure, such as exact duties and functions of government
positions. But the basic structure can be broadly described. The top
was the Sapa Inca. Below that may have been the Willaq Umu, literally
the "priest who recounts", the High Priest of the Sun. However,
Sapa Inca also sat the Inkap rantin, who was a confidant
and assistant to the Sapa Inca, perhaps similar to a Prime Minister.
Topa Inca Yupanqui , a "Council of the Realm" was
composed of 16 nobles: 2 from hanan Cusco; 2 from hurin Cusco; 4 from
Chinchaysuyu; 2 from Cuntisuyu; 4 from Collasuyu; and 2 from Antisuyu.
This weighting of representation balanced the hanan and hurin
divisions of the empire, both within
While provincial bureaucracy and government varied greatly, the basic organization was decimal. Taxpayers – male heads of household of a certain age range – were organized into corvée labor units (often doubling as military units) that formed the state's muscle as part of mit\'a service. Each unit of more than 100 tax-payers were headed by a kuraka, while smaller units were headed by a kamayuq, a lower, non-hereditary status. However, while kuraka status was hereditary and typically served for life, the position of a kuraka in the hierarchy was subject to change based on the privileges of superiors in the hierarchy; a pachaka kuraka could be appointed to the position by a waranqa kuraka. Furthermore, one kuraka in each decimal level could serve as the head of one of the nine groups at a lower level, so that a pachaka kuraka might also be a waranqa kuraka, in effect directly responsible for one unit of 100 tax-payers and less directly responsible for nine other such units.
KURAKA IN CHARGE NUMBER OF TAXPAYERS
Hunu kuraka 10,000
Pichkawaranqa kuraka 5,000
Waranqa kuraka 1,000
Pichkapachaka kuraka 500
Pachaka kuraka 100
Pichkachunka kamayuq 50
Chunka kamayuq 10
ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY
We can assure your majesty that it is so beautiful and has such fine buildings that it would even be remarkable in Spain. “ ” Francisco Pizarro
Architecture was the most important of the Incan arts, with textiles reflecting architectural motifs. The most notable example is Machu Picchu , which was constructed by Inca engineers . The prime Inca structures were made of stone blocks that fit together so well that a knife could not be fitted through the stonework. These constructs have survived for centuries, with no use of mortar to sustain them.
This process was first used on a large scale by the Pucara (ca. 300
BC–AD 300) peoples to the south in
MEASURES, CALENDRICS AND MATHEMATICS
Inca tunic Tokapu . Textiles worn by the Inca elite
consisting of geometric figures enclosed by rectangles or squares.
There is evidence that the designs were an ideographic language
Quipu, 15th century.
Physical measures used by the Inca were based on human body parts. Units included fingers, the distance from thumb to forefinger, palms, cubits and wingspans. The most basic distance unit was thatkiy or thatki, or one pace. The next largest unit was reported by Cobo to be the topo or tupu, measuring 6,000 thatkiys, or about 7.7 km (4.8 mi); careful study has shown that a range of 4.0 to 6.3 km (2.5 to 3.9 mi) is likely. Next was the wamani, composed of 30 topos (roughly 232 km or 144 mi). To measure area, 25 by 50 wingspans were used, reckoned in topos (roughly 3,280 km2 or 1,270 sq mi). It seems likely that distance was often interpreted as one day's walk; the distance between tambo way-stations varies widely in terms of distance, but far less in terms of time to walk that distance.
Inca calendars were strongly tied to astronomy . Inca astronomers understood equinoxes , solstices and zenith passages, along with the Venus cycle . They could not, however, predict eclipses . The Inca calendar was essentially lunisolar , as two calendars were maintained in parallel, one solar and one lunar . As 12 lunar months fall 11 days short of a full 365-day solar year, those in charge of the calendar had to adjust every winter solstice. Each lunar month was marked with festivals and rituals. Apparently, the days of the week were not named and days were not grouped into weeks. Similarly, months were not grouped into seasons. Time during a day was not measured in hours or minutes, but in terms of how far the sun had travelled or in how long it had taken to perform a task.
The sophistication of Inca administration, calendrics and engineering
required facility with numbers. Numerical information was stored in
the knots of quipu strings, allowing for compact storage of large
numbers. These numbers were stored in base-10 digits, the same base
used by the
According to mid-17th-century Jesuit chronicler Bernabé Cobo, the Inca designated officials to perform accounting-related tasks. These officials were called quipo camayos. Study of khipu sample VA 42527 (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin) revealed that the numbers arranged in calendrically significant patterns were used for agricultural purposes in the "farm account books" kept by the khipukamayuq (accountant or warehouse keeper) to facilitate the closing of accounting books.
