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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

In the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, the collective term FREE AND IMPERIAL CITIES (German : Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded FREE IMPERIAL CITY (Freie Reichsstadt, Latin : urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that enjoyed a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet . An imperial city held the status of Imperial immediacy , and as such, was subordinate only to the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
, as opposed to a territorial city or town (Landstadt) which was subordinate to a territorial prince – be it an ecclesiastical lord (prince-bishop , prince-abbot ) or a secular prince (duke ( Herzog
Herzog
), margrave , count ( Graf
Graf
), etc.).

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin * 2 Distinction between free imperial cities and other cities

* 3 Organization

* 3.1 Rhenish Bench * 3.2 Swabian Bench

* 4 Development * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References

ORIGIN

The evolution of some German cities into self-ruling constitutional entities of the Empire was slower than that of the secular and ecclesiastical princes. In the course of the 13th and 14th centuries, some cities were promoted by the emperor to the status of Imperial Cities (Reichsstädte; Urbes imperiales), essentially for fiscal reasons. Those cities, which had been founded by the German kings and emperors in the 10th through 13th centuries and had initially been administered by royal/imperial stewards (Vögte ), gradually gained independence as their city magistrates assumed the duties of administration and justice; some prominent examples are Colmar
Colmar
, Haguenau and Mulhouse
Mulhouse
in Alsace
Alsace
or Memmingen
Memmingen
and Ravensburg
Ravensburg
in upper Swabia
Swabia
.

The Free Cities (Freie Städte; Urbes liberae) were those, such as Basel
Basel
, Augsburg
Augsburg
, Cologne
Cologne
or Strasbourg
Strasbourg
, that were initially subjected to a prince-bishop and, likewise, progressively gained independence from that lord. In a few cases, such as in Cologne, the former ecclesiastical lord continued to claim the right to exercise some residual feudal privileges over the Free City, a claim that gave rise to constant litigation almost until the end of the Empire.

Over time, the difference between Imperial Cities and Free Cities became increasingly blurred, so that they became collectively known as "Free Imperial Cities", or "Free and Imperial Cities", and by the late 15th century many cities included both "Free" and "Imperial" in their name. Like the other Imperial Estates, they could wage war, make peace, and control their own trade, and they permitted little interference from outside. In the later Middle Ages, a number of Free Cities formed City
City
Leagues (Städtebünde), such as the Hanseatic League or the Alsatian Décapole
Décapole
, to promote and defend their interests. Rottweil, c. 1435. Swabian Rottweil
Rottweil
maintained its independence up to the mediatization of 1802–03.

In the course of the Middle Ages, cities gained, and sometimes — if rarely — lost, their freedom through the vicissitudes of power politics. Some favored cities gained a charter by gift. Others purchased one from a prince in need of funds. Some won it by force of arms during the troubled 13th and 14th centuries and other lost their privileges during the same period by the same way. Some cities became free through the void created by the extinction of dominant families, like the Swabian Hohenstaufen . Some voluntarily placed themselves under the protection of a territorial ruler and therefore lost their independence.

A few, like Protestant Donauwörth
Donauwörth
, which in 1607 was annexed to the Catholic Duchy of Bavaria
Duchy of Bavaria
, were stripped by the Emperor of their status as a Free City
City
— for genuine or trumped-up reasons. However, this rarely happened after the Reformation, and of the sixty Free Imperial Cities that remained at the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
, all but the ten Alsatian cities (which were annexed by France during the late 17th century) continued to exist until the mediatization of 1803.

DISTINCTION BETWEEN FREE IMPERIAL CITIES AND OTHER CITIES

There were approximately four thousand towns and cities in the Empire, although around the year 1600 over nine-tenths of them had fewer than one thousand inhabitants. During the late Middle Ages, fewer than two hundred of these places ever enjoyed the status of Free Imperial Cities, and some of those did so only for a few decades. The military tax register (Reichsmatrikel) of 1521 listed eighty-five such cities, and this figure had fallen to sixty-five by the time of the Peace of Augsburg
Augsburg
in 1555. From the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
of 1648 to 1803, their number oscillated at around fifty. Partial list of the Free Imperial Cities of Swabia
Swabia
based on the Reichsmatrikel of 1521. It indicates the number of horsemen (left hand column) and infantry (right hand column) which each Imperial Estate had to contribute to the defence of the Empire

Unlike the Free Imperial Cities, the second category of towns and cities, now called "territorial cities" were subject to an ecclesiastical or lay lord, and while many of them enjoyed self-government to varying degrees, this was a precarious privilege which might be curtailed or abolished according to the will of the lord.

