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"In God
God
We Trust" is the official motto of the United States of America and of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Florida. It was adopted as the nation's motto in 1956 as a replacement or alternative to the unofficial motto of E pluribus unum, which was adopted when the Great Seal of the United States was created and adopted in 1782.[1][2] "In God
God
We Trust" first appeared on the two-cent piece in 1864[3] and has appeared on paper currency since 1957. A law passed in a Joint Resolution by the 84th Congress (P.L. 84-140) and approved by President Dwight Eisenhower
Dwight Eisenhower
on July 30, 1956, declared "In God
God
We Trust" must appear on American currency. This phrase was first used on paper money in 1957, when it appeared on the one-dollar silver certificate. The first paper currency bearing the phrase entered circulation on October 1, 1957.[3] The 84th Congress later passed legislation (P.L. 84-851), also signed by President Eisenhower on July 30, 1956, declaring the phrase to be the national motto.[4][5][6] Some groups and people have expressed objections to its use, citing its religious reference that violates the Establishment Clause
Establishment Clause
of the First Amendment.[7] These groups believe the phrase should be removed from currency and public property. In lawsuits, this argument has so far not overcome the interpretational doctrine of accommodationism, which allows government to endorse religious establishments as long as they are all treated equally.[8] According to a 2003 joint poll by USA Today, CNN, and Gallup, 90% of Americans support the inscription "In God
God
We Trust" on U.S. coins.[9] In 2006, "In God
God
We Trust" was designated as the motto of the U.S. state of Florida.[10][11] Its Spanish equivalent, En Dios Confiamos, is the motto of the Republic of Nicaragua.[12]

Contents

1 History 2 Society and culture

2.1 Religion 2.2 Pop culture 2.3 License plates

3 Criticism 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit]

Salmon P. Chase, Treasury Secretary, scribes "In God
God
is our Trust," scratches out "is our" and overwrites "We" to arrive at "In God
God
We Trust" in a December 9, 1863, letter to James Pollock, Director of the Philadelphia Mint.[13]

"IN GOD WE TRUST" first appeared on the obverse side of the Two-cent piece in 1864[3]

In 1860, the phrase was used in the Coat of arms of New Westminster, Canada. The phrase has been incorporated in many hymns and religio-patriotic songs. During the American Civil War, the 125th Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Infantry for the Union Army
Union Army
assumed the motto "In God
God
we trust" in early August 1862.[14][15][16] William W. Wallace, coiner, circa August 1862, of the motto "In God
God
We Trust"[17] was Captain of Company C of the 125th Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Infantry. The Reverend Mark R. Watkinson of 'Ridleyville', Pennsylvania, (pastor of Prospect Hill Baptist Church in present-day Prospect Park, Pennsylvania) in a letter dated November 13, 1861, petitioned the Treasury Department to add a statement recognizing " Almighty God
Almighty God
in some form on our coins" in order to "relieve us from the ignominy of heathenism".[18][19] At least part of the motivation was to declare that God
God
was on the Union side of the Civil War.[20] Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase
Salmon P. Chase
acted on this proposal and directed the then-Philadelphia Director of the Mint, James Pollock, to begin drawing up possible designs that would include the religious phrase. Chase chose his favorite designs and presented a proposal to Congress for the new designs in late 1863.[21] In December 1863, Abraham Lincoln's Secretary of the Treasury decided on a new motto, "In God
God
We Trust," to engrave on U.S. coins. Lincoln's involvement in this decision is unclear.[22] A version of the motto made an early appearance on obverse side of the twenty dollar interest bearing note issued in 1864 along with the motto " God
God
and our Right". As Chase was preparing his recommendation to Congress, it was found that the Act of Congress dated January 18, 1837 prescribed the mottoes and devices that should be placed upon the coins of the United States. This meant that the mint could make no changes without the enactment of additional legislation by the Congress. Such legislation was introduced and passed as the Coinage Act of 1864 on April 22, 1864, allowing the Secretary of the Treasury to authorize the inclusion of the phrase on one-cent and two-cent coins.[20] An Act of Congress passed on March 3, 1865, allowed the Mint Director, with the Secretary's approval, to place the motto on all gold and silver coins that "shall admit the inscription thereon".[20][23] In 1873, Congress passed the Coinage Act, granting that the Secretary of the Treasury "may cause the motto IN GOD WE TRUST to be inscribed on such coins as shall admit of such motto". The similar phrase 'In God
God
is our Trust' appears in "The Star-Spangled Banner", adopted as the national anthem of the United States in 1931. Written by Francis Scott Key
Francis Scott Key
during the War of 1812, the fourth stanza includes the phrase, "And this be our motto: 'In God
God
is our Trust'", which was adapted as the national motto.[24][better source needed] The use of "In God
God
We Trust" has been interrupted. The motto disappeared from the five-cent coin in 1883, and did not reappear until production of the Jefferson nickel began in 1938.[20] However, at least two other coins minted in every year in the interim still bore the motto,[citation needed] including the Morgan dollar
Morgan dollar
and the Seated Liberty half dollar. The omission of the motto "In God
God
We Trust" on the Indian Head eagle
Indian Head eagle
coin caused public outrage, and prompted Congress to pass a bill mandating its inclusion. Mint Chief Engraver Charles E. Barber
Charles E. Barber
added the words and made minor modifications to the design. In 1908, Congress made it mandatory that the phrase be printed on all coins upon which it had previously appeared. This decision was motivated after a public outcry following the release of a $20 coin which did not bear the motto.[25] The motto has been in continuous use on the one-cent coin since 1909, and on the ten-cent coin since 1916. It also has appeared on all gold coins and silver dollar coins, half-dollar coins, and quarter-dollar coins struck since July 1, 1908.[20] Since 1938, all US coins have borne the motto.[3]

