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The INCA EMPIRE (Quechua : Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions" ), also known as the INCAN EMPIRE and the INKA EMPIRE, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America , and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco
Cusco
in modern-day Peru
Peru
. The Inca civilization
Inca civilization
arose from the highlands of Peru
Peru
sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572.

From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods. At its largest, the empire joined Peru, large parts of modern Ecuador
Ecuador
, western and south central Bolivia
Bolivia
, northwest Argentina
Argentina
, north and central Chile
Chile
and a small part of southwest Colombia
Colombia
into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia. Its official language was Quechua . Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas , but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of Inti
Inti
—their sun god —and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama
Pachamama
. The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca
Sapa Inca
, to be the "son of the sun."

The Inca Empire
Empire
was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old World
Old World
. In the words of one scholar, "The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles. They lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons and plows... lacked the knowledge of iron and steel...Above all, they lacked a system of writing...Despite these supposed handicaps, the Incas were still able to construct one of the greatest imperial states in human history".

The Incan economy has been described in various ways by scholars: as "feudal, slave, socialist (here one may choose between socialist paradise or socialist tyranny); a system based on reciprocity and redistribution, a system with markets and commerce; or an Asiatic mode of production." The economy functioned largely without money and without markets. Instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals, groups, and Inca rulers. "Taxes" consisted of a labor obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers (who theoretically owned all the means of production) reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food and drink in celebratory feasts for their subjects.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origin * 2.2 Kingdom of Cusco
Cusco
* 2.3 Reorganization and formation * 2.4 Expansion and consolidation * 2.5 Inca Civil War
Inca Civil War
and Spanish conquest * 2.6 Last Incas

* 3 Society

* 3.1 Population * 3.2 Language * 3.3 Marriage * 3.4 Gender

* 3.5 Religion

* 3.5.1 Deities

* 3.6 Economy

* 4 Government

* 4.1 Beliefs

* 4.2 Organization of the empire

* 4.2.1 Suyu

* 4.3 Laws * 4.4 Administration

* 5 Arts and technology

* 5.1 Monumental architecture * 5.2 Measures, calendrics and mathematics * 5.3 Ceramics, precious metals and textiles * 5.4 Communication and medicine * 5.5 Coca
Coca
* 5.6 Weapons, armor and warfare * 5.7 Flag

* 6 People

* 7 See also

* 7.1 Important Incan archeological sites * 7.2 Incan-related * 7.3 General

* 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links

NAME

The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, "the four suyu". In Quechua , tawa is four and -ntin is a suffix naming a group, so that a tawantin is a quartet, a group of four things taken together, in this case representing the four suyu ("regions" or "provinces") whose corners met at the capital. The four suyu were: Chinchaysuyu (north), Antisuyu (east; the Amazon jungle), Qullasuyu
Qullasuyu
(south) and Kuntisuyu
Kuntisuyu
(west). The name Tawantinsuyu
Tawantinsuyu
was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces. The Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyo or Tahuatinsuyu.

The term Inka means "ruler" or "lord" in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family. The Incas were a very small percentage of the total population of the empire, probably numbering only 15,000 to 40,000, but ruling a population of around 10 million persons. The Spanish adopted the term (transliterated as Inca in Spanish) as an ethnic term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than simply the ruling class. As such the name Imperio inca ("Inca Empire") referred to the nation that they encountered and subsequently conquered.

HISTORY

ORIGIN

The Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco
Cusco
area around the 12th century. Incan oral history tells an origin story of three caves. The center cave at Tampu T'uqu (Tambo Tocco) was named Qhapaq T'uqu ("principal niche", also spelled Capac Tocco). The other caves were Maras T'uqu (Maras Tocco) and Sutiq T'uqu (Sutic Tocco). Four brothers and four sisters stepped out of the middle cave. They were: Ayar Manco , Ayar Cachi , Ayar Awqa (Ayar Auca) and Ayar Uchu; and Mama Ocllo
Mama Ocllo
, Mama Raua , Mama Huaco and Mama Qura (Mama Cora). Out of the side caves came the people who were to be the ancestors of all the Inca clans. Manco Cápac
Manco Cápac
, First Inca, 1 of 14 Portraits of Inca Kings, Probably mid-18th century. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum

Ayar Manco carried a magic staff made of the finest gold. Where this staff landed, the people would live. They traveled for a long time. On the way, Ayar Cachi boasted about his strength and power. His siblings tricked him into returning to the cave to get a sacred llama . When he went into the cave, they trapped him inside to get rid of him.

Ayar Uchu decided to stay on the top of the cave to look over the Inca people. The minute he proclaimed that, he turned to stone. They built a shrine around the stone and it became a sacred object. Ayar Auca grew tired of all this and decided to travel alone. Only Ayar Manco and his four sisters remained.

Finally, they reached Cusco. The staff sank into the ground. Before they arrived, Mama Ocllo
Mama Ocllo
had already borne Ayar Manco a child, Sinchi Roca . The people who were already living in Cusco
Cusco
fought hard to keep their land, but Mama Huaca was a good fighter. When the enemy attacked, she threw her bolas (several stones tied together that spun through the air when thrown) at a soldier (gualla) and killed him instantly. The other people became afraid and ran away.

After that, Ayar Manco became known as Manco Cápac
Manco Cápac
, the founder of the Inca. It is said that he and his sisters built the first Inca homes in the valley with their own hands. When the time came, Manco Cápac turned to stone like his brothers before him. His son, Sinchi Roca, became the second emperor of the Inca.

KINGDOM OF CUSCO

Main article: Kingdom of Cusco
Cusco

Under the leadership of Manco Cápac, the Inca formed the small city-state Kingdom of Cusco
Cusco
(Quechua Qusqu', Qosqo). In 1438, they began a far-reaching expansion under the command of Sapa Inca (paramount leader) Pachacuti-Cusi Yupanqui , whose name literally meant "earth-shaker". The name of Pachacuti
Pachacuti
was given to him after he conquered the Tribe of Chancas (modern Apurímac ). During his reign, he and his son Tupac Yupanqui brought much of the Andes
Andes
mountains (roughly modern Peru
Peru
and Ecuador) under Inca control.

REORGANIZATION AND FORMATION

The first image of the Inca in Europe, Pedro Cieza de León
Pedro Cieza de León
, Cronica del Peru
Peru
, 1553

Pachacuti
Pachacuti
reorganized the kingdom of Cusco
Cusco
into the Tahuantinsuyu, which consisted of a central government with the Inca at its head and four provincial governments with strong leaders: Chinchasuyu (NW), Antisuyu (NE), Kuntisuyu
Kuntisuyu
(SW) and Qullasuyu
Qullasuyu
(SE). Pachacuti
Pachacuti
is thought to have built Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
, either as a family home or summer retreat, although it may have been an agricultural station.

