God We Trust" is the official motto of the United States of
America and of the
U.S. state of Florida. It was adopted as the
nation's motto in 1956 as a replacement or alternative to the
unofficial motto of E pluribus unum, which was adopted when the Great
Seal of the United States was created and adopted in 1782.
God We Trust" first appeared on the two-cent piece in 1864 and
has appeared on paper currency since 1957. A law passed in a Joint
Resolution by the 84th Congress (P.L. 84-140) and approved by
Dwight Eisenhower on July 30, 1956, declared "In
Trust" must appear on American currency. This phrase was first used on
paper money in 1957, when it appeared on the one-dollar silver
certificate. The first paper currency bearing the phrase entered
circulation on October 1, 1957. The 84th Congress later passed
legislation (P.L. 84-851), also signed by President Eisenhower on July
30, 1956, declaring the phrase to be the national motto.
Some groups and people have expressed objections to its use, citing
its religious reference that violates the
Establishment Clause of the
First Amendment. These groups believe the phrase should be removed
from currency and public property. In lawsuits, this argument has so
far not overcome the interpretational doctrine of accommodationism,
which allows government to endorse religious establishments as long as
they are all treated equally. According to a 2003 joint poll by USA
Today, CNN, and Gallup, 90% of Americans support the inscription "In
God We Trust" on U.S. coins.
In 2006, "In
God We Trust" was designated as the motto of the U.S.
state of Florida. Its Spanish equivalent, En Dios Confiamos,
is the motto of the Republic of Nicaragua.
2 Society and culture
2.2 Pop culture
2.3 License plates
5 See also
7 External links
Salmon P. Chase, Treasury Secretary, scribes "In
God is our Trust,"
scratches out "is our" and overwrites "We" to arrive at "In
Trust" in a December 9, 1863, letter to James Pollock, Director of the
"IN GOD WE TRUST" first appeared on the obverse side of the Two-cent
piece in 1864
In 1860, the phrase was used in the Coat of arms of New Westminster,
Canada. The phrase has been incorporated in many hymns and
religio-patriotic songs. During the American Civil War, the 125th
Pennsylvania Infantry for the
Union Army assumed the motto "In
trust" in early August 1862. William W. Wallace, coiner,
circa August 1862, of the motto "In
God We Trust" was Captain of
Company C of the 125th
The Reverend Mark R. Watkinson of 'Ridleyville', Pennsylvania, (pastor
of Prospect Hill Baptist Church in present-day Prospect Park,
Pennsylvania) in a letter dated November 13, 1861, petitioned the
Treasury Department to add a statement recognizing "
Almighty God in
some form on our coins" in order to "relieve us from the ignominy of
heathenism". At least part of the motivation was to declare
God was on the Union side of the Civil War. Treasury
Salmon P. Chase
Salmon P. Chase acted on this proposal and directed the
then-Philadelphia Director of the Mint, James Pollock, to begin
drawing up possible designs that would include the religious phrase.
Chase chose his favorite designs and presented a proposal to Congress
for the new designs in late 1863.
In December 1863, Abraham Lincoln's Secretary of the Treasury decided
on a new motto, "In
God We Trust," to engrave on U.S. coins. Lincoln's
involvement in this decision is unclear.
A version of the motto made an early appearance on obverse side of the
twenty dollar interest bearing note issued in 1864 along with the
God and our Right".
As Chase was preparing his recommendation to Congress, it was found
that the Act of Congress dated January 18, 1837 prescribed the mottoes
and devices that should be placed upon the coins of the United States.
This meant that the mint could make no changes without the enactment
of additional legislation by the Congress. Such legislation was
introduced and passed as the
Coinage Act of 1864 on April 22, 1864,
allowing the Secretary of the Treasury to authorize the inclusion of
the phrase on one-cent and two-cent coins.
An Act of Congress passed on March 3, 1865, allowed the Mint Director,
with the Secretary's approval, to place the motto on all gold and
silver coins that "shall admit the inscription thereon". In
1873, Congress passed the Coinage Act, granting that the Secretary of
the Treasury "may cause the motto IN GOD WE TRUST to be inscribed on
such coins as shall admit of such motto".