A quarter dollar with the United States' official motto "IN GOD WE TRUST" on the obverse side

During the Cold War
Cold War
era, the government of the United States sought to distinguish itself from the Soviet Union, which promoted state atheism and thus implemented antireligious legislation.[26] The 84th Congress passed a joint resolution "declaring IN GOD WE TRUST the national motto of the United States". The resolution passed both the House and the Senate unanimously and without debate.[27][28] The law was signed by President Eisenhower on July 30, 1956.[29] The United States Code at 36 U.S.C. § 302, now states: "'In God
God
we trust' is the national motto." The same day, the President signed into law[30] a requirement that "In God
God
We Trust" be printed on all U.S. currency and coins. On paper currency, it first appeared on the silver certificate in 1957, followed by other certificates. Federal Reserve Notes and United States Notes were circulated with the motto starting from 1964 to 1966, depending on the denomination.[20][31] (Of these, only Federal Reserve Notes are still circulated.) Representative Charles Edward Bennett
Charles Edward Bennett
of Florida
Florida
cited the Cold War when he introduced the bill in the House, saying "In these days when imperialistic and materialistic communism seeks to attack and destroy freedom, we should continually look for ways to strengthen the foundations of our freedom". [32] Aronow v. United States
Aronow v. United States
was the first case to challenge the inclusion of "In God
God
We Trust" on U.S. currency.[33] The law it challenged was "31 U.S.C. § 324a "the inscription 'In God
God
we Trust'...shall appear on all United States currency and coins".[33] O'Hair v. Blumenthal (1978) challenged the inclusion of the phrase "In God
God
We Trust" on U.S. currency. A similar decision was reached by the Fifth Circuit in Madalyn Murray O'Hair
Madalyn Murray O'Hair
vs W. Michael Blumenthal
W. Michael Blumenthal
in 1979, which affirmed that the "primary purpose of the slogan was secular."[34] In March 2001, Ronnie Musgrove
Ronnie Musgrove
Governor of Mississippi
Governor of Mississippi
signed legislation requiring the motto "In God
God
We Trust" to be displayed in every public school classroom, as well as the school auditoriums and cafeterias, throughout the state.[35][36]

A framed poster displaying the national motto of the United States in a New Philadelphia High School classroom

After the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
in 2001, many public schools across the United States posted "In God
God
We Trust" framed posters in their "libraries, cafeterias and classrooms". The American Family Association supplied several 11-by-14-inch posters to school systems and vowed to defend any legal challenges to the displaying of the posters.[37] According to a 2003 joint poll by USA Today, CNN, and Gallup, 90% of Americans support the inscription "In God
God
We Trust" on U.S. coins.[9] In 2006, on the 50th anniversary of its adoption, the Senate reaffirmed "In God
God
We Trust" as the official national motto of the United States of America.[38] In Florida
Florida
House Bill no. 1145, Florida adopted 'In God
God
We Trust' as the official state motto, effective July 1, 2006.[10][11] In 2011 the House of Representatives passed an additional resolution reaffirming "In God
God
We Trust" as the official motto of the United States, in a 396–9 vote.[39][40] In 2013, a federal court rejected a challenge, brought by Michael Newdow and the Freedom From Religion Foundation, to remove "In God
God
We Trust" from American currency.[41]