Pachacuti
Pachacuti
sent spies to regions he wanted in his empire and they brought to him reports on political organization, military strength and wealth. He then sent messages to their leaders extolling the benefits of joining his empire, offering them presents of luxury goods such as high quality textiles and promising that they would be materially richer as his subjects.

Most accepted the rule of the Inca as a fait accompli and acquiesced peacefully. Refusal to accept Inca rule resulted in military conquest. Following conquest the local rulers were executed. The ruler's children were brought to Cusco
Cusco
to learn about Inca administration systems, then return to rule their native lands. This allowed the Inca to indoctrinate them into the Inca nobility and, with luck, marry their daughters into families at various corners of the empire.

EXPANSION AND CONSOLIDATION

Manco Cápac
Manco Cápac
and Mama Ocllo, children of the Inti
Inti

Traditionally the son of the Inca ruler led the army. Pachacuti's son Túpac Inca Yupanqui
Túpac Inca Yupanqui
began conquests to the north in 1463 and continued them as Inca ruler after Pachacuti's death in 1471. Túpac Inca's most important conquest was the Kingdom of Chimor
Chimor
, the Inca's only serious rival for the Peruvian coast. Túpac Inca's empire stretched north into modern-day Ecuador
Ecuador
and Colombia.

Túpac Inca's son Huayna Cápac
Huayna Cápac
added a small portion of land to the north in modern-day Ecuador
Ecuador
and in parts of Peru. At its height, the Inca Empire
Empire
included Peru
Peru
and Bolivia
Bolivia
, most of what is now Ecuador and a large portion of what is today Chile
Chile
, north of the Maule River . The advance south halted after the Battle of the Maule where they met determined resistance from the Mapuche
Mapuche
. The empire's push into the Amazon Basin
Amazon Basin
near the Chinchipe River was stopped by the Shuar in 1527. The empire extended into corners of Argentina
Argentina
and Colombia
Colombia
. However, most of the southern portion of the Inca empire, the portion denominated as Qullasuyu, was located in the Altiplano
Altiplano
.

The Inca Empire
Empire
was an amalgamation of languages, cultures and peoples. The components of the empire were not all uniformly loyal, nor were the local cultures all fully integrated. The Inca empire as a whole had an economy based on exchange and taxation of luxury goods and labour. The following quote describes a method of taxation:

For as is well known to all, not a single village of the highlands or the plains failed to pay the tribute levied on it by those who were in charge of these matters. There were even provinces where, when the natives alleged that they were unable to pay their tribute, the Inca ordered that each inhabitant should be obliged to turn in every four months a large quill full of live lice, which was the Inca's way of teaching and accustoming them to pay tribute.

INCA CIVIL WAR AND SPANISH CONQUEST

Main articles: Inca Civil War
Inca Civil War
and Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire Inca expansion (1438–1533) Atahualpa
Atahualpa
, the last Sapa Inca of the empire, was executed by the Spanish on 29 August 1533

Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
and his brothers explored south from what is today Panama
Panama
, reaching Inca territory by 1526. It was clear that they had reached a wealthy land with prospects of great treasure, and after another expedition in 1529 Pizarro traveled to Spain and received royal approval to conquer the region and be its viceroy. This approval was received as detailed in the following quote: "In July 1529 the queen of Spain signed a charter allowing Pizarro to conquer the Incas. Pizarro was named governor and captain of all conquests in Peru, or New Castile, as the Spanish now called the land."

When they returned to Peru
Peru
in 1532, a war of brothers between the sons of Huayna Capac, Huáscar
Huáscar
and Atahualpa
Atahualpa
, and unrest among newly conquered territories weakened the empire. Perhaps more importantly, smallpox had spread from Central America. Pizarro did not have a formidable force. With just 168 men, one cannon , and 27 horses, he often talked his way out of potential confrontations that could have easily wiped out his party.

The Spanish horsemen, fully armored, had technological superiority over the Inca forces. The traditional mode of battle in the Andes
Andes
was a kind of siege warfare where large numbers of usually reluctant draftees were sent to overwhelm opponents. The Spaniards developed one of the finest military machines in the premodern world , tactics learned in their centuries-long fight against Moorish kingdoms in Iberia . Along with their tactical and material superiority, the Spaniards acquired tens of thousands of native allies who sought to end the Inca control of their territories.

Their first engagement was the Battle of Puná , near present-day Guayaquil
Guayaquil
, Ecuador, on the Pacific Coast; Pizarro then founded the city of Piura
Piura
in July 1532. Hernando de Soto was sent inland to explore the interior and returned with an invitation to meet the Inca, Atahualpa, who had defeated his brother in the civil war and was resting at Cajamarca with his army of 80,000 troops.

Pizarro and some of his men, most notably a friar named Vincente de Valverde , met with the Inca, who had brought only a small retinue. Through an interpreter Friar Vincente read the " Requerimiento " that demanded that he and his empire accept the rule of King Charles I of Spain and convert to Christianity. Because of the language barrier and perhaps poor interpretation, Atahualpa
Atahualpa
became somewhat puzzled by the friar's description of Christian faith and was said to have not fully understood the envoy's intentions. After Atahualpa
Atahualpa
attempted further enquiry into the doctrines of the Christian faith, the Spanish became frustrated and impatient. They attacked the Inca\'s retinue and captured Atahualpa
Atahualpa
as hostage.

Atahualpa
Atahualpa
offered the Spaniards enough gold to fill the room he was imprisoned in and twice that amount of silver. The Inca fulfilled this ransom, but Pizarro deceived them, refusing to release the Inca afterwards. During Atahualpa's imprisonment Huáscar
Huáscar
was assassinated elsewhere. The Spaniards maintained that this was at Atahualpa's orders; this was used as one of the charges against Atahualpa
Atahualpa
when the Spaniards finally executed him, in August 1533.

LAST INCAS

Main article: Neo-Inca State
Neo-Inca State
View of Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu

The Spanish installed Atahualpa's brother Manco Inca Yupanqui
Manco Inca Yupanqui
in power; for some time Manco cooperated with the Spanish while they fought to put down resistance in the north. Meanwhile, an associate of Pizarro, Diego de Almagro
Diego de Almagro
, attempted to claim Cusco. Manco tried to use this intra-Spanish feud to his advantage, recapturing Cusco
Cusco
in 1536, but the Spanish retook the city afterwards. Manco Inca then retreated to the mountains of Vilcabamba and established the small Neo-Inca State
Neo-Inca State
, where he and his successors ruled for another 36 years, sometimes raiding the Spanish or inciting revolts against them. In 1572 the last Inca stronghold was conquered and the last ruler, Túpac Amaru , Manco's son, was captured and executed. This ended resistance to the Spanish conquest under the political authority of the Inca state.

