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(i) (i)

Hebrew
Hebrew
Palmyrene Mandaic Pahlavi Brāhmī Kharoṣṭhī Syriac →Sogdian →Old Uyghur →Mongolian → Nabataean alphabet Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
→N\'Ko alphabet

DIRECTION Right-to-left

ISO 15924 Armi, 124 Imperial Aramaic

UNICODE ALIAS Imperial Aramaic

UNICODE RANGE U+10840–U+1085F

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

History of the alphabet -------------------------

Egyptian hieroglyphs 32 c. BCE

* Hieratic 32 c. BCE

* Demotic 7 c. BCE

* Meroitic 3 c. BCE

* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE

* Ugaritic 15 c. BCE

* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

* Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

* Phoenician 12 c. BCE

* Paleo- Hebrew
Hebrew
10 c. BCE

* Samaritan 6 c. BCE

* Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE

* Tifinagh

* Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE

* Aramaic 8 c. BCE

* Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE

* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

* Brahmic family (see)

* E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE

* Hangul (core letters only) 1443

* Devanagari 13 c. CE

* Canadian syllabics 1840

* Hebrew
Hebrew
3 c. BCE

* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

* Avestan 4 c. CE

* Palmyrene 2 c. BCE

* Syriac 2 c. BCE

* Nabataean 2 c. BCE

* Arabic 4 c. CE

* N\'Ko 1949 CE

* Sogdian 2 c. BCE

* Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

* Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

* Old Uyghur

* Mongolian 1204 CE

* Mandaic 2 c. CE

* Greek 8 c. BCE

* Etruscan 8 c. BCE

* Latin 7 c. BCE

* Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

* Runic 2 c. CE * Ogham
Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

* Coptic 3 c. CE * Gothic 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * Glagolitic 862 CE

* Cyrillic c. 940 CE

* Old Permic 1372 CE

Thaana 18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals
Brahmi numerals
)

* v * t * e

ARAMEANS

* Aramaic language * Aramaic alphabet

SYRO-HITTITE STATES

* Biblical region * Aram-Damascus * Paddan Aram * Aram Rehob * Aram Soba

ARAMEAN KINGS

* Irhuleni * Hezion * Tabrimmon * Ben-Hadad I * Hadadezer * Hazael * Ben-Hadad III * Rezin

ARAMEAN CITIES

* Amrit
Amrit
* Arpad * Bit Bahiani
Bit Bahiani
* Coba Höyük
Coba Höyük
* Gidara * Hama
Hama
* Qarqar * Ruhizzi
Ruhizzi
* Sam\'al * Tell Aran * Tell Halaf
Tell Halaf
* Til Barsip
Til Barsip
* Upu
Upu
* Zobah

* v * t * e

The ancient ARAMAIC ALPHABET is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinctive from it by the 8th century BCE. It was used to write the Aramaic language and had displaced the Paleo- Hebrew
Hebrew
alphabet , itself a derivative of the Phoenician alphabet, for the writing of Hebrew
Hebrew
. The letters all represent consonants , some of which are also used as matres lectionis to indicate long vowels .

The Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
is historically significant since virtually all modern Middle Eastern writing systems can be traced back to it as well as numerous non-Chinese writing systems of Central and East Asia. That is primarily from the widespread usage of the Aramaic language as both a lingua franca and the official language of the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires, and their successor, the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
. Among the scripts in modern use, the Hebrew alphabet bears the closest relation to the Imperial Aramaic script of the 5th century BC, with an identical letter inventory and, for the most part, nearly identical letter shapes. The Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
was an ancestor to the Nabataean alphabet and the later Arabic alphabet.

Writing systems (like the Aramaic one) that indicate consonants but do not indicate most vowels other than by means of matres lectionis or added diacritical signs, have been called abjads by Peter T. Daniels to distinguish them from alphabets, such as the Greek alphabet , which represent vowels more systematically. The term was coined to avoid the notion that a writing system that represents sounds must be either a syllabary or an alphabet, which would imply that a system like Aramaic must be either a syllabary (as argued by Ignace Gelb ) or an incomplete or deficient alphabet (as most other writers have said). Rather, it is a different type.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins

* 2 Achaemenid period

* 2.1 Aramaic-derived scripts

* 3 Languages using the alphabet

* 3.1 Ma\'loula

* 4 Letters

* 4.1 Matres lectionis

* 5 Unicode * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links

ORIGINS

Bilingual Greek and Aramaic inscription by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka at Kandahar
Kandahar
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, 3rd century BC.