"IN GOD WE TRUST" on the Seal of Mississippi

On January 31, 2014, purporting to defend religious freedom, the Mississippi
Mississippi
senate voted to add the words, "In God
God
We Trust" to the state seal and the change was made effective on July 1, 2014.[42][43] In 2015 the county police department of Jefferson County, Illinois announced that the words "In God
God
We Trust" will be on police squad cars.[44] In 2015, the Freedom from Religion Foundation demanded that local authorities remove decals of the motto from Childress, Texas Police Department patrol vehicles. In response, Police Chief Adrian Garcia told the organization, in a written letter, to “go fly a kite.”[45] In early 2018, Kimberly Daniels, a pastor[46] who currently serves as the representative for Florida
Florida
House of Representatives District 14 as a member of the Democratic Party, introduced HB 839, a bill that requires public schools to display the motto "In God
God
We Trust" in a conspicuous place. On Tuesday, January 23, 2018, the bill received unanimous approval from the House PreK-12 Innovation Subcommittee.[47] Later, in a vote on February 21, 2018, the bill passed 97 to 10 in the House.[48][49] As part of Florida's March 2018 K-12 education law, Gov. Rick Scott
Rick Scott
mandated that all public schools post the state motto ("In God
God
We Trust") in a prominent location.[50] In March 2018, Act 911, sponsored by State Rep. Jim Dotson, made it a requirement of Arkansas
Arkansas
state law for schools to display posters with the national motto ("In God
God
We Trust").[51][52] In March 2018, a bill requiring Tennessee schools to prominently display the national motto ("In God
God
We Trust") sponsored by Rep. Susan Lynn passed the state House with 81 of the 99 members voting in favor of it.[53] Society and culture[edit] Religion[edit] In Judaism
Judaism
and Christianity, the official motto "In God
God
We Trust" resounds with several verses from the Bible, including Psalm 118:8, Psalm 40:3, Psalm 73:28, and Proverbs 29:25.[54] In Islam
Islam
the word for the concept of reliance on God
God
is called Tawakkul; the phrase "In God We Trust" is found in two places of the Koran, in Surah
Surah
10 Yunus, as well as Surah
Surah
7 Al-A'raf, although several other verses reinforce this concept.[55][not in citation given] Melkote Ramaswamy, a Hindu American scholar, writes that the presence of the phrase "In God
God
We Trust" on American currency is a reminder that "there is God everywhere, whether we are conscious or not."[56] Pop culture[edit]

In Miracle on 34th Street (1994 film), just as Henry is about to make his decision, Susan walks up to him with a Christmas card containing a $1 bill. On the back, the words "In God
God
We Trust" are circled. He realizes that, since the U.S. Department of Treasury can put its official faith in God
God
with no hard evidence, then the people can believe in Santa in the same way. Left with no choice, an elated Henry dismisses the case and declares that Santa is real, existing in the person of Kris. An e-mail conspiracy theory is that "In God
God
We Trust" was intentionally omitted from new U.S. dollar coins in 2007.[57] The first coins produced under the Presidential $1 Coin Program
Presidential $1 Coin Program
did indeed lack the "In God
God
We Trust" inscription along their edges (along with the "E Pluribus Unum" inscription, the year of production, and the mint mark; these coins, unlike normal dollar coins, had completely blank edges), but these coins, known as "godless dollars", were the result of a minting error, not a deliberate omission.[58][59] Marty Feldman's satirical comedy In God
God
We Tru$t (1980). The film They Live plays on the idea. Special
Special
sunglasses allow the wearers to see simple hidden messages instead of the signs they see without them. Advertising is seen as "OBEY", "CONSUME" and "MARRY AND REPRODUCE". Dollar bills are all marked "THIS IS YOUR GOD".[60] In January 2006, Laurence Llewelyn-Bowen
Laurence Llewelyn-Bowen
and his wife Jackie were offered a place on the Valentine's Day
Valentine's Day
celebrity couples edition of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? They appeared on the show managing to reach the £1 million question, before answering it incorrectly and dropping from £500,000 all the way down to just £32,000 (a loss of £468,000). For the first time ever, Celador allowed Llewelyn-Bowen and his wife retry the show after the company claimed that the last question "didn't meet their standards".[citation needed] After returning and being shown a different £1 million question, the couple decided not to risk losing £468,000 for the second time and won £500,000 for their chosen charity, The Shooting Star Children's Hospice, of which Llewelyn-Bowen and his wife are both patrons. Their new question was about the first man to travel to space twice, and the correct answer to the question was Gus Grissom. They decided not to risk it this time and walked away with the £500,000. This amount is the highest amount that any celebrity couple has won on any British edition of Who Wants To Be a Millionaire?[61] The £468,000 they originally lost was also the greatest loss ever seen on the show, and no other contestant has ever answered the final question incorrectly in the United Kingdom version.[62][63] The allegedly misleading question was "Translated from the Latin, what is the motto of the United States?" The answer given was "In God
God
We Trust" which is originally English and has in fact been the motto of the United States since 1956. The intended answer had been "One Out of Many" which is a translation of the Latin phrase E pluribus unum, which is not actually the current United States motto. E pluribus unum
E pluribus unum
had been the de facto motto but was never legally declared as such.[61]