The similar phrase 'In
God is our Trust' appears in "The Star-Spangled
Banner", adopted as the national anthem of the United States in 1931.
Francis Scott Key
Francis Scott Key during the War of 1812, the fourth stanza
includes the phrase, "And this be our motto: 'In
God is our Trust'",
which was adapted as the national
motto.[better source needed]
The use of "In
God We Trust" has been interrupted. The motto
disappeared from the five-cent coin in 1883, and did not reappear
until production of the Jefferson nickel began in 1938. However,
at least two other coins minted in every year in the interim still
bore the motto, including the
Morgan dollar and the
Seated Liberty half dollar. The omission of the motto "In
Trust" on the
Indian Head eagle
Indian Head eagle coin caused public outrage, and
prompted Congress to pass a bill mandating its inclusion. Mint Chief
Charles E. Barber
Charles E. Barber added the words and made minor
modifications to the design. In 1908, Congress made it mandatory that
the phrase be printed on all coins upon which it had previously
appeared. This decision was motivated after a public outcry following
the release of a $20 coin which did not bear the motto. The motto
has been in continuous use on the one-cent coin since 1909, and on the
ten-cent coin since 1916. It also has appeared on all gold coins and
silver dollar coins, half-dollar coins, and quarter-dollar coins
struck since July 1, 1908. Since 1938, all US coins have borne the
A quarter dollar with the United States' official motto "IN GOD WE
TRUST" on the obverse side
Cold War era, the government of the United States sought to
distinguish itself from the Soviet Union, which promoted state atheism
and thus implemented antireligious legislation. The 84th Congress
passed a joint resolution "declaring IN GOD WE TRUST the national
motto of the United States". The resolution passed both the House and
the Senate unanimously and without debate. The law was signed
by President Eisenhower on July 30, 1956. The United States Code
at 36 U.S.C. § 302, now states: "'In
God we trust' is the
The same day, the President signed into law a requirement that "In
God We Trust" be printed on all U.S. currency and coins. On paper
currency, it first appeared on the silver certificate in 1957,
followed by other certificates. Federal Reserve Notes and United
States Notes were circulated with the motto starting from 1964 to
1966, depending on the denomination. (Of these, only Federal
Reserve Notes are still circulated.)
Charles Edward Bennett
Charles Edward Bennett of
Florida cited the Cold War
when he introduced the bill in the House, saying "In these days when
imperialistic and materialistic communism seeks to attack and destroy
freedom, we should continually look for ways to strengthen the
foundations of our freedom". 
Aronow v. United States
Aronow v. United States was the first case to challenge the inclusion
God We Trust" on U.S. currency. The law it challenged was
"31 U.S.C. § 324a "the inscription 'In
God we Trust'...shall appear
on all United States currency and coins". O'Hair v. Blumenthal
(1978) challenged the inclusion of the phrase "In
God We Trust" on
U.S. currency. A similar decision was reached by the Fifth Circuit in
Madalyn Murray O'Hair
Madalyn Murray O'Hair vs
W. Michael Blumenthal
W. Michael Blumenthal in 1979, which affirmed
that the "primary purpose of the slogan was secular."
In March 2001,
Governor of Mississippi
Governor of Mississippi signed
legislation requiring the motto "In
God We Trust" to be displayed in
every public school classroom, as well as the school auditoriums and
cafeterias, throughout the state.
A framed poster displaying the national motto of the United States in
New Philadelphia High School classroom
September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks in 2001, many public schools across the
United States posted "In
God We Trust" framed posters in their
"libraries, cafeterias and classrooms". The American Family
Association supplied several 11-by-14-inch posters to school systems
and vowed to defend any legal challenges to the displaying of the
According to a 2003 joint poll by USA Today, CNN, and Gallup, 90% of
Americans support the inscription "In
God We Trust" on U.S. coins.
In 2006, on the 50th anniversary of its adoption, the Senate
God We Trust" as the official national motto of the
United States of America. In
Florida House Bill no. 1145, Florida
God We Trust' as the official state motto, effective July
In 2011 the House of Representatives passed an additional resolution
God We Trust" as the official motto of the United
States, in a 396–9 vote.