CERAMICS, PRECIOUS METALS AND TEXTILES
Camelid Conopa, 1470–1532,
Ceramics were painted using the polychrome technique portraying
numerous motifs including animals, birds, waves, felines (popular in
the Chavin culture ) and geometric patterns found in the
Almost all of the gold and silver work of the Incan empire was melted down by the conquistadors.
COMMUNICATION AND MEDICINE
The Inca recorded information on assemblages of knotted strings, known as Quipu , although they can no longer be decoded. Originally it was thought that Quipu were used only as mnemonic devices or to record numerical data. Quipus are also believed to record history and literature.
The Inca made many discoveries in medicine. They performed successful skull surgery , by cutting holes in the skull to alleviate fluid buildup and inflammation caused by head wounds. Many skull surgeries performed by Inca surgeons were successful. Survival rates were 80–90%, compared to about 30% before Inca times.
The Incas revered the coca plant as sacred/magical. Its leaves were
used in moderate amounts to lessen hunger and pain during work, but
were mostly used for religious and health purposes. The Spaniards
took advantage of the effects of chewing coca leaves. The
messengers who ran throughout the empire to deliver messages, chewed
coca leaves for extra energy.
WEAPONS, ARMOR AND WARFARE
The Battle of the Maule between the Incas (right) and the Mapuches (left)
The Inca army was the most powerful at that time, because they could turn an ordinary villager or farmer into a soldier. Every male Inca had to take part in war at least once and to prepare for warfare again when needed. By the time the empire reached its largest size, every section of the empire contributed in setting up an army for war.
The Incas had no iron or steel and their weapons were not much more effective than those of their opponents. They went into battle with drums beating and trumpets blowing. Their armor included:
* Helmets made of wood, copper, bronze, cane, or animal skin; some were adorned with feathers * Round or square shields made from wood or hide * Cloth tunics padded with cotton and small wooden planks to protect the spine.
The Inca weaponry included:
* Bronze or bone-tipped spears
* Clubs with stone and spiked metal heads
* Woolen slings and stones
* Stone or copper headed battle-axes
Roads allowed quick movement (on foot) for the Inca army and shelters called tambo and storage silos called qullqas were built one day's travelling distance from each other, so that an army on campaign could always be fed and rested. This can be seen in names of ruins such as Ollantay Tambo, or My Lord's Storehouse. These were set up so the Inca and his entourage would always have supplies (and possibly shelter) ready as they traveled.
Chronicles and references from the 16th and 17th centuries support the idea of a banner. However, it represented the Inca (emperor), not the empire.
Francisco López de Jerez wrote in 1534:
... todos venían repartidos en sus escuadras con sus banderas y capitanes que los mandan, con tanto concierto como turcos. (... all of them came distributed into squads, with their flags and captains commanding them, as well-ordered as Turks.)
Chronicler Bernabé Cobo wrote:
The royal standard or banner was a small square flag, ten or twelve spans around, made of cotton or wool cloth, placed on the end of a long staff, stretched and stiff such that it did not wave in the air and on it each king painted his arms and emblems, for each one chose different ones, though the sign of the Incas was the rainbow and two parallel snakes along the width with the tassel as a crown, which each king used to add for a badge or blazon those preferred, like a lion, an eagle and other figures. (... el guión o estandarte real era una banderilla cuadrada y pequeña, de diez o doce palmos de ruedo, hecha de lienzo de algodón o de lana, iba puesta en el remate de una asta larga, tendida y tiesa, sin que ondease al aire, y en ella pintaba cada rey sus armas y divisas, porque cada uno las escogía diferentes, aunque las generales de los Incas eran el arco celeste y dos culebras tendidas a lo largo paralelas con la borda que le servía de corona, a las cuales solía añadir por divisa y blasón cada rey las que le parecía, como un león, un águila y otras figuras.) -BERNABé COBO, HISTORIA DEL NUEVO MUNDO (1653)
Guaman Poma 's 1615 book, El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno, shows numerous line drawings of Inca flags. In his 1847 book A History of the Conquest of Peru, " William H. Prescott ... says that in the Inca army each company had its particular banner and that the imperial standard, high above all, displayed the glittering device of the rainbow, the armorial ensign of the Incas." A 1917 world flags book says the Inca "heir-apparent ... was entitled to display the royal standard of the rainbow in his military campaigns."
In modern times the rainbow flag has been wrongly associated with the
Tawantinsuyu and displayed as a symbol of Inca heritage by some groups
"The official use of the wrongly called ' Tawantinsuyu flag' is a mistake. In the Pre-Hispanic Andean World there did not exist the concept of a flag, it did not belong to their historic context". NATIONAL ACADEMY OF PERUVIAN HISTORY
Andean civilization probably began c. 7600 BCE . Based in the highlands of Peru, an area now called the punas, the ancestors of the Incas probably began as a nomadic herding people. Adaptation to the altitude led to distinctive physical developments. Short and stocky, men averaged 1.57 m (5'2") and women 1.45 m (4'9"). Compared to other humans, the Incas had slower heart rates, almost one-third larger lung capacity, about 2 L (4 pints) more blood volume and double the amount of hemoglobin , which transfers oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. While the Conquistadors may have been slightly taller, the Inca had the advantage of coping with the extraordinary altitude.