License plates[edit]

"IN GOD WE TRUST" optional license plate designed by Troy Wingard for the South Carolina Department of Public Safety
South Carolina Department of Public Safety
in 2002

As of April 1, 2016 the following U.S. states currently offer an "In God
God
We Trust" license plate as a speciality plate for an additional normal vehicle registration processing which vary from state to state: Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Florida
Florida
(Which also offers a speciality plate) and Georgia which both display the county of issuance on their License Plate offer the option of "In God
God
We Trust" in place of the County Name. Criticism[edit] Advocates of separation of church and state have questioned the legality of this motto asserting that it is a violation of the United States Constitution, prohibiting the government from passing any law respecting an establishment of religion.[64] Religious accommodationists state that this entrenched practice has not historically presented any constitutional difficulty, is not coercive, and does not prefer one religious denomination over another.[64] "In God
God
We Trust" as a national motto and on U.S. currency has been the subject of numerous unsuccessful lawsuits.[65] The motto was first challenged in Aronow v. United States
Aronow v. United States
in 1970, but the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
Ninth Circuit
ruled: "It is quite obvious that the national motto and the slogan on coinage and currency 'In God We Trust' has nothing whatsoever to do with the establishment of religion. Its use is of patriotic or ceremonial character and bears no true resemblance to a governmental sponsorship of a religious exercise."[66] In Lynch v. Donnelly
Lynch v. Donnelly
(1984), the Supreme Court wrote that acts of "ceremonial deism" are "protected from Establishment Clause scrutiny chiefly because they have lost through rote repetition any significant religious content".[67] In Zorach v. Clauson
Zorach v. Clauson
(1952), the Supreme Court also wrote that the nation's "institutions presuppose a Supreme Being" and that government recognition of God does not constitute the establishment of a state church as the Constitution's authors intended to prohibit.[68] In November 2005, Michael Newdow
Michael Newdow
announced he wants to have "In God
God
We Trust" removed from U.S. coins and banknotes. In 2004, he received the special Recognition Freethought Hero Award for his case to remove "In God
God
We Trust" from currency.[69] In a November 14, 2005 interview with Fox News's Neil Cavuto, Newdow compared "In God
God
We Trust" appearing on United States currency with racial segregation (specifically separate drinking fountains), saying, "How can you not compare those? What is the difference there? Both of them [whites and blacks] got equal water. They both had access. It was government saying that it's okay to separate out these two people on the basis of race. Here we're saying it's okay to separate two people on the basis of their religious beliefs." In June 2006, a federal judge rejected Newdow's Establishment Clause lawsuit on the grounds that the minted words amount to a secular national slogan, and do not dictate anyone's beliefs. Newdow stated that he would appeal the ruling,[70] although it should be noted that Aronow v. United States
Aronow v. United States
was decided on the same grounds in the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
Ninth Circuit
and the lower court was required to return the same ruling, likewise the Ninth Circuit
Ninth Circuit
does not traditionally overrule previous Ninth Circuit
Ninth Circuit
rulings. On December 4, 2007, Newdow argued before a three-judge panel of the Ninth Circuit
Ninth Circuit
to remove both "under God" from the Pledge of Allegiance (Roe v. Rio Linda Union School District),[citation needed] and "In God We Trust" from United States currency.[71] The Ninth Circuit
Ninth Circuit
rejected Newdow's challenge. In a decision published March 11, 2010, the court held that its earlier decision in Aronow, which "held the national motto is of a “patriotic or ceremonial character,” has no “theological or ritualistic impact,” and does not constitute “governmental sponsorship of a religious exercise," foreclosed Newdow's argument.[72] In an opinion concurring only in the judgment, even the extremely liberal Judge Stephen Reinhardt[73] agreed that Aronow was controlling precedent.[74] Newdow v. Congress, 598 F.3d 638 (9th Cir. 2010) cert. denied 131 S. Ct. 1612 (U.S. 2011). AKA: The "In God
God
We Trust Case" – A prominent atheist, Michael Newdow, filed a suit to declare the national motto – In God
God
We Trust – unconstitutional and to have it removed from coins and currency.[75][76][77] Pacific Justice Institute
Pacific Justice Institute
intervened as a defendant and defended the against the suit.[75][76][77] The case was dismissed by the trial court and the Ninth Circuit
Ninth Circuit
affirmed that decision.[75][76][77] In 2015, David F. Bauman dismissed a case against the Matawan-Aberdeen Regional School District brought by a student of the district and the American Humanist Association
American Humanist Association
that argued that the phrase “under God” in the Pledge of Allegiance
Pledge of Allegiance
created a climate of discrimination because it promoted religion, making non-believers “second-class citizens”.[78][79] He noted; “As a matter of historical tradition, the words ‘under God’ can no more be expunged from the national consciousness than the words ‘In God
God
We Trust’ from every coin in the land, than the words ‘so help me God’ from every presidential oath since 1789, or than the prayer that has opened every congressional session of legislative business since 1787.” Aside from constitutional objections, President Theodore Roosevelt took issue with using the motto on coinage as he considered using God's name on money to be sacrilege.[80] In September 2014, a proposal to add displays of "In God
God
We Trust" on public property in Ballwin, Missouri
Ballwin, Missouri
was defeated following a plea to a meeting of aldermen by a local atheist.[81][82] Gallery[edit]