After the fall of the Inca Empire
Empire
many aspects of Inca culture were systematically destroyed, including their sophisticated farming system, known as the vertical archipelago model of agriculture. Spanish colonial officials used the Inca mita corvée labor system for colonial aims, sometimes brutally. One member of each family was forced to work in the gold and silver mines, the foremost of which was the titanic silver mine at Potosí
Potosí
. When a family member died, which would usually happen within a year or two, the family was required to send a replacement.

The effects of smallpox on the Inca empire were even more devastating. Beginning in Colombia
Colombia
, smallpox spread rapidly before the Spanish invaders first arrived in the empire. The spread was probably aided by the efficient Inca road system. Within a few years smallpox claimed between 60% and 94% of the Inca population, with other waves of European disease weakening them further. Smallpox
Smallpox
was only the first epidemic. Typhus
Typhus
(probably) in 1546, influenza and smallpox together in 1558, smallpox again in 1589, diphtheria in 1614, measles in 1618 – all ravaged the Inca people.

SOCIETY

Main articles: Inca society
Inca society
and Inca education
Inca education

POPULATION

The number of people inhabiting Tawantinsuyu
Tawantinsuyu
at its peak is uncertain, with estimates ranging from 4-37 million. Most population estimates are in the range of 6 to 14 million. In spite of the fact that the Inca kept excellent census records using their quipus , knowledge of how to read them was lost as almost all of them were destroyed by the Spaniards.

LANGUAGE

Main article: Quechua languages

Since the Inca Empire
Empire
lacked a written language, the main form of communication and recording in the empire were quipus, ceramics and spoken Quechua, the language the Incas imposed upon the peoples within the empire. The plethora of civilizations in the Andean region provided for a general disunity that the Incas had to subdue in order to maintain control. While Quechua had been spoken in the Andean region, including central Peru, for several centuries prior to the expansion of the Inca civilization
Inca civilization
, the dialect of Quechua the Incas imposed was an adaptation from the Kingdom of Cusco
Cusco
(an early form of "Southern Quechua" originally named Qhapaq Runasimi, or 'the great language of the people'), or what some historians define as the Cusco dialect.

The language imposed by the Incas diverted from its original phonetics as some societies formed their own regional varieties. The diversity of Quechua at that point and even today does not come directly from the Incas, who were just a part of the reason for Quechua's diversity. The civilizations within the empire that had previously spoken Quechua kept their own variety distinct from the Quechua the Incas spread. Although these dialects of Quechua had a similar linguistic structure, they differed according to the region in which they were spoken.

Although most of the societies within the empire accepted Quechua, the Incas allowed several societies to keep their original languages, such as Aymara , which remains in use in contemporary Bolivia, where it is the primary indigenous language and in various regions surrounding Bolivia. The linguistic body of the Inca Empire
Empire
was thus varied. The Inca's impact outlasted their empire, as the Spanish continued the use of Quechua.

MARRIAGE

In the Incan Empire, the age of marriage differed for men and women. Men typically married at the age of 20, while women usually got married around 4 years earlier at the age of 16. Men who were highly ranked in society could have multiple wives, but those lower in the ranks could only take a single wife.

Marriage typically remained within similar social classes and resembled a more business-like agreement. Once married, the women were expected to cook, collect food and watch over the children and livestock. Girls and mothers would also work around the house to keep it orderly to please the public inspectors. These duties remained the same even after she became pregnant with the added responsibility of praying and making offerings to Kanopa, who was the god of pregnancy.

It was typical for marriages to begin on a trial basis with both men and women having a say in the longevity of the marriage. If the man felt that it wouldn’t work out, or if the woman wanted to return to her parent’s home the marriage would end. Once the marriage was final, the only way the two could be divorced was if they did not have a child together .

GENDER

The Inca called newborn infants wawa, a term that they also used for newborn animals. This term was used for all newborn beings without regard to their biological sex. Babies were not given human social status until they reached two or three years of age due to the high infant mortality rates. It was at this time that a ceremony was held called rutuchikuy in which the infant was given its first haircut, name and introduced to the extended family. Also in this ceremony, children advanced from the description of wawa to warma, a gender neutral term for a child who has not developed the language skill set. By the time children reached the age of seven, they had completed gender specific tasks and were referred to as gender specific terms, Thaski for girls and maqt’a for boys.

RELIGION

See also: Religion in the Inca Empire
Religion in the Inca Empire
and Inca mythology
Inca mythology
Diorite Inca sculpture from Amarucancha

Inca myths were transmitted orally until early Spanish colonists recorded them; however, some scholars claim that they were recorded on quipus, Andean knotted string records.

The Inca believed in reincarnation . Death was a passage to the next world that was full of difficulties. The spirit of the dead, camaquen, would need to follow a long road and during the trip the assistance of a black dog that could see in the dark was required. Most Incas imagined the after world to be like that of the European notion of heaven, with flower-covered fields and snow-capped mountains.

It was important to the Inca that they not die as a result of burning or that the body of the deceased not be incinerated. Burning would cause their vital force to disappear and threaten their passage to the after world. Those who obeyed the Inca moral code – ama suwa, ama llulla, ama quella (do not steal, do not lie, do not be lazy) – "went to live in the Sun's warmth while others spent their eternal days in the cold earth". The Inca nobility practiced cranial deformation . They wrapped tight cloth straps around the heads of newborns to shape their soft skulls into a more conical form, thus distinguishing the nobility from other social classes.

The Incas made human sacrifices . As many as 4,000 servants, court officials, favorites and concubines were killed upon the death of the Inca Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac
in 1527. The Incas performed child sacrifices around important events, such as the death of the Sapa Inca
Sapa Inca
or during a famine. These sacrifices were known as qhapaq hucha .