The earliest inscriptions in the Aramaic language use the Phoenician alphabet . Over time, the alphabet developed into the form shown below. Aramaic gradually became the lingua franca throughout the Middle East, with the script at first complementing and then displacing Assyrian cuneiform , as the predominant writing system.

ACHAEMENID PERIOD

Around 500 BC, following the Persian Achaemenid conquest of Mesopotamia under Darius I , Old Aramaic
Old Aramaic
was adopted by the Iranians as the "vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast Persian empire with its different peoples and languages. The use of a single official language, which modern scholarship has dubbed as Official Aramaic, Imperial Aramaic or Achaemenid Aramaic, can be assumed to have greatly contributed to the astonishing success of the Achaemenid Persians in holding their far-flung empire together for as long as they did."

Imperial Aramaic was highly standardised; its orthography was based more on historical roots than any spoken dialect and was inevitably influenced by Old Persian . The Aramaic glyph forms of the period are often divided into two main styles, the "lapidary" form, usually inscribed on hard surfaces like stone monuments, and a cursive form whose lapidary form tended to be more conservative by remaining more visually similar to Phoenician and early Aramaic. Both were in use through the Achaemenid Persian period, but the cursive form steadily gained ground over the lapidary, which had largely disappeared by the 3rd century BC. Stele with dedicatory lapidary Aramaic inscription to the god Salm. Sandstone, 5th century BC. Found in Tayma by Charles Huber in 1884 and now in the Louvre
Louvre
.

For centuries after the fall of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
in 331 BC, Imperial Aramaic, or something near enough to it to be recognisable, would remain an influence on the various native Iranian languages . The Aramaic script would survive as the essential characteristics of the Iranian Pahlavi writing system .

30 Aramaic documents from Bactria have been recently discovered, an analysis of which was published in November 2006. The texts, which were rendered on leather, reflect the use of Aramaic in the 4th century BC in the Persian Achaemenid administration of Bactria and Sogdiana
Sogdiana
.

The widespread usage of Achaemenid Aramaic in the Middle East
Middle East
led to the gradual adoption of the Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
for writing Hebrew
Hebrew
. Formerly, Hebrew
Hebrew
had been written using an alphabet closer in form to that of Phoenician, the Paleo- Hebrew alphabet .

ARAMAIC-DERIVED SCRIPTS

Since the evolution of the Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
out of the Phoenician one was a gradual process, the division of the world's alphabets into the ones derived from the Phoenician one directly and the ones derived from Phoenician via Aramaic is somewhat artificial. In general, the alphabets of the Mediterranean region (Anatolia, Greece, Italy) are classified as Phoenician-derived, adapted from around the 8th century BC, and those of the East (the Levant, Persia, Central Asia and India) are considered Aramaic-derived, adapted from around the 6th century BC from the Imperial Aramaic script of the Achaemenid Empire.

After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, the unity of the Imperial Aramaic script was lost, diversifying into a number of descendant cursives.

The Hebrew
Hebrew
and Nabataean alphabets , as they stood by the Roman era , were little changed in style from the Imperial Aramaic alphabet.

A cursive Hebrew
Hebrew
variant developed from the early centuries AD, but it remained restricted to the status of a variant used alongside the noncursive. By contrast, the cursive developed out of the Nabataean alphabet in the same period soon became the standard for writing Arabic, evolving into the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
as it stood by the time of the early spread of Islam .

The development of cursive versions of Aramaic also led to the creation of the Syriac , Palmyrene and Mandaic alphabets , which formed the basis of the historical scripts of Central Asia, such as the Sogdian and Mongolian alphabets.

The Old Turkic script is generally considered to have its ultimate origins in Aramaic, in particular via the Pahlavi or Sogdian alphabets , as suggested by V. Thomsen , or possibly via Karosthi (cf., Issyk inscription ).

