In classical mechanics, impulse (symbolized by or Imp) is the integral of a force, , over the time interval, , for which it acts. Since force is a vector quantity, impulse is also a vector quantity. Impulse applied to an object produces an equivalent vector change in its linear momentum, also in the resultant direction. The SI unit of impulse is the newton second (N⋅s), and the dimensionally equivalent unit of momentum is the kilogram meter per second (kg⋅m/s). The corresponding English engineering unit is the pound-second (lbf⋅s), and in the British Gravitational System, the unit is the slug-foot per second (slug⋅ft/s).
A resultant force causes acceleration and a change in the velocity of the body for as long as it acts. A resultant force applied over a longer time therefore produces a bigger change in linear momentum than the same force applied briefly: the change in momentum is equal to the product of the average force and duration. Conversely, a small force applied for a long time produces the same change in momentum—the same impulse—as a larger force applied briefly.
:$J\; =\; F\_\; (t\_2\; -\; t\_1)$
The impulse is the integral of the resultant force (''F'') with respect to time:
:$J\; =\; \backslash int\; F\; \backslash ,\backslash mathrmt$

Mathematical derivation in the case of an object of constant mass

Impulse J produced from time ''t''_{1} to ''t''_{2} is defined to be
:$\backslash mathbf\; =\; \backslash int\_^\; \backslash mathbf\backslash ,\; \backslash mathrmt$
where F is the resultant force applied from ''t''_{1} to ''t''_{2}.
From Newton's second law, force is related to momentum p by
:$\backslash mathbf\; =\; \backslash frac$
Therefore,
:$\backslash begin\; \backslash mathbf\; \&=\; \backslash int\_^\; \backslash frac\backslash ,\; \backslash mathrmt\; \backslash \backslash \; \&=\; \backslash int\_^\; \backslash mathrm\backslash mathbf\; \backslash \backslash \; \&=\; \backslash mathbf\_2\; -\; \backslash mathbf\; \_1=\; \backslash Delta\; \backslash mathbf\; \backslash end$
where Δp is the change in linear momentum from time ''t''_{1} to ''t''_{2}. This is often called the impulse-momentum theoremSee, for example, section 9.2, page 257, of Serway (2004). (analogous to the work-energy theorem).
As a result, an impulse may also be regarded as the change in momentum of an object to which a resultant force is applied. The impulse may be expressed in a simpler form when the mass is constant:
:$\backslash mathbf\; =\; \backslash int\_^\; \backslash mathbf\backslash ,\; \backslash mathrmt\; =\; \backslash Delta\backslash mathbf\; =\; m\; \backslash mathbf\; -\; m\; \backslash mathbf$
where
:F is the resultant force applied,
:''t''_{1} and ''t''_{2} are times when the impulse begins and ends, respectively,
:''m'' is the mass of the object,
:v_{2} is the final velocity of the object at the end of the time interval, and
:v_{1} is the initial velocity of the object when the time interval begins.
Impulse has the same units and dimensions as momentum. In the International System of Units, these are . In English engineering units, they are .
The term "impulse" is also used to refer to a fast-acting force or impact. This type of impulse is often ''idealized'' so that the change in momentum produced by the force happens with no change in time. This sort of change is a step change, and is not physically possible. However, this is a useful model for computing the effects of ideal collisions (such as in game physics engines). Additionally, in rocketry, the term "total impulse" is commonly used and is considered synonymous with the term "impulse".

Variable mass

The application of Newton's second law for variable mass allows impulse and momentum to be used as analysis tools for jet- or rocket-propelled vehicles. In the case of rockets, the impulse imparted can be normalized by unit of propellant expended, to create a performance parameter, specific impulse. This fact can be used to derive the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, which relates the vehicle's propulsive change in velocity to the engine's specific impulse (or nozzle exhaust velocity) and the vehicle's propellant-mass ratio.

See also

*Wave–particle duality defines the impulse of a wave collision. The preservation of momentum in the collision is then called phase matching. Applications include: **Compton effect **Nonlinear optics **Acousto-optic modulator **Electron phonon scattering * Dirac delta function, mathematical abstraction of a pure impulse

Notes

Bibliography

* *

External links

Dynamics

{{Classical mechanics derived SI units Category:Articles containing video clips Category:Classical mechanics Category:Vector physical quantities de:Impuls#Kraftstoß sv:Rörelsemängd#Impuls

Mathematical derivation in the case of an object of constant mass

Impulse J produced from time ''t''

Variable mass

The application of Newton's second law for variable mass allows impulse and momentum to be used as analysis tools for jet- or rocket-propelled vehicles. In the case of rockets, the impulse imparted can be normalized by unit of propellant expended, to create a performance parameter, specific impulse. This fact can be used to derive the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, which relates the vehicle's propulsive change in velocity to the engine's specific impulse (or nozzle exhaust velocity) and the vehicle's propellant-mass ratio.

See also

*Wave–particle duality defines the impulse of a wave collision. The preservation of momentum in the collision is then called phase matching. Applications include: **Compton effect **Nonlinear optics **Acousto-optic modulator **Electron phonon scattering * Dirac delta function, mathematical abstraction of a pure impulse

Notes

Bibliography

* *

External links

Dynamics

{{Classical mechanics derived SI units Category:Articles containing video clips Category:Classical mechanics Category:Vector physical quantities de:Impuls#Kraftstoß sv:Rörelsemängd#Impuls