Deities

The Incas were polytheists who attempted to please many gods. These included: Viracocha
Viracocha
, is the great creator god in Inca mythology
Inca mythology

* Viracocha
Viracocha
(also Pachacamac) – Created all living things * Apu Illapu – Rain God, prayed to when they need rain * Ayar Cachi – Hot-tempered God, causes earthquakes * Illapa – Goddess of lightning and thunder (also Yakumama water goddess) * Inti
Inti
– sun god and patron deity of the holy city of Cusco
Cusco
(home of the sun) * Kuychi – Rainbow God, connected with fertility * Mama Killa – Wife of Inti, called Moon Mother * Mama Occlo – Wisdom to civilize the people, taught women to weave cloth and build houses * Manco Cápac
Manco Cápac
– known for his courage and sent to earth to become first king of the Incas. Taught people how to grow plants, make weapons, work together, share resources and worship the Gods. * Pachamama
Pachamama
– The Goddess of earth and wife of Viracocha. People give her offerings of coca leaves and beer and pray to her for major agricultural occasions * Quchamama – Goddess of the sea * Sachamama – Means Mother Tree, goddess in the shape of a snake with two heads * Yakumama – Means mother Water. Represented as a snake. When she came to earth she transformed into a great river (also Illapa).

ECONOMY

Further information: Incan agriculture
Incan agriculture
, Vertical archipelago , Mit\'a , and Qullqa
Qullqa
Illustration of Inca farmers using a chakitaqlla (Andean foot plough)

The Inca Empire
Empire
employed central planning . The Inca Empire
Empire
traded with outside regions, although they did not operate a substantial internal market economy . While axe-monies were used along the northern coast, presumably by the provincial mindaláe trading class, most lived in a traditional economy in which households were required to pay taxes both in kind (e.g., crops, textiles, etc.) and in the form of the mit\'a corvée labor and military obligations, though barter (or trueque) was present in some areas. In return, the state provided security, food in times of hardship through the supply of emergency resources, agricultural projects (e.g. aqueducts and terraces) to increase productivity and occasional feasts. The economy rested on the material foundations of the vertical archipelago , a system of ecological complementarity in accessing resources and the cultural foundation of ayni , or reciprocal exchange .

GOVERNMENT

Main article: Inca Government

BELIEFS

The Sapa Inca
Sapa Inca
was conceptualized as divine and was effectively head of the state religion. The Willaq Umu (or Chief Priest) was second to the emperor. Local religious traditions continued and in some cases such as the Oracle at Pachacamac
Pachacamac
on the Peruvian coast, were officially venerated. Following Pachacuti, the Sapa Inca
Sapa Inca
claimed descent from Inti, who placed a high value on imperial blood; by the end of the empire, it was common to incestuously wed brother and sister. He was "son of the sun," and his people the intip churin, or "children of the sun," and both his right to rule and mission to conquer derived from his holy ancestor. The Sapa Inca
Sapa Inca
also presided over ideologically important festivals, notably during the Inti
Inti
Raymi , or "warriors' cultivation," attended by soldiers, mummified rulers, nobles, clerics and the general population of Cusco
Cusco
beginning on the June solstice and culminating nine days later with the ritual breaking of the earth using a foot plow by the Inca. Moreover, Cusco
Cusco
was considered cosmologically central, loaded as it was with huacas and radiating ceque lines and geographic center of the Four Quarters; Inca Garcilaso de la Vega called it "the navel of the universe".

ORGANIZATION OF THE EMPIRE

The Inca Empire's southern border defined by the Maule or Maipo River (scholars differ). Inca troops never crossed the Bío Bío River .

The Inca Empire
Empire
was a federalist system consisting of a central government with the Inca at its head and four quarters, or suyu: Chinchay Suyu
Chinchay Suyu
(NW), Anti Suyu
Anti Suyu
(NE), Kunti Suyu (SW) and Qulla Suyu (SE). The four corners of these quarters met at the center, Cusco. These suyu were likely created around 1460 during the reign of Pachacuti
Pachacuti
before the empire reached its largest territorial extent. At the time the suyu were established they were roughly of equal size and only later changed their proportions as the empire expanded north and south along the Andes.

Cusco
Cusco
was likely not organized as a wamani, or province. Rather, it was probably somewhat akin to a modern federal district , like Washington, D.C. or Mexico City. The city sat at the center of the four suyu and served as the preeminent center of politics and religion. While Cusco
Cusco
was essentially governed by the Sapa Inca, his relatives and the royal panaqa lineages, each suyu was governed by an Apu, a term of esteem used for men of high status and for venerated mountains. Both Cusco
Cusco
as a district and the four suyu as administrative regions were grouped into upper hanan and lower hurin divisions. As the Inca did not have written records, it is impossible to exhaustively list the constituent wamani. However, colonial records allow us to reconstruct a partial list. There were likely more than 86 wamani, with more than 48 in the highlands and more than 38 on the coast.

Suyu

The four suyus or quarters of the empire.

The most populous suyu was Chinchaysuyu, which encompassed the former Chimu empire and much of the northern Andes. At its largest extent, it extended through much of modern Ecuador
Ecuador
and into modern Colombia.

The largest suyu by area was Qullasuyu, named after the Aymara -speaking Qulla people. It encompassed the Bolivian Altiplano
Altiplano
and much of the southern Andes, reaching Argentina
Argentina
and as far south as the Maipo or Maule river in Central Chile
Chile
. Historian José Bengoa singled out Quillota as perhaps the foremost Inca settlement.

The second smallest suyu, Antisuyu, was northwest of Cusco
Cusco
in the high Andes. Its name is the root of the word "Andes."

Kuntisuyu
Kuntisuyu
was the smallest suyu, located along the southern coast of modern Peru, extending into the highlands towards Cusco.

LAWS

The Inca state had no separate judiciary or codified laws . Customs, expectations and traditional local power holders governed behavior. The state had legal force, such as through tokoyrikoq (lit. "he who sees all"), or inspectors. The highest such inspector, typically a blood relative to the Sapa Inca, acted independently of the conventional hierarchy, providing a point of view for the Sapa Inca free of bureaucratic influence.

ADMINISTRATION

Inti
Inti
, as represented by José Bernardo de Tagle
José Bernardo de Tagle
of Peru
Peru

Colonial sources are not entirely clear or in agreement about Inca government structure, such as exact duties and functions of government positions. But the basic structure can be broadly described. The top was the Sapa Inca. Below that may have been the Willaq Umu, literally the "priest who recounts", the High Priest of the Sun. However, beneath the Sapa Inca
Sapa Inca
also sat the Inkap rantin, who was a confidant and assistant to the Sapa Inca, perhaps similar to a Prime Minister. Starting with Topa Inca Yupanqui
Topa Inca Yupanqui
, a "Council of the Realm" was composed of 16 nobles: 2 from hanan Cusco; 2 from hurin Cusco; 4 from Chinchaysuyu; 2 from Cuntisuyu; 4 from Collasuyu; and 2 from Antisuyu. This weighting of representation balanced the hanan and hurin divisions of the empire, both within Cusco
Cusco
and within the Quarters (hanan suyukuna and hurin suyukuna).