Aramaic is also considered to be the most likely source of the Brahmi script , ancestor of the Brahmic family of scripts , which includes Devanagari .

LANGUAGES USING THE ALPHABET

Today, Biblical Aramaic , Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialects and the Aramaic language of the Talmud are written in the Hebrew
Hebrew
alphabet. Syriac and Christian Neo-Aramaic dialects are written in the Syriac alphabet . Mandaic is written in the Mandaic alphabet
Mandaic alphabet
. The near-identity of the Aramaic and the classical Hebrew
Hebrew
alphabets caused Aramaic text to be typeset mostly in the standard Hebrew
Hebrew
script in scholarly literature.

MA\'LOULA

In Ma\'loula , one of few surviving communities in which a Western Aramaic dialect is still spoken, the Arameans started a programme in 2007 to give their language a written abjad for the Aramaic alphabet. The program ran into trouble in early 2010 as a Syrian newspaper suggested that the alphabet being used to teach written Aramaic bore an uncanny resemblance to the Hebrew
Hebrew
characters found in modern Israel . Worried that a flagship heritage scheme might in any way be associated with the country’s neighboring enemy, the government-run University of Damascus , which established the institute, acted quickly to freeze the Aramaic programme. They started to use the Syriac alphabet (serto) instead.

LETTERS

Letter name ARAMAIC WRITTEN USING IPA EQUIVALENT LETTER IN

SYRIAC SCRIPT IMPERIAL ARAMAIC HEBREW PHOENICIAN ARABIC BRAHMI NABATAEAN KHAROSTHI

IMAGE TEXT IMAGE TEXT

Ālap

ܐ

𐡀 /ʔ/; /aː/, /eː/ א 𐤀 ا

Bēth

ܒ

𐡁 /b/, /β/ ב 𐤁 ب

Gāmal

ܓ

𐡂 /ɡ/, /ɣ/ ג 𐤂 ج

Dālath

ܕ

𐡃 /d/, /ð/ ד 𐤃 د ذ

ܗ

𐡄 /ɦ/ ה 𐤄 ه

Waw

ܘ

𐡅 /w/; /oː/, /uː/ ו 𐤅 و

Zain

ܙ

𐡆 /z/ ז 𐤆 ز

Ḥēth

ܚ

𐡇 /ħ/ /χ/ ח 𐤇 ح خ

Ṭēth

ܛ

𐡈 emphatic /tˤ/ ט 𐤈 ط ظ

Yodh

ܝ

𐡉 /j/; /iː/, /eː/ י 𐤉 ي

Kāp

ܟ

𐡊 /k/, /x/ כ ך 𐤊 ک

Lāmadh

ܠ

𐡋 /l/ ל 𐤋 ل

Mem
Mem

ܡ

𐡌 /m/ מ ם 𐤌 م

Nun

ܢ

𐡍 /n/ נ ן 𐤍 ن

Semkath

ܣ

𐡎 /s/ ס 𐤎 س

ʿĒ

ܥ

𐡏 /ʢ/ /ʁ/ ע 𐤏 ع غ

ܦ

𐡐 /p/, /ɸ/ פ ף 𐤐 ف

Ṣādhē

ܨ , 𐡑 emphatic /sˤ/ צ ץ 𐤑 ص ض

Qop

ܩ

𐡒 /qˁ/ ק 𐤒 ق

Rēsh

ܪ

𐡓 /r/ ר 𐤓 ر

Shin

ܫ

𐡔 /ʃ/ ש 𐤔 ش

Taw

ܬ

𐡕 /t/, /θ/ ת 𐤕 ت ث

MATRES LECTIONIS

Main article: Mater lectionis

In Aramaic writing, Waw and Yodh serve a double function. Originally, they represented only the consonants w and y, but they were later adopted to indicate the long vowels ū and ī respectively as well (often also ō and ē respectively). In the latter role, they are known as matres lectionis or "mothers of reading".