"IN GOD WE TRUST" motto over the tribune in the United States House of Representatives Chamber (between the clock and the flag)

Flag of Georgia (U.S. state)
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state)
with "IN GOD WE TRUST" motto

Indian Head eagle, revised design of 1908 adding "IN GOD WE TRUST" motto to reverse

Dollar coin stack showing "IN GOD WE TRUST" on edge

United States one-dollar bill, reverse, series 2009 with "IN GOD WE TRUST" motto

United States two-dollar bill, reverse, series 2003A with "IN GOD WE TRUST" motto

2013 Lincoln cent
Lincoln cent
obverse, showing "IN GOD WE TRUST" motto

Saint-Gaudens double eagle, revised design of 1908 adding "IN GOD WE TRUST" motto to reverse

Seal of Florida
Florida
with "IN GOD WE TRUST" motto

United States five-dollar bill, reverse, series 2006 with "IN GOD WE TRUST" motto

Grand Army of the Republic Memorial (Siloam Springs, Arkansas) engraved with the words "IN GOD WE TRUST"

United States twenty-dollar bill, reverse, series 2006 with "IN GOD WE TRUST" motto

United States one hundred-dollar bill, reverse, series 2009 with "IN GOD WE TRUST" motto

Coat of arms of New Westminster, Canada

See also[edit]

Religion in the United States Trust in God
God
and keep your powder dry Dieu et mon droit God
God
Save the Queen May God
God
have mercy upon your soul So help me God Gott mit uns Deus seja louvado In God
God
We Trust: All Others Pay Cash

References[edit]