Reflecting the extraordinarily complex constitutional set-up of the Holy Roman Empire, a third category, composed of semi-autonomous cities that belonged to neither of those two types, is distinguished by some historians. These were cities whose size and economic strength was sufficient to sustain a substantial independence from surrounding territorial lords for a considerable time, even though no formal right to independence existed. These cities were typically located in small territories where the ruler was weak. They were nevertheless the exception among the multitude of territorial towns and cities. Cities of both latter categories normally had representation in territorial diets , but not in the Imperial Diet.

ORGANIZATION

Free imperial Cities were not officially admitted as own Imperial Estates to the Imperial Diet until 1489, and even then their votes were usually considered only advisory (votum consultativum) compared to the Benches of the electors and princes. The cities divided themselves into two groups, or benches, in the Imperial Diet, the Rhenish and the Swabian Bench.

Toward the end of the Holy Roman Empire, there were 50 such Free Cities, several no larger than small towns:

RHENISH BENCH

* Cologne
Cologne
* Aachen
Aachen
* Lübeck
Lübeck
* Worms * Speyer
Speyer
* Frankfurt
Frankfurt
* Goslar
Goslar
* Bremen * Hamburg
Hamburg
* Mühlhausen
Mühlhausen
* Nordhausen
Nordhausen
* Dortmund
Dortmund
* Friedberg * Wetzlar
Wetzlar

SWABIAN BENCH

* Regensburg
Regensburg
* Augsburg
Augsburg
* Nuremberg
Nuremberg
* Ulm
Ulm
* Esslingen am Neckar * Reutlingen * Nördlingen
Nördlingen
* Rothenburg ob der Tauber
Rothenburg ob der Tauber
* Hall (today Schwäbisch Hall ) * Rottweil
Rottweil
* Überlingen
Überlingen
* Heilbronn
Heilbronn
* Gmünd (today Schwäbisch Gmünd ) * Memmingen
Memmingen
* Lindau * Dinkelsbühl
Dinkelsbühl
* Biberach an der Riß * Ravensburg
Ravensburg
* Schweinfurt
Schweinfurt
* Kempten im Allgäu * Windsheim * Kaufbeuren
Kaufbeuren
* Weil * Wangen im Allgäu
Wangen im Allgäu
* Isny im Allgäu
Isny im Allgäu
* Pfullendorf
Pfullendorf
* Offenburg
Offenburg
* Leutkirch im Allgäu * Wimpfen * Weißenburg im Nordgau * Giengen * Gengenbach * Zell am Harmersbach
Zell am Harmersbach
* Buchhorn (today Friedrichshafen
Friedrichshafen
) * Aalen
Aalen
* Bopfingen

By the time of the Peace of Westphalia, the cities constituted a formal third "college" and their full vote (votum decisivum) was confirmed, although they failed to secure parity of representation with the two other colleges. To avoid the possibility that they would have the casting vote in case of a tie between the Electors and the Princes, it was decided that these should decide first and consult the cities afterward.

Despite this somewhat unequal status of the cities in the functioning of the Imperial Diet, their full admittance to that federal institution was crucial in clarifying their hitherto uncertain status and in legitimizing their permanent existence as full-fledged Imperial Estates. Constitutionally, if in no other way, the diminutive Free Imperial City
City
of Isny was the equal of the Margraviate of Brandenburg .