Ālap, likewise, has some of the characteristics of a mater lectionis because in initial positions, it indicates a glottal stop (followed by a vowel), but otherwise, it often also stands for the long vowels ā or ē. Among Jews, the influence of Hebrew
Hebrew
often led to the use of Hē instead, at the end of a word.

The practice of using certain letters to hold vowel values spread to Aramaic-derived writing systems, such as in Arabic and Hebrew, which still follow the practice.

UNICODE

Main articles: Syriac ( Unicode block) and Imperial Aramaic (Unicode block)

The Syriac Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
was added to the Unicode Standard in September 1999, with the release of version 3.0.

The Syriac Abbreviation (a type of overline ) can be represented with a special control character called the Syriac Abbreviation Mark (U+070F). The Unicode block for Syriac Aramaic is U+0700–U+074F:

SYRIAC Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+070x ܀ ܁ ܂ ܃ ܄ ܅ ܆ ܇ ܈ ܉ ܊ ܋ ܌ ܍

܏ SAM

U+071x ܐ ܑ ܒ ܓ ܔ ܕ ܖ ܗ ܘ ܙ ܚ ܛ ܜ ܝ ܞ ܟ

U+072x ܠ ܡ ܢ ܣ ܤ ܥ ܦ ܧ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ ܭ ܮ ܯ

U+073x ܰ ܱ ܲ ܳ ܴ ܵ ܶ ܷ ܸ ܹ ܺ ܻ ܼ ܽ ܾ ܿ

U+074x ݀ ݁ ݂ ݃ ݄ ݅ ݆ ݇ ݈ ݉ ݊

ݍ ݎ ݏ

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Imperial Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
was added to the Unicode Standard in October 2009, with the release of version 5.2.

The Unicode block for Imperial Aramaic is U+10840–U+1085F:

IMPERIAL ARAMAIC Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+1084x 𐡀 𐡁 𐡂 𐡃 𐡄 𐡅 𐡆 𐡇 𐡈 𐡉 𐡊 𐡋 𐡌 𐡍 𐡎 𐡏

U+1085x 𐡐 𐡑 𐡒 𐡓 𐡔 𐡕

𐡗 𐡘 𐡙 𐡚 𐡛 𐡜 𐡝 𐡞 𐡟

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey area indicates non-assigned code point

SEE ALSO

* Syriac alphabet

REFERENCES

* ^ Inland Syria and the East-of-Jordan Region in the First Millennium BCE before the Assyrian Intrusions, Mark W. Chavalas, The Age of Solomon: Scholarship at the Turn of the Millennium, ed. Lowell K. Handy, (Brill, 1997), 169. * ^ Shaked, Saul (1987). "Aramaic". Encyclopædia Iranica. 2. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 250–261. p. 251 * ^ Greenfield, J.C. (1985). "Aramaic in the Achaemenid Empire". In Gershevitch, I. The Cambridge History of Iran: Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 709–710. * ^ Geiger, Wilhelm ; Kuhn, Ernst (2002). "Grundriss der iranischen Philologie: Band I. Abteilung 1". Boston: Adamant: 249ff. * ^ Naveh, Joseph; Shaked, Shaul (2006). Ancient Aramaic Documents from Bactria. Studies in the Khalili Collection. Oxford: Khalili Collections. ISBN 1-874780-74-9 . * ^ A B Kara, György (1996). "Aramaic Scripts for Altaic Languages". In Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William. The World\'s Writing Systems . Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. pp. 535–558. ISBN 0-19-507993-0 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ Babylonian beginnings: The origin of the cuneiform writing system in comparative perspective, Jerold S. Cooper, The First Writing: Script Invention as History and Process, ed. Stephen D. Houston, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 58-59. * ^ Tristan James Mabry, Nationalism, Language, and Muslim Exceptionalism, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015), 109. * ^ Turks, A. Samoylovitch, FIRST ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAM: 1913-1936, Vol. VI, (Brill, 1993), 911. * ^ George L. Campbell and Christopher Moseley, The Routledge Handbook of Scripts and Alphabets, (Routledge, 2012), 40. * ^ http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2010/0402/Easter-Sunday-A-Syrian-bid-to-resurrect-Aramaic-the-language-of-Jesus-Christ