^ Annual report – American Civil Liberties Union, Volume 5. American Civil Liberties Union. 1951. Retrieved 1 May 2012. In 1956, an official national motto was adopted, "In God
God
We Trust," replacing the unofficial "E Pluribus Unum."  ^ Refiguring Mass Communication: A History. University of Illinois Press. 24 March 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2012. He held high the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the nation's unofficial motto, e pluribus unum, even as he was recoiling from the party system in which he had long participated.  ^ a b c d U.S. Department of the Treasury (2011). "History of 'In God We Trust'". www.treasury.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-14.  ^ 36 U.S.C. § 302 National motto ^ "U.S. on the History of "In God
God
We Trust"". United States Department of the Treasury. Retrieved 2009-04-22.  ^ United States Public Law 84-851, United States Public Law 84-851. ^ 12 Mar 2010 (2010-03-12). "Atheist in battle to remove 'In God
God
We Trust' from US currency". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 2014-02-04.  ^ Drakeman, Donald L. (1 January 1991). Church-state Constitutional Issues: Making Sense of the Establishment Clause. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313276637.  ^ a b "USA TODAY/CNN/Gallup Poll results". USA Today. 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2011. C. The inscription "In God
God
We Trust" on U.S. coins; 2003 Sep 19–21; Approve 90; Disapprove 8; No opinion 2  ^ a b http://www.n-state.com, NSTATE, LLC:. " Florida
Florida
State Motto In God
God
We Trust". www.netstate.com.  ^ a b "State Motto - Florida
Florida
Department of State". dos.myflorida.com.  ^ As shown on the Córdoba (bank notes and coins); see for example Banco Central de Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Archived 2012-05-06 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Chase, Salmon P (December 9, 1863). Letter to James Pollock. Document # RG 104_UD 87-A_Folder In God
God
We Trust 1861_Part1. National Archives and Records Administration. p. 11.  ^ The Regimental Committee, 125th PA Volunteers, 1862–1863 (2009). Regimental History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Library. pp. 150–152. ISBN 978-1-112-13570-5.  ^ Alexander, ted (2011). The Battle of Antietam. Charleston, SC: The History Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-60949-179-6.  ^ 125th PA Vol. Infantry: IN GOD WE TRUST. YouTube. 28 June 2012.  ^ Regimental Committee 1906, p. 151. ^ "History of 'In God
God
We Trust'". U.S. Department of the Treasury. Retrieved 3 October 2013.  ^ United States (1897). Congressional Serial Set. US: Government Printing Office, p. 260. ^ a b c d e f "History of 'In God
God
We Trust'". treasury.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-29.  ^ Duncan, Ann W. (2008). Religion, Rhetoric, and Ritual in the U.S. Government," Church-state Issues in America Today. Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 77. ^ According to The Congressional Record
Congressional Record
(1908, House), p. 3387, the motto was adopted "doubtless with his [Lincoln's] knowledge and approval." ^ Congressional Record, 1956, p. 13917, via NonBeliever.org ^ Begley, Sarah (January 13, 2016). "How 'In God
God
We Trust' Got on the Currency in the First Place". Time. Retrieved February 24, 2018.  ^ "10 Interesting Facts About Theodore Roosevelt". Republicanpresidents.net. Retrieved 2014-02-04.  ^ Merriman, Scott A. Religion and the Law in America: An Encyclopedia of Personal Belief and Public Policy. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2007. Print. "In 1956, the United States, changed its motto to "In God We Trust," in large part to differentiate itself from the Soviet Union, its Cold War
Cold War
enemy that was widely seen as promoting atheism." ^ "New National Motto Of U. S. Recalls Key's Words Of 1814". Palladium-Item. Richmond, Indiana. 13 Aug 1956. p. 8. Retrieved 2018-02-15 – via Newspapers.com.  ^ Miller, Douglas and Nowak, Marion, The Fifties: The Way We Really Were. 1977, 89. "'In God
God
We Trust' was adopted as the national motto in 1956, with neither debate nor a single dissenting vote in the House or Senate." ^ Public Law 84-851 ^ Public Law 84-140 ^ Steven B. Epstein, "Rethinking the Constitutionality of Ceremonial Deism" Columbia Law Review, Vol. 96, No. 8. (Dec., 1996), p. 2083–2174, quoting the peroration (abridged here) of the speech by Charles Edward Bennett, sponsor in the House, the only speech in either House of Congress on the subject. President Eisenhower and W. Randolph Burgess, Deputy to the Treasury for Monetary Affairs, had approved of the legislation! 101 Congressional Record
Congressional Record
pp. 4384 (quoted), 7796. (1955) ^ "The legislation placing "In God
God