While provincial bureaucracy and government varied greatly, the basic organization was decimal. Taxpayers – male heads of household of a certain age range – were organized into corvée labor units (often doubling as military units) that formed the state's muscle as part of mit\'a service. Each unit of more than 100 tax-payers were headed by a kuraka, while smaller units were headed by a kamayuq, a lower, non-hereditary status. However, while kuraka status was hereditary and typically served for life, the position of a kuraka in the hierarchy was subject to change based on the privileges of superiors in the hierarchy; a pachaka kuraka could be appointed to the position by a waranqa kuraka. Furthermore, one kuraka in each decimal level could serve as the head of one of the nine groups at a lower level, so that a pachaka kuraka might also be a waranqa kuraka, in effect directly responsible for one unit of 100 tax-payers and less directly responsible for nine other such units.

KURAKA IN CHARGE NUMBER OF TAXPAYERS

Hunu kuraka 10,000

Pichkawaranqa kuraka 5,000

Waranqa kuraka 1,000

Pichkapachaka kuraka 500

Pachaka kuraka 100

Pichkachunka kamayuq 50

Chunka kamayuq 10

ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY

MONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE

We can assure your majesty that it is so beautiful and has such fine buildings that it would even be remarkable in Spain. “ ” Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro

Architecture was the most important of the Incan arts, with textiles reflecting architectural motifs. The most notable example is Machu Picchu , which was constructed by Inca engineers . The prime Inca structures were made of stone blocks that fit together so well that a knife could not be fitted through the stonework. These constructs have survived for centuries, with no use of mortar to sustain them.

This process was first used on a large scale by the Pucara (ca. 300 BC–AD 300) peoples to the south in Lake Titicaca
Lake Titicaca
and later in the city of Tiwanaku
Tiwanaku
(ca. AD 400–1100) in present-day Bolivia. The rocks were sculpted to fit together exactly by repeatedly lowering a rock onto another and carving away any sections on the lower rock where the dust was compressed. The tight fit and the concavity on the lower rocks made them extraordinarily stable, despite the ongoing challenge of earthquakes and volcanic activity.

MEASURES, CALENDRICS AND MATHEMATICS

Inca tunic Tokapu . Textiles worn by the Inca elite consisting of geometric figures enclosed by rectangles or squares. There is evidence that the designs were an ideographic language Quipu, 15th century. Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum

Physical measures used by the Inca were based on human body parts. Units included fingers, the distance from thumb to forefinger, palms, cubits and wingspans. The most basic distance unit was thatkiy or thatki, or one pace. The next largest unit was reported by Cobo to be the topo or tupu, measuring 6,000 thatkiys, or about 7.7 km (4.8 mi); careful study has shown that a range of 4.0 to 6.3 km (2.5 to 3.9 mi) is likely. Next was the wamani, composed of 30 topos (roughly 232 km or 144 mi). To measure area, 25 by 50 wingspans were used, reckoned in topos (roughly 3,280 km2 or 1,270 sq mi). It seems likely that distance was often interpreted as one day's walk; the distance between tambo way-stations varies widely in terms of distance, but far less in terms of time to walk that distance.

Inca calendars were strongly tied to astronomy . Inca astronomers understood equinoxes , solstices and zenith passages, along with the Venus cycle . They could not, however, predict eclipses . The Inca calendar was essentially lunisolar , as two calendars were maintained in parallel, one solar and one lunar . As 12 lunar months fall 11 days short of a full 365-day solar year, those in charge of the calendar had to adjust every winter solstice. Each lunar month was marked with festivals and rituals. Apparently, the days of the week were not named and days were not grouped into weeks. Similarly, months were not grouped into seasons. Time during a day was not measured in hours or minutes, but in terms of how far the sun had travelled or in how long it had taken to perform a task.

The sophistication of Inca administration, calendrics and engineering required facility with numbers. Numerical information was stored in the knots of quipu strings, allowing for compact storage of large numbers. These numbers were stored in base-10 digits, the same base used by the Quechua language and in administrative and military units. These numbers, stored in quipu, could be calculated on yupanas , grids with squares of positionally varying mathematical values, perhaps functioning as an abacus . Calculation was facilitated by moving piles of tokens, seeds or pebbles between compartments of the yupana. It is likely that Inca mathematics at least allowed division of integers into integers or fractions and multiplication of integers and fractions.

According to mid-17th-century Jesuit chronicler Bernabé Cobo, the Inca designated officials to perform accounting-related tasks. These officials were called quipo camayos. Study of khipu sample VA 42527 (Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin) revealed that the numbers arranged in calendrically significant patterns were used for agricultural purposes in the "farm account books" kept by the khipukamayuq (accountant or warehouse keeper) to facilitate the closing of accounting books.

CERAMICS, PRECIOUS METALS AND TEXTILES

Camelid Conopa, 1470–1532, Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum
, Small stone figurines, or conopas, of llamas and alpacas were the most common ritual effigies used in the highlands of Peru
Peru
and Bolivia. These devotional objects were often buried in the animals' corrals to bring protection and prosperity to their owners and fertility to the herds. The cylindrical cavities in their backs were filled with offerings to the gods in the form of a mixture including animal fat, coca leaves, maize kernels and seashells.

Ceramics were painted using the polychrome technique portraying numerous motifs including animals, birds, waves, felines (popular in the Chavin culture ) and geometric patterns found in the Nazca
Nazca
style of ceramics. In a culture without a written language, ceramics portrayed the basic scenes of everyday life, including the smelting of metals, relationships and scenes of tribal warfare. The most distinctive Inca ceramic objects are the Cusco
Cusco
bottles or "aryballos". Many of these pieces are on display in Lima
Lima
in the Larco Archaeological Museum and the National Museum of Archaeology, Anthropology and History.

Almost all of the gold and silver work of the Incan empire was melted down by the conquistadors.

COMMUNICATION AND MEDICINE

The Inca recorded information on assemblages of knotted strings, known as Quipu
Quipu
, although they can no longer be decoded. Originally it was thought that Quipu
Quipu
were used only as mnemonic devices or to record numerical data. Quipus
Quipus
are also believed to record history and literature.

The Inca made many discoveries in medicine. They performed successful skull surgery , by cutting holes in the skull to alleviate fluid buildup and inflammation caused by head wounds. Many skull surgeries performed by Inca surgeons were successful. Survival rates were 80–90%, compared to about 30% before Inca times.