In 2013, a federal court rejected a challenge, brought by Michael
Newdow and the Freedom From Religion Foundation, to remove "In
Trust" from American currency.
"IN GOD WE TRUST" on the Seal of Mississippi
On January 31, 2014, purporting to defend religious freedom, the
Mississippi senate voted to add the words, "In
God We Trust" to the
state seal and the change was made effective on July 1, 2014.
In 2015 the county police department of Jefferson County, Illinois
announced that the words "In
God We Trust" will be on police squad
cars. In 2015, the Freedom from Religion Foundation demanded that
local authorities remove decals of the motto from Childress, Texas
Police Department patrol vehicles. In response, Police Chief Adrian
Garcia told the organization, in a written letter, to “go fly a
In early 2018, Kimberly Daniels, a pastor who currently serves as
the representative for
Florida House of Representatives District 14 as
a member of the Democratic Party, introduced HB 839, a bill that
requires public schools to display the motto "In
God We Trust" in a
conspicuous place. On Tuesday, January 23, 2018, the bill received
unanimous approval from the House PreK-12 Innovation Subcommittee.
Later, in a vote on February 21, 2018, the bill passed 97 to 10 in the
House. As part of Florida's March 2018 K-12 education law,
Rick Scott mandated that all public schools post the state motto
God We Trust") in a prominent location.
In March 2018, Act 911, sponsored by State Rep. Jim Dotson, made it a
Arkansas state law for schools to display posters with
the national motto ("In
God We Trust").
In March 2018, a bill requiring Tennessee schools to prominently
display the national motto ("In
God We Trust") sponsored by Rep. Susan
Lynn passed the state House with 81 of the 99 members voting in favor
Society and culture
Judaism and Christianity, the official motto "In
God We Trust"
resounds with several verses from the Bible, including Psalm 118:8,
Psalm 40:3, Psalm 73:28, and Proverbs 29:25. In
Islam the word for
the concept of reliance on
God is called Tawakkul; the phrase "In God
We Trust" is found in two places of the Koran, in
Surah 10 Yunus, as
Surah 7 Al-A'raf, although several other verses reinforce this
concept.[not in citation given] Melkote Ramaswamy, a Hindu
American scholar, writes that the presence of the phrase "In
Trust" on American currency is a reminder that "there is God
everywhere, whether we are conscious or not."
In Miracle on 34th Street (1994 film), just as Henry is about to make
his decision, Susan walks up to him with a Christmas card containing a
$1 bill. On the back, the words "In
God We Trust" are circled. He
realizes that, since the U.S. Department of Treasury can put its
official faith in
God with no hard evidence, then the people can
believe in Santa in the same way. Left with no choice, an elated Henry
dismisses the case and declares that Santa is real, existing in the
person of Kris.
An e-mail conspiracy theory is that "In
God We Trust" was
intentionally omitted from new U.S. dollar coins in 2007. The
first coins produced under the
Presidential $1 Coin Program
Presidential $1 Coin Program did indeed
lack the "In
God We Trust" inscription along their edges (along with
the "E Pluribus Unum" inscription, the year of production, and the
mint mark; these coins, unlike normal dollar coins, had completely
blank edges), but these coins, known as "godless dollars", were the
result of a minting error, not a deliberate omission.
Marty Feldman's satirical comedy In
God We Tru$t (1980).
They Live plays on the idea.
Special sunglasses allow the
wearers to see simple hidden messages instead of the signs they see
without them. Advertising is seen as "OBEY", "CONSUME" and "MARRY AND
REPRODUCE". Dollar bills are all marked "THIS IS YOUR GOD".