DEVELOPMENT

Having probably learned from experience that there was not much to gain from active, and costly, participation in the Imperial Diet's proceedings due to the lack of empathy of the princes, the cities made little use of their representation in that body. By about 1700, almost all the cities with the exception of Nuremberg, Ulm
Ulm
and Regensburg (where by then the Perpetual Imperial Diet was located), were represented by various Regensburg
Regensburg
lawyers and officials who often represented several cities simultaneously. Instead, many cities found it more profitable to maintain agents at the Aulic Council in Vienna, where the risk of an adverse judgment posed a greater risk to city treasuries and independence. Weissenburg-im-Nordgau in 1725 Audience of the Reichskammergericht in Wetzlar, 1750. The Imperial city was saved from oblivion in 1689 when it was decided to move the Imperial Chamber Court to Wetzlar
Wetzlar
from Speyer, too exposed to French aggression. Territory
Territory
of the Free imperial city
Free imperial city
of Mühlhausen
Mühlhausen
Hamburg
Hamburg
with its outlying exclaves Württemberg more than doubled its size when it absorbed some 15 Free Cities (in orange) and other territories during the mediatisations of 1803 and 1806.

The territory of most Free Imperial Cities was generally quite small but there were exceptions, such as Ulm, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Hamburg, which possessed substantial hinterlands or fiefs that comprised dozens of villages and thousands of subject peasants who did not enjoy the same rights as the urban population. At the opposite end, the authority of Cologne, Aachen, Worms, Goslar, Wetzlar, Augsburg
Augsburg
and Regensburg barely extended beyond the city walls.

The constitution of Free and Imperial Cities was republican in form, but in all but the smallest cities, the city government was oligarchic in nature with a governing town council composed of an elite, hereditary patrician class, the so-called town council families (Ratsverwandte). They were the most economically significant burgher families who had asserted themselves politically over time.

Below them, with a say in the government of the city (there were exceptions, such as Nuremberg
Nuremberg
, where the patriciate ruled alone), were the citizens or burghers, the smaller, privileged section of the city's permanent population whose number varied according to the rule of citizenship of each city. To the common town dweller – whether he lived in a prestigious Free Imperial City
City
like Frankfurt, Augsburg
Augsburg
or Nuremberg, or in a small market town such as there were hundreds throughout Germany – attaining burgher status (Bürgerrecht) could be his greatest aim in life. The burgher status was usually an inherited privilege renewed pro-forma in each generation of the family concerned but it could also be purchased. At times, the sale of burgher status could be a significant item of town income as fiscal records show. The Bürgerrecht was local and not transferable to another city.

The burghers were usually the lowest social group to have political power and privilege within the Holy Roman Empire. Below them was the disenfranchised urban population, maybe half of the total in many cities, the so-called "residents" (Beisassen) or "guests": smaller artisans, craftsmen, street venders, day laborers, servants and the poor, but also those whose residence in the city was temporary, such as wintering noblemen, foreign merchants, princely officials, and so on.

Urban conflicts in Free Imperial Cities, which sometimes amounted to class warfare, were not uncommon in the Early Modern Age, particularly in the 17th century (Lübeck, 1598–1669; Schwäbisch Hall, 1601–1604; Frankfurt, 1612–1614; Wezlar, 1612–1615; Erfurt, 1648–1664; Cologne, 1680–1685; Hamburg
Hamburg
1678–1693, 1702–1708). Sometimes, as in the case of Hamburg
Hamburg
in 1708, the situation was considered sufficiently serious to warrant the dispatch of an Imperial commissionner with troops to restore order and negotiate a compromise and a new city constitution between the warring parties.

The number of Imperial Cities shrank over time until the Peace of Westphalia. There were more in areas that were very fragmented politically, such as Swabia
Swabia
and Franconia in the southwest, than in the North and the East where were located the larger and more powerful territories, such as Brandenburg and Saxony, which were more prone to absorb smaller, weaker states.

In the 16th and 17th century, a number of Imperial Cities were separated from the Empire due to external territorial change. Henry II of France seized the Imperial Cities connected to the Three Bishoprics of Metz
Metz
, Verdun
Verdun
and Toul . Similarly, Louis XIV seized many cities based on claims produced by his Chambers of Reunion . That way, Strasbourg
Strasbourg
and the ten cities of the Décapole
Décapole
were annexed. Also, when the Old Swiss Confederacy
Old Swiss Confederacy
gained its formal independence from the Empire in 1648 (it had been de facto independent since 1499), the independence of the Imperial Cities of Basel
Basel
, Bern
Bern
, Lucerne
Lucerne
, St. Gallen , Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen
, Solothurn
Solothurn
, and Zürich was formally recognized. Obernstraße, Free City
City
of Bremen. 1843 Frankfurt, c. 1911. After more than 600 years as a Free City, Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main was annexed to Prussia
Prussia
in 1866