SOURCES

* Byrne, Ryan. “Middle Aramaic Scripts.” Encyclopaedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. (2006) * Daniels, Peter T., et al. eds. The World's Writing Systems. Oxford. (1996) * Coulmas, Florian. The Writing Systems of the World. Blackwell Publishers Ltd, Oxford. (1989) * Rudder, Joshua. Learn to Write Aramaic: A Step-by-Step Approach to the Historical ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

The Northwest Semitic abjad
Northwest Semitic abjad

ʾ

b

g

d

h

w

z

y

k

l

m

n

s

ʿ

p

q

r

š

t

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400

* History

* Phoenician

* Paleo- Hebrew
Hebrew

* Hebrew
Hebrew
* Aramaic * Syriac

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing * Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

TYPES

ABJADS

* Numerals

* Aramaic

* Hatran

* Arabic * Pitman shorthand
Pitman shorthand

* Hebrew
Hebrew

* Ashuri * Cursive * Rashi * Solitreo

* Tifinagh * Manichaean * Nabataean * Old North Arabian * Pahlavi * Pegon

* Phoenician

* Paleo- Hebrew
Hebrew

* Proto-Sinaitic * Psalter * Punic * Samaritan

* South Arabian

* Zabur * Musnad

* Sogdian

* Syriac

* ʾEsṭrangēlā * Serṭā * Maḏnḥāyā

* Teeline Shorthand * Ugaritic

ABUGIDAS

BRAHMIC

NORTHERN

* Asamiya (Ôxômiya) * Bānglā * Bhaikshuki * Bhujinmol * Brāhmī * Devanāgarī * Dogri * Gujarati * Gupta * Gurmukhī * Kaithi * Kalinga * Khojki * Khotanese * Khudawadi * Laṇḍā * Lepcha * Limbu * Mahajani * Meitei Mayek * Modi * Multani * Nāgarī * Nandinagari * Odia * \'Phags-pa * Newar * Ranjana * Sharada * Saurashtra * Siddhaṃ * Soyombo * Sylheti Nagari * Takri

* Tibetan

* Uchen * Umê

* Tirhuta * Tocharian * Zanabazar Square

* Zhang-Zhung

* Drusha * Marchen * Marchung * Pungs-chen * Pungs-chung

SOUTHERN

* Ahom * Balinese * Batak * Baybayin * Bhattiprolu * Buhid * Burmese * Chakma * Cham * Grantha * Goykanadi * Hanunó\'o * Javanese * Kadamba * Kannada * Kawi * Khmer * Kulitan * Lanna * Lao * Leke * Lontara * Malayalam

* Maldivian

* Dhives Akuru * Eveyla Akuru * Thaana

* Mon * Old Makassarese * Old Sundanese * Pallava * Pyu * Rejang * Rencong * Sinhala * Sundanese * Tagbanwa * Tai Le * Tai Tham * Tai Viet * Tamil * Telugu * Thai * Tigalari

* Vatteluttu

* Kolezhuthu * Malayanma

* Visayan

OTHERS

* Boyd\'s syllabic shorthand

* Canadian syllabics

* Blackfoot * Déné syllabics

* Fox I * Ge\'ez * Gunjala Gondi * Japanese Braille * Jenticha * Kayah Li * Kharosthi * Mandombe * Masaram Gondi * Meroitic * Miao * Mwangwego * Sorang Sompeng * Pahawh Hmong * Thomas Natural Shorthand
Thomas Natural Shorthand

ALPHABETS

LINEAR

* Abkhaz * Adlam * Armenian * Avestan * Avoiuli * Bassa Vah * Borama * Carian * Caucasian Albanian * Coorgi–Cox alphabet
Coorgi–Cox alphabet
* Coptic * Cyrillic * Deseret

* Duployan shorthand

* Chinook writing

* Early Cyrillic * Eclectic shorthand * Elbasan * Etruscan * Evenki * Fox II * Fraser * Gabelsberger shorthand * Garay

* Georgian

* Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
* Nuskhuri
Nuskhuri
* Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli

* Glagolitic * Gothic * Gregg shorthand * Greek * Greco-Iberian alphabet
Greco-Iberian alphabet
* Hangul * IPA * Kaddare