In January 2006,
Laurence Llewelyn-Bowen and his wife Jackie were
offered a place on the
Valentine's Day celebrity couples edition of
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? They appeared on the show managing to
reach the £1 million question, before answering it incorrectly and
dropping from £500,000 all the way down to just £32,000 (a loss of
£468,000). For the first time ever,
Celador allowed Llewelyn-Bowen
and his wife retry the show after the company claimed that the last
question "didn't meet their standards". After
returning and being shown a different £1 million question, the couple
decided not to risk losing £468,000 for the second time and won
£500,000 for their chosen charity, The Shooting Star Children's
Hospice, of which Llewelyn-Bowen and his wife are both patrons. Their
new question was about the first man to travel to space twice, and the
correct answer to the question was Gus Grissom. They decided not to
risk it this time and walked away with the £500,000. This amount is
the highest amount that any celebrity couple has won on any British
edition of Who Wants To Be a Millionaire? The £468,000 they
originally lost was also the greatest loss ever seen on the show, and
no other contestant has ever answered the final question incorrectly
in the United Kingdom version. The allegedly misleading
question was "Translated from the Latin, what is the motto of the
United States?" The answer given was "In
God We Trust" which is
originally English and has in fact been the motto of the United States
since 1956. The intended answer had been "One Out of Many" which is a
translation of the Latin phrase E pluribus unum, which is not actually
the current United States motto.
E pluribus unum
E pluribus unum had been the de facto
motto but was never legally declared as such.
"IN GOD WE TRUST" optional license plate designed by Troy Wingard for
South Carolina Department of Public Safety
South Carolina Department of Public Safety in 2002
As of April 1, 2016 the following U.S. states currently offer an "In
God We Trust" license plate as a speciality plate for an additional
normal vehicle registration processing which vary from state to state:
Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky,
Louisiana, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina,
Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.
Florida (Which also offers a speciality plate) and Georgia which both
display the county of issuance on their License Plate offer the option
God We Trust" in place of the County Name.
Advocates of separation of church and state have questioned the
legality of this motto asserting that it is a violation of the United
States Constitution, prohibiting the government from passing any law
respecting an establishment of religion. Religious
accommodationists state that this entrenched practice has not
historically presented any constitutional difficulty, is not coercive,
and does not prefer one religious denomination over another.
God We Trust" as a national motto and on U.S. currency has been
the subject of numerous unsuccessful lawsuits. The motto was first
Aronow v. United States
Aronow v. United States in 1970, but the United States
Court of Appeals for the
Ninth Circuit ruled: "It is quite obvious
that the national motto and the slogan on coinage and currency 'In God
We Trust' has nothing whatsoever to do with the establishment of
religion. Its use is of patriotic or ceremonial character and bears no
true resemblance to a governmental sponsorship of a religious
Lynch v. Donnelly
Lynch v. Donnelly (1984), the Supreme Court wrote
that acts of "ceremonial deism" are "protected from Establishment
Clause scrutiny chiefly because they have lost through rote repetition
any significant religious content". In
Zorach v. Clauson
Zorach v. Clauson (1952),
the Supreme Court also wrote that the nation's "institutions
presuppose a Supreme Being" and that government recognition of God
does not constitute the establishment of a state church as the
Constitution's authors intended to prohibit.
In November 2005,
Michael Newdow announced he wants to have "In
Trust" removed from U.S. coins and banknotes. In 2004, he received the
special Recognition Freethought Hero Award for his case to remove "In
God We Trust" from currency. In a November 14, 2005 interview with
Fox News's Neil Cavuto, Newdow compared "In
God We Trust" appearing on
United States currency with racial segregation (specifically separate
drinking fountains), saying, "How can you not compare those? What is
the difference there? Both of them [whites and blacks] got equal
water. They both had access. It was government saying that it's okay
to separate out these two people on the basis of race. Here we're
saying it's okay to separate two people on the basis of their
In June 2006, a federal judge rejected Newdow's Establishment Clause
lawsuit on the grounds that the minted words amount to a secular
national slogan, and do not dictate anyone's beliefs. Newdow stated
that he would appeal the ruling, although it should be noted that
Aronow v. United States
Aronow v. United States was decided on the same grounds in the United
Court of Appeals for the
Ninth Circuit and the lower court was
required to return the same ruling, likewise the
Ninth Circuit does
not traditionally overrule previous
Ninth Circuit rulings.