With the rise of Revolutionary France in Europe, this trend accelerated enormously. After 1795, the areas west of the Rhine were annexed to France by the revolutionary armies, suppressing the independence of Imperial Cities as diverse as Cologne, Aachen, Speyer and Worms. Then, the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
led to the reorganization of the Empire in 1803 (see German Mediatisation
German Mediatisation
), where all of the free cities but six — Hamburg
Hamburg
, Bremen , Lübeck
Lübeck
, Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, Augsburg
Augsburg
, and Nuremberg
Nuremberg
— lost their independence and were absorbed into neighboring territories. Finally, under pressure from Napoleon, the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was dissolved in 1806. By 1811, all of the Imperial Cities had lost their independence — Augsburg
Augsburg
and Nuremberg
Nuremberg
had been annexed by Bavaria
Bavaria
, Frankfurt
Frankfurt
had become the center of the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, a Napoleonic puppet state , and the three Hanseatic cities had been directly annexed by France as part of its effort to enforce the Continental Blockade against Britain. Hamburg and Lübeck
Lübeck
with surrounding territories formed the département of Bouches-de-l\'Elbe , and Bremen the Bouches-du-Weser .

When the German Confederation
German Confederation
was established by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Hamburg, Lübeck, Bremen, and Frankfurt
Frankfurt
were once again made Free Cities, this time enjoying total sovereignty as all the members of the loose Confederation. Frankfurt
Frankfurt
was annexed by Prussia
Prussia
in consequence of the part it took in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. The three other Free Cities became constituent states of the new German Empire
German Empire
in 1871 and consequently were no longer fully sovereign as they lost control over defence, foreign affairs and a few other fields. They retained that status in the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
and into the Third Reich
Third Reich
, although under Hitler it became purely notional. Due to Hitler's distaste for Lübeck
Lübeck
and its liberal tradition, the need was devised to compensate Prussia
Prussia
for territorial losses under the Greater Hamburg
Hamburg
Act , and Lübeck
Lübeck
was annexed to Prussia
Prussia
in 1937. In the Federal Republic of Germany
Federal Republic of Germany
which was established after the war, Bremen and Hamburg
Hamburg
became constituent states , a status which they retain to the present day. Berlin
Berlin
, which had never been a Free City
City
in its history, also received the status of a state after the war due to its special position in divided post-war Germany.

Regensburg
Regensburg
was, apart from hosting the Imperial Diet , a most peculiar city: an officially Lutheran city that nevertheless was the seat of the Catholic prince-bishopric of Regensburg, its prince-bishop and cathedral chapter. The Imperial City
City
also housed three Imperial abbeys: St. Emmeram , Niedermünster and Obermünster . They were five immediate entities fully independent of each other existing in the same small city.

Regensburg
Regensburg

Rothenburg in 1572

Lubeca urbs imperialis libera – Free Imperial City
City
of Lübeck
Lübeck

SEE ALSO

* Free city (antiquity) * Imperial immediacy
Imperial immediacy
* List of Free Imperial Cities * Lübeck
Lübeck
law * Royal free city