COCA

Coca
Coca
leaves

The Incas revered the coca plant as sacred/magical. Its leaves were used in moderate amounts to lessen hunger and pain during work, but were mostly used for religious and health purposes. The Spaniards took advantage of the effects of chewing coca leaves. The Chasqui , messengers who ran throughout the empire to deliver messages, chewed coca leaves for extra energy. Coca
Coca
leaves were also used as an anaesthetic during surgeries.

WEAPONS, ARMOR AND WARFARE

The Battle of the Maule between the Incas (right) and the Mapuches (left)

The Inca army
Inca army
was the most powerful at that time, because they could turn an ordinary villager or farmer into a soldier. Every male Inca had to take part in war at least once and to prepare for warfare again when needed. By the time the empire reached its largest size, every section of the empire contributed in setting up an army for war.

The Incas had no iron or steel and their weapons were not much more effective than those of their opponents. They went into battle with drums beating and trumpets blowing. Their armor included:

* Helmets made of wood, copper, bronze, cane, or animal skin; some were adorned with feathers * Round or square shields made from wood or hide * Cloth tunics padded with cotton and small wooden planks to protect the spine.

The Inca weaponry included:

* Bronze or bone-tipped spears * Clubs with stone and spiked metal heads * Woolen slings and stones * Stone or copper headed battle-axes * Bolas
Bolas
(stones fastened to lengths of cord)

Roads allowed quick movement (on foot) for the Inca army
Inca army
and shelters called tambo and storage silos called qullqas were built one day's travelling distance from each other, so that an army on campaign could always be fed and rested. This can be seen in names of ruins such as Ollantay Tambo, or My Lord's Storehouse. These were set up so the Inca and his entourage would always have supplies (and possibly shelter) ready as they traveled.

FLAG

See also: Wiphala
Wiphala
and Rainbow flag
Rainbow flag
§ Andean peoples and social movements

Chronicles and references from the 16th and 17th centuries support the idea of a banner. However, it represented the Inca (emperor), not the empire.

Francisco López de Jerez wrote in 1534:

... todos venían repartidos en sus escuadras con sus banderas y capitanes que los mandan, con tanto concierto como turcos. (... all of them came distributed into squads, with their flags and captains commanding them, as well-ordered as Turks.)

Chronicler Bernabé Cobo wrote:

The royal standard or banner was a small square flag, ten or twelve spans around, made of cotton or wool cloth, placed on the end of a long staff, stretched and stiff such that it did not wave in the air and on it each king painted his arms and emblems, for each one chose different ones, though the sign of the Incas was the rainbow and two parallel snakes along the width with the tassel as a crown, which each king used to add for a badge or blazon those preferred, like a lion, an eagle and other figures. (... el guión o estandarte real era una banderilla cuadrada y pequeña, de diez o doce palmos de ruedo, hecha de lienzo de algodón o de lana, iba puesta en el remate de una asta larga, tendida y tiesa, sin que ondease al aire, y en ella pintaba cada rey sus armas y divisas, porque cada uno las escogía diferentes, aunque las generales de los Incas eran el arco celeste y dos culebras tendidas a lo largo paralelas con la borda que le servía de corona, a las cuales solía añadir por divisa y blasón cada rey las que le parecía, como un león, un águila y otras figuras.) -BERNABé COBO, HISTORIA DEL NUEVO MUNDO (1653)

Guaman Poma
Guaman Poma
's 1615 book, El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno, shows numerous line drawings of Inca flags. In his 1847 book A History of the Conquest of Peru, " William H. Prescott
William H. Prescott
... says that in the Inca army
Inca army
each company had its particular banner and that the imperial standard, high above all, displayed the glittering device of the rainbow, the armorial ensign of the Incas." A 1917 world flags book says the Inca "heir-apparent ... was entitled to display the royal standard of the rainbow in his military campaigns."

In modern times the rainbow flag has been wrongly associated with the Tawantinsuyu
Tawantinsuyu
and displayed as a symbol of Inca heritage by some groups in Peru
Peru
and Bolivia. The city of Cusco
Cusco
also flies the Rainbow Flag, but as an official flag of the city. The Peruvian president Alejandro Toledo (2001–2006) flew the Rainbow Flag in Lima
Lima
's presidential palace. However, according to Peruvian historiography, the Inca Empire never had a flag. Peruvian historian María Rostworowski said, "I bet my life, the Inca never had that flag, it never existed, no chronicler mentioned it". Also, to the Peruvian newspaper El Comercio, the flag dates to the first decades of the 20th century, and even the Congress of the Republic of Peru
Peru
has determined that flag is a fake by citing the conclusion of National Academy of Peruvian History:

"The official use of the wrongly called ' Tawantinsuyu
Tawantinsuyu
flag' is a mistake. In the Pre-Hispanic Andean World there did not exist the concept of a flag, it did not belong to their historic context". NATIONAL ACADEMY OF PERUVIAN HISTORY

PEOPLE

Sacsayhuamán , the Inca stronghold of Cusco
Cusco

Andean civilization probably began c. 7600 BCE . Based in the highlands of Peru, an area now called the punas, the ancestors of the Incas probably began as a nomadic herding people. Adaptation to the altitude led to distinctive physical developments. Short and stocky, men averaged 1.57 m (5'2") and women 1.45 m (4'9"). Compared to other humans, the Incas had slower heart rates, almost one-third larger lung capacity, about 2 L (4 pints) more blood volume and double the amount of hemoglobin , which transfers oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. While the Conquistadors
Conquistadors
may have been slightly taller, the Inca had the advantage of coping with the extraordinary altitude.

Permanent habitations have been found as high as 5,300 m (17,400 ft) above sea level in the temperate zone of the high altiplanos. In the Lake Titikaka region, Tiwanaku
Tiwanaku
is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire, flourishing as the ritual and administrative capital of a major state power for approximately 500 years. Previous cultures left no written record, but their architecture, ceramics and state government were inherited by the Inca.