On December 4, 2007, Newdow argued before a three-judge panel of the
Ninth Circuit to remove both "under God" from the Pledge of Allegiance
(Roe v. Rio Linda Union School District), and "In God
We Trust" from United States currency. The
Ninth Circuit rejected
Newdow's challenge. In a decision published March 11, 2010, the court
held that its earlier decision in Aronow, which "held the national
motto is of a “patriotic or ceremonial character,” has no
“theological or ritualistic impact,” and does not constitute
“governmental sponsorship of a religious exercise," foreclosed
Newdow's argument. In an opinion concurring only in the judgment,
even the extremely liberal Judge Stephen Reinhardt agreed that
Aronow was controlling precedent.
Newdow v. Congress, 598 F.3d 638 (9th Cir. 2010) cert. denied 131 S.
Ct. 1612 (U.S. 2011). AKA: The "In
God We Trust Case" – A prominent
atheist, Michael Newdow, filed a suit to declare the national motto
God We Trust – unconstitutional and to have it removed from
coins and currency.
Pacific Justice Institute
Pacific Justice Institute intervened
as a defendant and defended the against the suit. The case
was dismissed by the trial court and the
Ninth Circuit affirmed that
David F. Bauman dismissed a case against the Matawan-Aberdeen
Regional School District brought by a student of the district and the
American Humanist Association
American Humanist Association that argued that the phrase “under
God” in the
Pledge of Allegiance
Pledge of Allegiance created a climate of discrimination
because it promoted religion, making non-believers “second-class
citizens”. He noted; “As a matter of historical tradition,
the words ‘under God’ can no more be expunged from the national
consciousness than the words ‘In
God We Trust’ from every coin in
the land, than the words ‘so help me God’ from every presidential
oath since 1789, or than the prayer that has opened every
congressional session of legislative business since 1787.”
Aside from constitutional objections, President Theodore Roosevelt
took issue with using the motto on coinage as he considered using
God's name on money to be sacrilege.
In September 2014, a proposal to add displays of "In
God We Trust" on
public property in
Ballwin, Missouri was defeated following a plea to
a meeting of aldermen by a local atheist.
"IN GOD WE TRUST" motto over the tribune in the United States House of
Representatives Chamber (between the clock and the flag)
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state)
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state) with "IN GOD WE TRUST" motto
Indian Head eagle, revised design of 1908 adding "IN GOD WE TRUST"
motto to reverse
Dollar coin stack showing "IN GOD WE TRUST" on edge
United States one-dollar bill, reverse, series 2009 with "IN GOD WE
United States two-dollar bill, reverse, series 2003A with "IN GOD WE
Lincoln cent obverse, showing "IN GOD WE TRUST" motto
Saint-Gaudens double eagle, revised design of 1908 adding "IN GOD WE
TRUST" motto to reverse
Florida with "IN GOD WE TRUST" motto
United States five-dollar bill, reverse, series 2006 with "IN GOD WE
Grand Army of the Republic Memorial (Siloam Springs, Arkansas)
engraved with the words "IN GOD WE TRUST"
United States twenty-dollar bill, reverse, series 2006 with "IN GOD WE
United States one hundred-dollar bill, reverse, series 2009 with "IN
GOD WE TRUST" motto
Coat of arms of New Westminster, Canada
Religion in the United States
God and keep your powder dry
Dieu et mon droit
God Save the Queen
God have mercy upon your soul
So help me God
Gott mit uns
Deus seja louvado
God We Trust: All Others Pay Cash
^ Annual report – American Civil Liberties Union, Volume 5. American
Civil Liberties Union. 1951. Retrieved 1 May 2012. In 1956, an
official national motto was adopted, "In
God We Trust," replacing the
unofficial "E Pluribus Unum."
^ Refiguring Mass Communication: A History. University of Illinois
Press. 24 March 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2012. He held high the
Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the nation's
unofficial motto, e pluribus unum, even as he was recoiling from the
party system in which he had long participated.
^ a b c d U.S. Department of the Treasury (2011). "History of 'In God
We Trust'". www.treasury.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
^ 36 U.S.C. § 302 National motto
^ "U.S. on the History of "In
God We Trust"". United States Department
of the Treasury. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
^ United States Public Law 84-851, United States Public Law 84-851.