We Trust" on national currency US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. 1955-07-11. Retrieved 2017-05-13.  ^ a b Aronow v. United States, 432 F.2d 242, 243 (9th Cir. October 6, 1970). ^ Duncan, Ann W. (2008). Church-state Issues in America Today. Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 88. ^ "Page not found". Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2017.  ^ Press, The Associated (25 March 2001). "National News Briefs; 'In God
God
We Trust' Motto For Mississippi
Mississippi
Schools". Retrieved 20 December 2017 – via NYTimes.com.  ^ "USATODAY.com – 'In God
God
We Trust' pressed for schools". usatoday.com. 19 February 2002.  ^ Felicia Sonmez (1 November 2011). "Social issues return to fore with 'In God
God
We Trust' resolution". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 November 2011. In 2006, on the 50th anniversary of its adoption, the Senate reaffirmed 'In God
God
We Trust' as the official national motto of the United States," Forbes said in a statement announcing the vote. "Tomorrow, the House of Representatives will have the same opportunity to reaffirm our national motto and directly confront a disturbing trend of inaccuracies and omissions, misunderstandings of church and state, rogue court challenges, and efforts to remove God
God
from the public domain by unelected bureaucrats.  ^ Jennifer Steinhauer (3 November 2011). "In God
God
We Trust, With the House's Help". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 November 2011. Citing a crisis of national identity and mass confusion among Americans about their nation's motto, the House on Tuesday voted on a resolution "reaffirming 'In God
God
We Trust' as the official motto of the United States."  ^ Todd Starnes (3 November 2011). "See Which Congressmen Voted Against 'In God
God
We Trust'". Fox News. Retrieved 7 November 2011. The House of Representatives passed a bi-partisan resolution Tuesday night reaffirming "In God
God
We Trust" as the official motto of the United States. The 396–9 vote came at the request of Rep. Randy Forbes (R-VA).  ^ "Lawsuit to remove 'In God
God
We Trust' from money gets dismissed - KSL.com". ksl.com.  ^ Mississippi
Mississippi
Legislature (January 2014). " Mississippi
Mississippi
Religious Freedom Restoration Act; enact and modify the great seal" (PDF). Senate Bill No. 2681. Mississippi: State of Mississippi. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014.  ^ Wagster Pettus, Emily (31 January 2014). "Miss. Senate OKs adding 'In God
God
We Trust' to seal". WorldNow and WLBT. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.  ^ "'In God
God
We Trust' to be placed on Jefferson Co., IL squad cars" (Archive). KFVS. August 1, 2015. Retrieved on August 2, 2015. ^ "Atheist Group Asks Police Remove 'In God
God
We Trust' Car Decal". dailysignal.com.  ^ News, Charlene Aaron/CBN. "Apostle Kimberly Daniels Scores Big Win for Prayer in Public Schools". charismanews.com.  ^ "Schools could be required to display 'In God
God
we trust'". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved 2018-03-22.  ^ CNN, Joe Sterling,. " Florida
Florida
lawmakers advance a bill that requires 'In God
God
We Trust' displayed on school grounds". cnn.com.  ^ " Florida
Florida
lawmakers advance bill that would require 'In God
God
We Trust' to be visible on all school buildings". newsweek.com. 23 February 2018.  ^ http://www.tampabay.com/blogs/gradebook/2018/03/26/atheist-group-offers-to-provide-in-god-we-trust-signs-to-florida-public-schools/ ^ http://insider.foxnews.com/2018/03/12/god-we-trust-posters-be-displayed-arkansas-public-schools-after-donations ^ http://www.arkansasonline.com/news/2018/mar/11/schools-will-display-in-god-we-trust-20/ ^ https://www.tennessean.com/story/news/religion/2018/03/21/tennessee-lawmakers-pass-bill-requiring-public-schools-post-god-we-trust-motto/442884002/ ^ "In God
God
We Trust: The Motto". All About History. Retrieved 2013-02-26.  ^ "Verses including the word Putting One's Trust in Allah (Tawakkul)". Quran Index. Retrieved 2016-06-16.  ^ Ramaswamy, Melkote (2012-08-11). "Faith/Values Indianapolis Star". indystar.com. Archived from the original on 2014-10-19. Retrieved 2014-02-04.  ^ "Historic Change", Snopes, http://www.snopes.com/politics/religion/dollarcoin.asp ^ David S Morgan (2007-03-07). ""Godless" Dollar Coins Slip Through Mint". CBS News. Retrieved 2010-11-03.  ^ Associated Press: Dollar Coins Missing 'In God
God
We Trust', By David S Morgan, (Mar. 7, 2007), CBS News Archived March 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Rothkopf, Joshua (2014-10-27). ""Empire of the Sunglasses: How 'They Live' Took on Republicans and Won", by Joshua Rothkopf, ''Rolling Stone''". Rollingstone.com. Retrieved 2018-03-22.  ^ a b "TV designer's second shot at £1m". British Broadcasting Corporation. 13 January 2006. Retrieved 22 May 2015.  ^ Born, Matt (13 January 2006). "Llewelyn-Bowen blows £1m". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 22 May 2015.  ^ Lat, David (25 August 2009). "Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? Ken Basin, Harvard Law '08, Sure Does". Above the Law. Retrieved 22 May 2015.  ^ a b Richard H. Fallon (2004). The Dynamic Constitution: an Introduction to Americans Constitutional Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-521-60078-1. "Strict separationists" believe that the government has no business supporting religious beliefs or institutions in any way – for example, by providing tax breaks to churches, assisting parochial schools, including prayers or benedictions in public ceremonies, or inscribing "In God