NOTES

* ^ Whaley, vol.1, p. 26. * ^ John G. Gagliardo, Germany under the Old Regime, 1600–1790, Longman, London and New York, 1991, p. 4. * ^ This figure does not include the ten cities of the Décapole
Décapole
, which, while still formally independent from 1648 to 1679, had been placed under the heavy-handed 'protection' of the French king. * ^ 'Territorial city' is a term used by modern historians to denote any German city or town that was not a Free Imperial City. * ^ Gagliardo, p. 5 * ^ Examples of such cities were Lemgo (county of Lippe ), Gütersloh
Gütersloh
(county of Bentheim ) and Emden
Emden
(county of East Frisia ). * ^ Joachim Whaley, Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, Oxford University Press, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 250, 510, 532. * ^ Gagliardo, pp 6–7. * ^ All the cities of Southern Germany (located in the Swabian , Franconian and Bavarian circles) belonged to the Swabian bench, while all the others belonged to Rhenish bench, even cities such as Lübeck and Hamburg
Hamburg
that were quite far from the Rhineland. * ^ The cities are listed according to their voting order on the two benches of the College of Towns of the Imperial Diet of 1792. G. Benecke, Society and Politics in Germany, 1500–1750, Routledge & Kegan Paul and University of Toronto Press, London, Toronto and Buffalo, 1974, Appendix III. * ^ Whaley, vol. 1, pp. 532–533. * ^ Peter H. Wilson, The Holy Roman Empire, 1495–1806, Palgrave Macmillan, 1999, p. 66 * ^ Whaley, vol. 2, p. 210. * ^ Whaley, vol. 2, p. 211. * ^ G. Benecke, p. 162. * ^ Franck Lafage, Les comtes Schönborn, 1642–1756, L\'Harmattan , Paris, 2008, vol. II, p. 319. * ^ Franck Lafage, p. 319–323 * ^ Lubeck, Europe à la Carte

REFERENCES

* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. * This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Wood, James , ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia . London and New York: Frederick Warne.

* v * t * e

Décapole
Décapole
of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire

Alliance of ten Imperial cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in the Alsace
Alsace
region 1354-1679

FOUNDING CITIES

* Haguenau * Colmar
Colmar
* Wissembourg
Wissembourg
* Turckheim * Obernai * Kaysersberg * Rosheim * Munster * Sélestat * Mulhouse
Mulhouse

OTHER CITIES

* Landau
Landau
* Seltz

Category: Alsace
Alsace

* v * t * e

Free imperial cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire

BY 1792

* Aachen
Aachen
* Aalen
Aalen
* Augsburg
Augsburg
* Biberach * Bopfingen * Bremen H * Buchau * Buchhorn * Cologne
Cologne
H * Dinkelsbühl
Dinkelsbühl
* Dortmund
Dortmund
H * Eßlingen * Frankfurt
Frankfurt
* Friedberg * Gengenbach * Giengen * Goslar
Goslar
H * Hamburg
Hamburg
H * Heilbronn
Heilbronn
* Isny * Kaufbeuren
Kaufbeuren
* Kempten * Kessenich * Leutkirch * Lindau * Lübeck
Lübeck
H * Memmingen
Memmingen
* Mühlhausen
Mühlhausen
* Mülhausen D, S * Nordhausen
Nordhausen
* Nördlingen
Nördlingen
* Nuremberg
Nuremberg
* Offenburg
Offenburg
* Pfullendorf
Pfullendorf
* Ravensburg
Ravensburg
* Regensburg
Regensburg
* Reutlingen * Rothenburg * Rottweil
Rottweil
S * Schwäbisch Gmünd * Schwäbisch Hall * Schweinfurt
Schweinfurt
* Speyer
Speyer
* Überlingen
Überlingen
* Ulm
Ulm
* Wangen * Weil * Weißenburg in Bayern
Weißenburg in Bayern
* Wetzlar
Wetzlar
* Wimpfen * Windsheim * Worms * Zell

Free Imperial Cities as of 1648

LOST IMPERIAL IMMEDIACY OR NO LONGER PART OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE BY 1792

* Basel
Basel
S * Bern
Bern
S * Besançon * Brakel * Cambrai
Cambrai
* Diessenhofen * Donauwörth
Donauwörth
* Duisburg
Duisburg
* Düren
Düren
* Gelnhausen
Gelnhausen
* Hagenau D * Herford
Herford
* Kaysersberg D * Kolmar D * Konstanz
Konstanz
* Landau
Landau
D * Lemgo * Lucerne
Lucerne
S * Mainz
Mainz
* Metz
Metz
* Munster D * Obernai D * Pfeddersheim * Rheinfelden * Rosheim D * St. Gallen
St. Gallen
S * Sarrebourg * Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen
S * Schmalkalden * Schlettstadt D * Soest H * Solothurn
Solothurn
S * Straßburg * Toul * Turckheim D * Verden * Verdun
Verdun
* Warburg
Warburg
* Weißenburg in Elsaß D * Zürich S

* D Member of the Décapole
Décapole
* H Member of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
* S Member or associate of the Swiss Confederacy