^ 12 Mar 2010 (2010-03-12). "Atheist in battle to remove 'In
Trust' from US currency". London: Telegraph. Retrieved
^ Drakeman, Donald L. (1 January 1991). Church-state Constitutional
Issues: Making Sense of the Establishment Clause. Greenwood Press.
^ a b "USA TODAY/CNN/Gallup Poll results". USA Today. 2011. Retrieved
15 November 2011. C. The inscription "In
God We Trust" on U.S. coins;
2003 Sep 19–21; Approve 90; Disapprove 8; No opinion 2
^ a b http://www.n-state.com, NSTATE, LLC:. "
Florida State Motto In
God We Trust". www.netstate.com.
^ a b "State Motto -
Florida Department of State".
^ As shown on the Córdoba (bank notes and coins); see for example
Banco Central de
Nicaragua Archived 2012-05-06 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Chase, Salmon P (December 9, 1863). Letter to James Pollock.
Document # RG 104_UD 87-A_Folder In
God We Trust 1861_Part1. National
Archives and Records Administration. p. 11.
^ The Regimental Committee, 125th PA Volunteers, 1862–1863 (2009).
Regimental History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Library.
pp. 150–152. ISBN 978-1-112-13570-5.
^ Alexander, ted (2011). The Battle of Antietam. Charleston, SC: The
History Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-60949-179-6.
^ 125th PA Vol. Infantry: IN GOD WE TRUST. YouTube. 28 June
^ Regimental Committee 1906, p. 151.
^ "History of 'In
God We Trust'". U.S. Department of the Treasury.
Retrieved 3 October 2013.
^ United States (1897). Congressional Serial Set. US: Government
Printing Office, p. 260.
^ a b c d e f "History of 'In
God We Trust'". treasury.gov. Retrieved
^ Duncan, Ann W. (2008). Religion, Rhetoric, and Ritual in the U.S.
Government," Church-state Issues in America Today. Westport CT:
Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 77.
^ According to The
Congressional Record (1908, House), p. 3387, the
motto was adopted "doubtless with his [Lincoln's] knowledge and
^ Congressional Record, 1956, p. 13917, via NonBeliever.org
^ Begley, Sarah (January 13, 2016). "How 'In
God We Trust' Got on the
Currency in the First Place". Time. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
^ "10 Interesting Facts About Theodore Roosevelt".
Republicanpresidents.net. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
^ Merriman, Scott A. Religion and the Law in America: An Encyclopedia
of Personal Belief and Public Policy. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO,
2007. Print. "In 1956, the United States, changed its motto to "In God
We Trust," in large part to differentiate itself from the Soviet
Cold War enemy that was widely seen as promoting atheism."
^ "New National Motto Of U. S. Recalls Key's Words Of 1814".
Palladium-Item. Richmond, Indiana. 13 Aug 1956. p. 8. Retrieved
2018-02-15 – via Newspapers.com.
^ Miller, Douglas and Nowak, Marion, The Fifties: The Way We Really
Were. 1977, 89. "'In
God We Trust' was adopted as the national motto
in 1956, with neither debate nor a single dissenting vote in the House
^ Public Law 84-851
^ Public Law 84-140
^ Steven B. Epstein, "Rethinking the Constitutionality of Ceremonial
Deism" Columbia Law Review, Vol. 96, No. 8. (Dec., 1996), p.
2083–2174, quoting the peroration (abridged here) of the speech by
Charles Edward Bennett, sponsor in the House, the only speech in
either House of Congress on the subject. President Eisenhower and W.
Randolph Burgess, Deputy to the Treasury for Monetary Affairs, had
approved of the legislation! 101
Congressional Record pp. 4384
(quoted), 7796. (1955)
^ "The legislation placing "In
God We Trust" on national currency US
House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives".
history.house.gov. 1955-07-11. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
^ a b Aronow v. United States, 432 F.2d 242, 243 (9th Cir. October 6,
^ Duncan, Ann W. (2008). Church-state Issues in America Today.
Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 88.
^ "Page not found". Archived from the original on 7 August 2007.
Retrieved 20 December 2017.
^ Press, The Associated (25 March 2001). "National News Briefs; 'In
God We Trust' Motto For
Mississippi Schools". Retrieved 20 December
2017 – via NYTimes.com.
^ "USATODAY.com – 'In
God We Trust' pressed for schools".
usatoday.com. 19 February 2002.
^ Felicia Sonmez (1 November 2011). "Social issues return to fore with
God We Trust' resolution". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7
November 2011. In 2006, on the 50th anniversary of its adoption, the
Senate reaffirmed 'In
God We Trust' as the official national motto of
the United States," Forbes said in a statement announcing the vote.
"Tomorrow, the House of Representatives will have the same opportunity
to reaffirm our national motto and directly confront a disturbing
trend of inaccuracies and omissions, misunderstandings of church and
state, rogue court challenges, and efforts to remove
God from the
public domain by unelected bureaucrats.
^ Jennifer Steinhauer (3 November 2011). "In
God We Trust, With the
House's Help". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 November 2011. Citing a
crisis of national identity and mass confusion among Americans about
their nation's motto, the House on Tuesday voted on a resolution
God We Trust' as the official motto of the United
^ Todd Starnes (3 November 2011). "See Which Congressmen Voted Against
God We Trust'". Fox News. Retrieved 7 November 2011. The House of
Representatives passed a bi-partisan resolution Tuesday night
God We Trust" as the official motto of the United
States. The 396–9 vote came at the request of Rep. Randy Forbes
^ "Lawsuit to remove 'In
God We Trust' from money gets dismissed -
Mississippi Legislature (January 2014). "
Freedom Restoration Act; enact and modify the great seal" (PDF).
Senate Bill No. 2681. Mississippi: State of Mississippi. Archived from
the original (PDF) on April 2, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
^ Wagster Pettus, Emily (31 January 2014). "Miss. Senate OKs adding
God We Trust' to seal". WorldNow and WLBT. Archived from the
original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
God We Trust' to be placed on Jefferson Co., IL squad cars"
(Archive). KFVS. August 1, 2015. Retrieved on August 2, 2015.
^ "Atheist Group Asks Police Remove 'In
God We Trust' Car Decal".
^ News, Charlene Aaron/CBN. "Apostle
Kimberly Daniels Scores Big Win
for Prayer in Public Schools". charismanews.com.
^ "Schools could be required to display 'In
God we trust'". Sun
Sentinel. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
^ CNN, Joe Sterling,. "
Florida lawmakers advance a bill that requires
God We Trust' displayed on school grounds". cnn.com.
Florida lawmakers advance bill that would require 'In
God We Trust'
to be visible on all school buildings". newsweek.com. 23 February
God We Trust: The Motto". All About History. Retrieved
^ "Verses including the word Putting One's Trust in Allah (Tawakkul)".
Quran Index. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
^ Ramaswamy, Melkote (2012-08-11). "Faith/Values Indianapolis Star".
indystar.com. Archived from the original on 2014-10-19. Retrieved
^ "Historic Change", Snopes,
^ David S Morgan (2007-03-07). ""Godless" Dollar Coins Slip Through
Mint". CBS News. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
^ Associated Press: Dollar Coins Missing 'In
God We Trust', By David S
Morgan, (Mar. 7, 2007), CBS News Archived March 19, 2007, at the
^ Rothkopf, Joshua (2014-10-27). ""Empire of the Sunglasses: How 'They
Live' Took on Republicans and Won", by Joshua Rothkopf, ''Rolling
Stone''". Rollingstone.com. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
^ a b "TV designer's second shot at £1m". British Broadcasting
Corporation. 13 January 2006. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
^ Born, Matt (13 January 2006). "Llewelyn-Bowen blows £1m". The Daily
Mail. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
^ Lat, David (25 August 2009). "Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? Ken
Basin, Harvard Law '08, Sure Does". Above the Law. Retrieved 22 May
^ a b Richard H. Fallon (2004). The Dynamic Constitution: an
Introduction to Americans Constitutional Law. Cambridge University
Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-521-60078-1. "Strict
separationists" believe that the government has no business supporting
religious beliefs or institutions in any way – for example, by
providing tax breaks to churches, assisting parochial schools,
including prayers or benedictions in public ceremonies, or inscribing
God We Trust" on the currency. Religious accommodationists can
well explain why certain entrenched social practices (such as the
inscription of "In
God We Trust" on the currency) were not
historically perceived as presenting constitutional difficulties: The
relevant practices are not coercive and do not prefer one narrow sect
^ Markoe, Lauren (2014-05-29). "Atheists Lose Latest Battle To Remove
God We Trust' From U.S. Currency". huffingtonpost.com. Religion
News Service. Retrieved 2014-10-09.