SEE ALSO

IMPORTANT INCAN ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES

Historical states in present-day Argentina
Argentina

before 1500

* Inca Empire
Empire
(1438–1533) * Indigenous peoples in Argentina
Argentina

1500–1600

* Governorate of New Castile
Governorate of New Castile
(1528–1542) * Viceroyalty of Peru
Peru
(1542–1824)

1600–1700

* Governorate of the Río de la Plata
Governorate of the Río de la Plata
(1617–1782)

1700–1800

* Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
(1776–1811)

1800–1830

* United Provinces of the River Plate
United Provinces of the River Plate
(1810–31) * Liga Federal
Liga Federal
(1815–20) * Republic of Entre Ríos
Republic of Entre Ríos
(1820–21)

1830–present

* Argentine Confederation
Argentine Confederation
(1831–61) * State of Buenos Aires
State of Buenos Aires
(1852–61) * Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia
Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia
(1860–present, unrecognized) * Argentine Republic
Argentine Republic
(1861–present)

more

* v * t * e

* Choquequirao
Choquequirao
* Cojitambo * Cusco
Cusco
* El Fuerte de Samaipata
El Fuerte de Samaipata
* Huánuco Pampa * Huchuy Qosqo * Inca-Caranqui * Llaqtapata * Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
* Moray * Ollantaytambo
Ollantaytambo
* Oroncota * Pambamarca Fortress Complex * Písac
Písac
* Pukara of La Compañia * Quispiguanca * Rumicucho
Rumicucho
* Saksaywaman
Saksaywaman
* Tumebamba * Vilcabamba * Vitcos
Vitcos
* Wanuku Pampa
Wanuku Pampa

INCAN-RELATED

* Aclla , the "chosen women" * Amauta , Inca teachers * Amazonas before the Inca Empire * Anden
Anden
, agricultural terrace * Chincha culture
Chincha culture
* Inca Civil War
Inca Civil War
* Inca cuisine
Inca cuisine
* Incan agriculture
Incan agriculture
* Incan aqueducts * Incas in Central Chile
Chile
* Felipe Guaman Poma
Guaman Poma
de Ayala * Garcilaso de la Vega (chronicler)
Garcilaso de la Vega (chronicler)
* Paria, Bolivia
Bolivia
* Qullqa
Qullqa
, Inca storehouse * Religion in the Inca Empire
Religion in the Inca Empire
* Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
* Tambo * Tampukancha , Inca religious site

GENERAL

* Ancient Peru
Peru
* Cultural periods of Peru
Peru
* Demographic history of the indigenous peoples of the Americas * History of Peru
Peru
* History of smallpox

NOTES

* ^ Namnama, Katrina; DeGuzman, Kathleen, "The Inca Empire", K12, USA, archived from the original on 27 February 2008 * ^ A B McEwan 2008 , p. 221. * ^ Schwartz, Glenn M.; Nichols, John J. (15 August 2010). After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 978-0-8165-2936-0 . * ^ Moseley, Michael E. (2001), The Incas and their Ancestors, London: Thames and Hudson, p. 7 * ^ "The Inca - All Empires". * ^ "The Inca." The National Foreign Language Center at the University of Maryland. 29 May 2007. Retrieved 10 Sept 2013. * ^ "McEwan, Gordon F. (2006). The Incas: New Perspectives, New York: W. W. Norton & Co, p. 5 * ^ La Lone, Darrell E. "The Inca as a Nonmarket Economy: Supply on Command versus Supply and Demand," p. 292. https://www.academia.edu/885136/The_Inca_as_a_nonmarket_economy_Supply_on_command_versus_supply_and_demand, accessed 10 Aug 2017 * ^ Morris, Craig and von Hagen, Adrianna (2011), The Incas, London: Thames & Hudson, pp. 48-58 * ^ "Inca". American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2009. * ^ McEwan, p. 93 * ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 57. * ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 69. * ^ Demarest, Arthur Andrew; Conrad, Geoffrey W. (1984). Religion and Empire: The Dynamics of Aztec and Inca Expansionism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–59. ISBN 0-521-31896-3 . * ^ The three laws of Tawantinsuyu
Tawantinsuyu
are still referred to in Bolivia these days as the three laws of the Qullasuyu. * ^ Weatherford, J. McIver (1988). Indian Givers: How the Indians of the Americas Transformed the World. New York: Fawcett Columbine. pp. 60–62. ISBN 0-449-90496-2 . * ^ Ernesto Salazar (1977). An Indian federation in lowland Ecuador (PDF). International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs . p. 13. Retrieved 16 February 2013. * ^ Starn, Orin; Kirk, Carlos Iván; Degregori, Carlos Iván (1 January 2009). The Peru
Peru
Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-8750-6 . * ^ *Juan de Samano (9 October 2009). "Relacion de los primeros descubrimientos de Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
y Diego de Almagro, 1526". bloknot.info (A. Skromnitsky). Retrieved 10 October 2009. * ^ Somervill, Barbara (2005). Francisco Pizarro: Conqueror of the Incas. Compass Point Books. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7565-1061-9 . * ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 79. * ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 31. * ^ Sanderson 1992 , p. 76. * ^ Millersville University Silent Killers of the New World Archived 3 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ McEwan 2008 , pp. 93–96. The 10 million population estimate in the info box is a mid-range estimate of the population.. * ^ Quechua Archived 12 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ A B C "Origins And Diversity of Quechua". * ^ A B C D Incas : lords of gold and glory. Time-Life Books. Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books. 1992. ISBN 0809498707 . OCLC 25371192 . * ^ Gouda, F. (2008). Colonial Encounters, Body Politics, and Flows of Desire. Journal of Women's History, 20(3), 166-180. * ^ Gerard, K. (1997). Ancient Lives. New Moon, 4(4), 44. * ^ Covey, R. Alan. 2013. Inca Gender Relations, from Household to Empire. Pearson * ^ Urton, Gary (6 March 2009). Signs of the Inka Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-77375-2 . * ^ THE INCAS OF PERU * ^ Burger, Richard L.; Salazar, Lucy C. (2004). Machu Picchu: Unveiling the Mystery of the Incas. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09763-4 . * ^ Davies, Nigel (February 1981). Human sacrifice: in history and today. Morrow. pp. 261–262. ISBN 978-0-688-03755-0 . * ^ Reinhard, Johan (November 1999). "A 6,700 metros niños incas sacrificados quedaron congelados en el tiempo". National Geographic, Spanish version : 36–55. * ^ Salomon, Frank (1987-01-01). "A North Andean Status Trader Complex under Inka Rule". Ethnohistory. 34 (1): 63–77. JSTOR
JSTOR
482266 . doi :10.2307/482266 . * ^ Earls, J. The Character of Inca and Andean Agriculture. P. 1-29 * ^ Moseley 2001 , p. 44. * ^ Murra, John V.; Rowe, John Howland (1984-01-01). "An Interview with John V. Murra". The Hispanic American Historical Review. 64 (4): 633–653. JSTOR
JSTOR
2514748 . doi :10.2307/2514748 . * ^ Maffie, J. (5 March 2013). " Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
Philosophies". In Nuccetelli, Susana; Schutte, Ofelia; Bueno, Otávio. A Companion to Latin American Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-1-118-61056-5 . * ^ Newitz, Annalee (3 January 2012), The greatest mystery of the Inca Empire
Empire
was its strange economy, io9 , retrieved 4 January 2012 * ^ Willey, Gordon R. (1966). An Introduction to American Archaeology: South America. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. pp. 173–175. * ^ D\'Altroy 2014 , pp. 86-89; 111; 154-155. * ^ Moseley2001 , pp. 81-85. * ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 138-139. * ^ A B Dillehay, T. ; Gordon, A. "La actividad prehispánica y su influencia en la Araucanía". In Dillehay, Tom; Netherly, Patricia. La frontera del estado Inca. Editorial Abya Yala. ISBN 978-9978-04-977-8 . * ^ Bengoa 2003 , p. 39. * ^ Rowe in Steward, Ed., p. 262 * ^ Rowe in Steward, ed., p. 185-192 * ^ D\'Altroy 2014 , pp. 42-43, 86-89. * ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 113-114. * ^ Bengoa 2003 , pp. 37–38. * ^ D\'Altroy 2014 , pp. 87. * ^ D\'Altroy 2014 , pp. 87-88. * ^ D\'Altroy 2014 , pp. 235-236. * ^ D\'Altroy 2014 , pp. 99. * ^ R. T. Zuidema, Hierarchy and Space in Incaic Social Organization. Ethnohistory, Vol. 30, No. 2. (Spring, 1983), pp. 97 * ^ Zuidema 1983 , pp. 48. * ^ Julien 1982 , pp. 121-127. * ^ A B D\'Altroy 2014 , pp. 233-234. * ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 114-115. * ^ Julien 1982 , p. 123. * ^ D\'Altroy 2014 , pp. 233. * ^ D\'Altroy 2014 , pp. 246-247. * ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 179-180. * ^ D\'Altroy 2014 , pp. 150-154. * ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 185-187. * ^ Neuman, William (January 2, 2016). "Untangling an Accounting Tool and an Ancient Incan Mystery". New York Times
New York Times
. Retrieved January 2, 2016. * ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 183-185. * ^ "Supplementary Information for: Heggarty 2008". Arch.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-09-24. * ^ "Inca mathematics". History.mcs.st-and.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-09-24. * ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 185. * ^ Cobo, B. (1983 ). Obras del P. Bernabé Cobo. Vol. 1. Edited and preliminary study By Francisco Mateos. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, vol. 91. Madrid: Ediciones Atlas. * ^ Sáez-Rodríguez, A. (2012). "An Ethnomathematics Exercise for Analyzing a Khipu Sample from Pachacamac
Pachacamac
(Perú)". Revista Latinoamericana de Etnomatemática. 5 (1): 62–88. * ^ Sáez-Rodríguez, A. (2013). "Knot numbers used as labels for identifying subject matter of a khipu". Revista Latinoamericana de Etnomatemática. 6 (1): 4–19. * ^ Berrin, Kathleen (1997). The Spirit of Ancient Peru: Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-01802-6 . * ^ McEwan 2008 , p. 183. * ^ "Incan skull surgery". Science News. * ^ A B "Cocaine\'s use: From the Incas to the U.S.". Boca Raton News. 4 April 1985. Retrieved 2 February 2014. * ^ Francisco López de Jerez,Verdadera relación de la conquista del Peru
Peru
y provincia de Cusco, llamada la Nueva Castilla, 1534. * ^ Guaman Poma, El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno, (1615/1616), pp. 256, 286, 344, 346, 400, 434, 1077, this pagination corresponds to the Det Kongelige Bibliotek search engine pagination of the book. Additionally Poma shows both well drafted European flags and coats of arms on pp. 373, 515, 558, 1077, 0. On pages 83, 167–171 Poma uses a European heraldic graphic convention, a shield, to place certain totems related to Inca leaders. * ^ Preble, George Henry; Charles Edward Asnis (1917). Origin and History of the American Flag and of the Naval and Yacht-Club Signals... 1. N. L. Brown. p. 85. * ^ McCandless, Byron (1917). Flags of the world. National Geographic Society. p. 356. * ^ "¿Bandera gay o del Tahuantinsuyo?". Terra. 19 April 2010. * ^ A B "La Bandera del Tahuantisuyo" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 June 2009.