* v * t * e

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

ENGLISH TERMS

COMMON ENGLISH TERMS1

AREA

* Insular area * Local government area * Protected area
Protected area
* Special
Special
area

* Statistical area

* Combined statistical area
Combined statistical area
* Metropolitan statistical area
Metropolitan statistical area
* Micropolitan statistical area
Micropolitan statistical area

* Urban area
Urban area

CANTON Half-canton

BOROUGH

* County borough
County borough
* Metropolitan borough
Metropolitan borough

CAPITAL

* Federal capital * Imperial capital

CITY

* City
City
state * Autonomous city * Charter city * Independent city * Incorporated city
Incorporated city
* Imperial city
Imperial city
* Free imperial city * Royal free city

COMMUNITY

* Autonomous community * Residential community

COUNTY

* Administrative county * Autonomous county * Consolidated city-county

* Metropolitan county
Metropolitan county

* Non-metropolitan

* Viscountcy

COUNTRY

* Overseas country
Overseas country

DEPARTMENT

* Overseas department
Overseas department

DISTRICT

* Capital district * City
City
district * Congressional district
Congressional district
* Electoral district
Electoral district
* Federal district * Indian government district * Land district

* Metropolitan district
Metropolitan district

* Non-metropolitan district
Non-metropolitan district

* Military district * Municipal district * Police district * Regional district * Rural district * Sanitary district * Subdistrict * Urban district * Special
Special
district

DIVISION

* Census division * Police division * Subdivision

MUNICIPALITY

* County
County
municipality

* Norway * Nova Scotia * Regional county municipality

* Direct-controlled municipality * District
District
municipality * Mountain resort municipality
Mountain resort municipality
* Neutral municipality * Regional municipality * Resort municipality * Rural municipality * Specialized municipality

PREFECTURE

* Autonomous prefecture
Autonomous prefecture
* Subprefecture
Subprefecture
* Super-prefecture * Praetorian prefecture
Praetorian prefecture

PROVINCE

* Autonomous province * Overseas province * Roman province
Roman province

REGION

* Administrative region
Administrative region
* Autonomous region
Autonomous region
* Capital region * Development region * Economic region * Mesoregion * Microregion
Microregion
* Overseas region
Overseas region
* Planning region * Special administrative region * Statistical region * Subregion

RESERVE

* Biosphere reserve
Biosphere reserve
* Ecological reserve * Game reserve * Indian reserve * Nature reserve
Nature reserve

STATE

* Federal state
Federal state
* Free state * Sovereign state
Sovereign state

TERRITORY

* Capital territory

* Federal capital territory

* Dependent territory * Federal territory * Military territory * Organized incorporated territory * Overseas territory * Union territory * Unorganized territory

TOWN

* Census town * Market town
Market town

TOWNSHIP

* Charter township * Civil township
Civil township
* Paper township * Survey township
Survey township
* Urban township

UNIT

* Autonomous territorial unit * Local administrative unit * Municipal unit * Regional unit

ZONE

* Economic zone

* Exclusive economic zone
Exclusive economic zone
* Free economic zone
Free economic zone
* Special economic zone
Special economic zone

* Free-trade zone * Neutral zone * Self-administered zone
Self-administered zone

OTHER ENGLISH TERMS

CURRENT

* Alpine resort * Bailiwick

* Banner

* Autonomous

* Block * Cadastre
Cadastre
* Circle * Circuit * Colony
Colony
* Commune * Condominium * Constituency * Duchy * Eldership * Emirate
Emirate
* Federal dependency * Governorate * Hamlet * Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
* Indian reservation
Indian reservation

* Manor
Manor

* Royal

* Muftiate * Neighbourhood
Neighbourhood
* Parish * Periphery * Precinct * Principality
Principality
* Protectorate * Quarter * Regency * Autonomous republic * Riding

* Sector

* Autonomous

* Shire
Shire
* Sultanate
Sultanate
* Suzerainty * Townland
Townland

* Village
Village

* Administrative * Summer

* Ward *

HISTORICAL

* Agency * Barony * Burgh
Burgh
* Exarchate * Hide * Hundred * Imperial Circle
Imperial Circle
* March * Monthon
Monthon
* Presidency * Residency * Roman diocese
Roman diocese
* Seat * Tenth * Tithing