^ Aronow, 432 F.2d at 243.
^ LYNCH v. DONNELLY, 465 U.S. 668 (1984) U.S. Supreme Court
^ ABA Journal Sep 1962. Much more recently, in 1952, speaking through
Mr. Justice Douglas in Zorach v. Clauson, 343 U.S. 306, 313, the
Supreme Court repeated the same sentiments, saying: We are a religious
people whose institutions presuppose a Supreme Being. Mr. Justice
Brewer in the Holy Trinity case, supra, mentioned many of these
evidences of religion, and Mr. Justice Douglas in the Zorach case
referred to ... [P]rayers in our legislative halls; the appeals
to the Almighty in the messages of the Chief Executive; the
proclamation making Thanksgiving Day a holiday; "So help me God" in
our courtroom oaths – these and ... other references to the
Almighty ... run through our laws, our public rituals, our
ceremonies ... the supplication with which the Court opens each
God save the United States and this Honorable Court"
(312–313). To this list may be added tax exemption of churches,
chaplaincies in the armed forces, the "Pray for Peace" postmark, the
widespread observance of Christmas holidays, and, in classrooms,
singing the fourth stanza of America which is prayer invoking the
protection of God, and the words "in
God is our trust" as found in the
National Anthem, and the reciting of the
Pledge of Allegiance
Pledge of Allegiance to the
Flag, modified by an Act of Congress of June 14, 1954, to include the
words "under God".
^ "Freethought Hero Award 2004 - Mike Newdow". Archived from the
original on 2007-07-29. Retrieved 2007-07-29. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link) , Freedom From Religion Foundation
^ "Federal Judge Nixes 'In
God We Trust' Lawsuit".
Fox News Channel.
^ "Newdow v. Congress of the United States" (PDF). findlaw.com.
^ "Newdow v. Lefevre, No. 06-16344, at 4210 (9th Cir. Mar. 11, 2010)
(citing Aronow, 432 F.2d at 243-44)" (PDF).
^ "Matt Rees, The Judge the Supreme Court Loves to Overturn, The
Weekly Standard, May 5, 1997;". compare "David G. Savage,
Crusading Liberal Judge Keeps High Court Busy, L.A. Times, Mar. 3,
1996." The Los Angeles Times. 1996-03-03.
^ "Newdow, at 4210-11 (Reinhardt, J., concurring)" (PDF).
^ a b c Bob Egelko, 'In
God We Trust' suit rejected by Supreme Court,
San Francisco Chronicle,  March 8, 2011
^ a b c
Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, Newdow v. Congress,  March
^ a b c
Video Library, Establishment of Religion Clause Oral
Arguments, Part 1,  December 7, 2007
^ Salvador Rizzo. "Hearing 'Under God' in
Pledge of Allegiance
Pledge of Allegiance does
not violate rights of atheist students, NJ judge rules".
NorthJersey.com. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
^ "Judge Refuses To Kick
God Out Of Public Schools". Forbes. February
7, 2015. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
^ "ROOSEVELT DROPPED 'IN GOD WE TRUST'; President Says Such a Motto on
Coin Is Irreverence, Close to Sacrilege. NO LAW COMMANDS ITS USE He
Trusts Congress Will Not Direct Him to Replace the Exalted Phrase That
Invited Constant Levity". The New York Times. November 14, 1907.
Retrieved 26 August 2010.
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