God
We Trust" on the currency. Religious accommodationists can well explain why certain entrenched social practices (such as the inscription of "In God
God
We Trust" on the currency) were not historically perceived as presenting constitutional difficulties: The relevant practices are not coercive and do not prefer one narrow sect over another.  ^ Markoe, Lauren (2014-05-29). "Atheists Lose Latest Battle To Remove 'In God
God
We Trust' From U.S. Currency". huffingtonpost.com. Religion News Service. Retrieved 2014-10-09.  ^ Aronow, 432 F.2d at 243. ^ LYNCH v. DONNELLY, 465 U.S. 668 (1984) U.S. Supreme Court ^ ABA Journal Sep 1962. Much more recently, in 1952, speaking through Mr. Justice Douglas in Zorach v. Clauson, 343 U.S. 306, 313, the Supreme Court repeated the same sentiments, saying: We are a religious people whose institutions presuppose a Supreme Being. Mr. Justice Brewer in the Holy Trinity case, supra, mentioned many of these evidences of religion, and Mr. Justice Douglas in the Zorach case referred to ... [P]rayers in our legislative halls; the appeals to the Almighty in the messages of the Chief Executive; the proclamation making Thanksgiving Day a holiday; "So help me God" in our courtroom oaths – these and ... other references to the Almighty ... run through our laws, our public rituals, our ceremonies ... the supplication with which the Court opens each session: " God
God
save the United States and this Honorable Court" (312–313). To this list may be added tax exemption of churches, chaplaincies in the armed forces, the "Pray for Peace" postmark, the widespread observance of Christmas holidays, and, in classrooms, singing the fourth stanza of America which is prayer invoking the protection of God, and the words "in God
God
is our trust" as found in the National Anthem, and the reciting of the Pledge of Allegiance
Pledge of Allegiance
to the Flag, modified by an Act of Congress of June 14, 1954, to include the words "under God".  ^ "Freethought Hero Award 2004 - Mike Newdow". Archived from the original on 2007-07-29. Retrieved 2007-07-29. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) , Freedom From Religion Foundation 2004-10-30 ^ "Federal Judge Nixes 'In God
God
We Trust' Lawsuit". Fox News
Fox News
Channel. 2006-06-12.  ^ "Newdow v. Congress of the United States" (PDF). findlaw.com.  ^ "Newdow v. Lefevre, No. 06-16344, at 4210 (9th Cir. Mar. 11, 2010) (citing Aronow, 432 F.2d at 243-44)" (PDF).  ^ "Matt Rees, The Judge the Supreme Court Loves to Overturn, The Weekly Standard, May 5, 1997;".  compare "David G. Savage, Crusading Liberal Judge Keeps High Court Busy, L.A. Times, Mar. 3, 1996." The Los Angeles Times. 1996-03-03.  ^ "Newdow, at 4210-11 (Reinhardt, J., concurring)" (PDF).  ^ a b c Bob Egelko, 'In God
God
We Trust' suit rejected by Supreme Court, San Francisco Chronicle, [1] March 8, 2011 ^ a b c Ninth Circuit
Ninth Circuit
Court of Appeals, Newdow v. Congress, [2] March 11, 2010 ^ a b c C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Video
Video
Library, Establishment of Religion Clause Oral Arguments, Part 1, [3] December 7, 2007 ^ Salvador Rizzo. "Hearing 'Under God' in Pledge of Allegiance
Pledge of Allegiance
does not violate rights of atheist students, NJ judge rules". NorthJersey.com. Retrieved February 29, 2016.  ^ "Judge Refuses To Kick God
God
Out Of Public Schools". Forbes. February 7, 2015. Retrieved February 29, 2016.  ^ "ROOSEVELT DROPPED 'IN GOD WE TRUST'; President Says Such a Motto on Coin Is Irreverence, Close to Sacrilege. NO LAW COMMANDS ITS USE He Trusts Congress Will Not Direct Him to Replace the Exalted Phrase That Invited Constant Levity". The New York Times. November 14, 1907. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ https://www.riverfronttimes.com/newsblog/2014/09/24/ballwin-rejects-in-god-we-trust-sign-after-atheist-mothers-passionate-plea-video ^ http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/govt-and-politics/ballwin-rejects-in-god-we-trust-sign/article_ed39ceaf-242c-509d-aed6-1f9892489ae3.html

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to In God
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Final answer? Not quite as star gets second chance to play for a million – article in The Guardian
The Guardian
about a disputed quiz question about the motto of the United States. Local documentary on origin of phrase

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