NON-ENGLISH OR LOANWORDS

CURRENT

* Amt * Bakhsh * Barangay
Barangay
* Bezirk * Regierungsbezirk
Regierungsbezirk
* Comune
Comune
* Frazione * Fu * Gemeinde * Județ

* Kunta / kommun

* Finland * Sweden

* Län * Località * Megye * Muban

* Oblast
Oblast

* Autonomous

* Okrug * Ostān * Poblacion
Poblacion
* Purok * Shahrestān * Sum * Sýsla * Tehsil * Vingtaine

HISTORICAL

* Commote
Commote
* Gau * Heerlijkheid * Köping * Maalaiskunta

* Nome

* Egypt * Greece

* Pagus * Pargana * Plasă * Satrapy * Socken * Subah * Syssel * Zhou

* v * t * e

Arabic
Arabic
terms for country subdivisions

FIRST-LEVEL

* Muhafazah (محافظة governorate) * Wilayah (ولاية province) * Mintaqah (منطقة region) * Mudiriyah (مديرية directorate) * Imarah (إمارة emirate) * Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) * Shabiyah (شعبية "popularate")

SECOND / THIRD-LEVEL

* Mintaqah (منطقة region) * Qadaa (قضاء district) * Nahiyah (ناحية subdistrict) * Markaz (مركز district) * Mutamadiyah (معتمدية "delegation") * Daerah / Daïra (دائرة circle) * Liwa (لواء banner / sanjak )

CITY / TOWNSHIP-LEVEL

* Amanah (أمانة municipality) * Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) * Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter) * Mahallah
Mahallah
(محلة) * Qarya (قرية) * Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision")

English translations given are those most commonly used.

* v * t * e

French terms for country subdivisions

* arrondissement * département * préfecture * subprefectures

* v * t * e

Greek terms for country subdivisions

MODERN

* apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis § / diamerisma § / periphereia * nomos § / periphereiaki enotita * demos / eparchia § / koinotita §

HISTORICAL

* archontia/archontaton * bandon * demos * despotaton * dioikesis * doukaton * droungos * eparchia * exarchaton * katepanikion * kephalatikion * kleisoura * meris * naukrareia * satrapeia * strategis * thema * toparchia * tourma

§ signifies a defunct institution

* v * t * e

Portuguese terms for country subdivisions

REGIONAL SUBDIVISIONS

* Estado * Distrito federal * Província * Região * Distrito * Comarca * Capitania

LOCAL SUBDIVISIONS

* Município * Concelho
Concelho
* Freguesia * Comuna * Circunscrição

SETLEMENTS

* Cidade * Vila * Aldeia * Bairro
Bairro
* Lugar

* Historical subdivisions in italics.

* v * t * e

Slavic terms for country subdivisions

CURRENT

* dzielnica * gmina * krai * kraj * krajina / pokrajina * městys * obec * oblast / oblast\' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast\' * okręg * okres * okrug * opština / općina / občina / obshtina * osiedle * powiat / povit * raion * selsoviet / silrada * sołectwo * voivodeship / vojvodina * županija

HISTORICAL

* darugha * gromada * guberniya / gubernia * jurydyka * khutor * obshchina * okolia * opole * pogost * prowincja * sorok * srez * starostwo / starostva * uyezd * volost * ziemia * župa

* v * t * e

Spanish terms for country subdivisions

NATIONAL, FEDERAL

* Comunidad autónoma * Departamento * Distrito federal * Estado * Provincia * Región

REGIONAL, METROPOLITAN

* Cantón * Comarca * Comuna * Corregimiento * Delegación * Distrito * Mancomunidad
Mancomunidad
* Merindad * Municipalidad * Municipio
Municipio

* Parroquia

* Ecuador * Spain

URBAN, RURAL

* Aldea * Alquería * Anteiglesia

* Asentamiento

* Asentamiento informal * Pueblos jóvenes

* Barrio * Campamento * Caserío

* Ciudad

* Ciudad autónoma

* Colonia * Lugar * Masía * Pedanía * Población * Ranchería
Ranchería
*