Permanent habitations have been found as high as 5,300 m (17,400 ft) above sea level in the temperate zone of the high altiplanos. In the Lake Titikaka region, Tiwanaku is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire, flourishing as the ritual and administrative capital of a major state power for approximately 500 years. Previous cultures left no written record, but their architecture, ceramics and state government were inherited by the Inca.
IMPORTANT INCAN ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES
* Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (1776–1811)
* v * t * e
Aclla , the "chosen women"
Amauta , Inca teachers
Amazonas before the Inca Empire
Anden , agricultural terrace
Inca Civil War
* Incas in Central
* ^ Namnama, Katrina; DeGuzman, Kathleen, "The Inca Empire", K12,
USA, archived from the original on 27 February 2008
* ^ A B McEwan 2008 , p. 221.
* ^ Schwartz, Glenn M.; Nichols, John J. (15 August 2010). After
Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies. University of Arizona
Press. ISBN 978-0-8165-2936-0 .
* ^ Moseley, Michael E. (2001), The Incas and their Ancestors,
London: Thames and Hudson, p. 7
* ^ "The Inca - All Empires".
* ^ "The Inca." The National Foreign Language Center at the
University of Maryland. 29 May 2007. Retrieved 10 Sept 2013.
* ^ "McEwan, Gordon F. (2006). The Incas: New Perspectives, New
York: W. W. Norton & Co, p. 5
* ^ La Lone, Darrell E. "The Inca as a Nonmarket Economy: Supply on
Command versus Supply and Demand," p. 292.
accessed 22 Jan 2017
* ^ Morris, Craig and von Hagen, Adrianna (2011), The Incas,
London: Thames & Hudson, pp. 48-58
* ^ "Inca". American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company.
* ^ McEwan, p. 93
* ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 57.
* ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 69.
* ^ Demarest, Arthur Andrew; Conrad, Geoffrey W. (1984). Religion
and Empire: The Dynamics of Aztec and Inca Expansionism. Cambridge,
UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–59. ISBN 0-521-31896-3 .
* ^ The three laws of
Tawantinsuyu are still referred to in Bolivia
these days as the three laws of the Qullasuyu.
* ^ Weatherford, J. McIver (1988). Indian Givers: How the Indians
of the Americas Transformed the World. New York: Fawcett Columbine.
pp. 60–62. ISBN 0-449-90496-2 .
* ^ Ernesto Salazar (1977). An Indian federation in lowland Ecuador
International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs . p. 13.
Retrieved 16 February 2013.
* ^ Starn, Orin; Kirk, Carlos Iván; Degregori, Carlos Iván (1
January 2009). The
Library resources about INCA EMPIRE -------------------------
* Online books * Resources in your library * Resources in other libraries
* Куприенко, Сергей (2013). Источники
XVI-XVII веков по истории инков: хроники,
документы, письма. Kyiv: Видавець
Купрієнко С.А. ISBN 978-617-7085-03-3 .
* Bengoa, José (1 January 2003). Historia de los antiguos mapuches
del sur: desde antes de la llegada de los españoles hasta las paces
de Quilín : siglos XVI y XVII. BPR Publishers. ISBN 978-956-8303-02-0
* De La Vega, Garcilaso (15 September 2006). The Royal Commentaries
of the Incas and General History of Peru, Abridged. Hackett
Publishing. pp. 32–. ISBN 978-1-60384-856-5 .
* Hemming, John (2003). The Conquest of the Incas. Harvest Press.
ISBN 0-15-602826-3 .
* MacQuarrie, Kim (2007). The Last Days of the Incas. Simon &
Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-6049-7 .
* Mann, Charles C. (2005). 1491: New Revelations of the Americas
Before Columbus. Knopf . pp. 64–105. ISBN 978-0-307-27818-0 .
* McEwan, Gordon F. (26 August 2008). The Incas: New Perspectives.
W. W. Norton, Incorporated. pp. 221–. ISBN 978-0-393-33301-5 .
* Morales, Edmundo (1995). The guinea pig: healing, food, and ritual
in the Andes. University of Arizona Press.
* Popenoe, Hugh; Steven R. King; Jorge Leon; Luis Sumar Kalinowski;
Noel D. Vietmeyer (1989). Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants
* " Guaman Poma – El Primer Nueva Corónica Y Buen Gobierno" – A high-quality digital version of the Corónica, scanned from the original manuscript. * Conquest nts.html Inca Land by Hiram Bingham