REFERENCES

Library resources about INCA EMPIRE -------------------------

* Online books * Resources in your library * Resources in other libraries

* Куприенко, Сергей (2013). Источники XVI-XVII веков по истории инков: хроники, документы, письма. Kyiv: Видавець Купрієнко С.А. ISBN 978-617-7085-03-3 . * Bengoa, José (1 January 2003). Historia de los antiguos mapuches del sur: desde antes de la llegada de los españoles hasta las paces de Quilín : siglos XVI y XVII. BPR Publishers. ISBN 978-956-8303-02-0 . * De La Vega, Garcilaso (15 September 2006). The Royal Commentaries of the Incas and General History of Peru, Abridged. Hackett Publishing. pp. 32–. ISBN 978-1-60384-856-5 . * Hemming, John (2003). The Conquest of the Incas. Harvest Press. ISBN 0-15-602826-3 . * MacQuarrie, Kim (2007). The Last Days of the Incas. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-6049-7 . * Mann, Charles C. (2005). 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. Knopf . pp. 64–105. ISBN 978-0-307-27818-0 . * McEwan, Gordon F. (26 August 2008). The Incas: New Perspectives. W. W. Norton, Incorporated. pp. 221–. ISBN 978-0-393-33301-5 . * Morales, Edmundo (1995). The guinea pig: healing, food, and ritual in the Andes. University of Arizona Press. * Popenoe, Hugh; Steven R. King; Jorge Leon; Luis Sumar Kalinowski; Noel D. Vietmeyer (1989). Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes
Andes
with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. ISBN 0-309-04264-X . * Sanderson, Steven E. (1992). The Politics of Trade in Latin American Development. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-2021-2 . * D'Altroy, Terence N. (30 April 2014). The Incas. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-118-61059-6 . * Steward, ed., Julian H. (1946), The Handbook of South American Indians. No. 143, Vol. 2: The Andean Civilizations. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 1935 * Julien, Catherine J. (1982). Inca Decimal Administration in the Lake Titicaca
Lake Titicaca
Region in The Inca and Aztec States: 1400–1800. New York: Academic Press. * Moseley, Michael Edward (2001). The Incas and Their Ancestors: The Archaeology of Peru. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28277-9 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: INCA (category)

* " Guaman Poma
Guaman Poma
– El Primer Nueva Corónica Y Buen Gobierno" – A hi