* Latin

* Beneventan * Blackletter * Carolingian minuscule * Fraktur
Fraktur
* Gaelic * Insular * Kurrent
Kurrent
* Merovingian * Sigla * Sütterlin
Sütterlin
* Tironian notes * Visigothic

* Luo * Lycian * Lydian * Manchu * Mandaic * Medefaidrin * Molodtsov * Mongolian * Mru * Neo- Tifinagh * New Tai Lue * N\'Ko * Ogham
Ogham
* Oirat * Ol Chiki * Old Hungarian * Old Italic * Old Permic * Orkhon * Old Uyghur * Osage * Osmanya * Pau Cin Hau * Rohingya Hanifi

* Runic

* Anglo-Saxon * Cipher * Dalecarlian * Elder Futhark * Younger Futhark * Gothic * Marcomannic * Medieval * Staveless

* Sidetic * Shavian * Somali * Tifinagh * Vagindra * Visible Speech * Vithkuqi * Wancho * Zaghawa

NON-LINEAR

* Braille
Braille
* Maritime flags * Morse code * New York Point * Semaphore line * Flag semaphore * Moon type

IDEOGRAMS /PICTOGRAMS

* Adinkra * Aztec * Blissymbol * Dongba * Ersu Shaba * Emoji * IConji * Isotype * Kaidā * Míkmaq * Mixtec * New Epoch Notation Painting * Nsibidi
Nsibidi
* Ojibwe Hieroglyphs * Siglas poveiras * Testerian * Yerkish * Zapotec

LOGOGRAMS

CHINESE FAMILY OF SCRIPTS

CHINESE CHARACTERS

* Simplified * Traditional * Oracle bone script * Bronze Script

* Seal Script

* large * small * bird-worm

* Hanja
Hanja
* Idu * Kanji * Chữ nôm * Zhuang

CHINESE-INFLUENCED

* Jurchen * Khitan large script * Sui * Tangut

CUNEIFORM

* Akkadian * Assyrian * Elamite * Hittite * Luwian * Sumerian

OTHER LOGO-SYLLABIC

* Anatolian * Bagam * Cretan * Isthmian * Maya * Proto-Elamite * Yi (Classical)

LOGO-CONSONANTAL

* Demotic * Hieratic * Hieroglyphs

NUMERALS

* Hindu-Arabic * Abjad * Attic (Greek) * Muisca * Roman

SEMI-SYLLABARIES

FULL

* Celtiberian * Northeastern Iberian * Southeastern Iberian * Khom

REDUNDANT

* Espanca * Pahawh Hmong * Khitan small script * Southwest Paleohispanic * Zhuyin fuhao

SOMACHEIROGRAMS

* ASLwrite
ASLwrite
* SignWriting * si5s * Stokoe Notation

SYLLABARIES

* Afaka * Bamum * Bété * Byblos * Cherokee * Cypriot * Cypro-Minoan * Ditema tsa Dinoko * Eskayan * Geba * Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics * Iban

* Japanese

* Hiragana * Katakana * Man\'yōgana * Hentaigana * Sogana * Jindai moji

* Kikakui * Kpelle * Linear B * Linear Elamite * Lisu * Loma * Nüshu * Nwagu Aneke script * Old Persian Cuneiform * Vai * Woleai * Yi (Modern) * Yugtun

* v * t * e

Braille
Braille
⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

BRAILLE CELL

* 1829 braille * International uniformity * ASCII braille * Unicode braille patterns

BRAILLE SCRIPTS

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

* Albanian * Amharic * Arabic * Armenian * Azerbaijani * Belarusian

* Bharati

* Devanagari (Hindi / Marathi / Nepali) * Bengali * Punjabi * Sinhalese * Tamil * Urdu * etc.

* Bulgarian * Burmese * Cambodian * Cantonese * Catalan * Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) * Czech * Dutch * Dzongkha (Bhutanese) * English (Unified English ) * Esperanto * Estonian * Faroese * French * Georgian * German * Ghanaian * Greek * Guarani * Hawaiian * Hebrew
Hebrew
* Hungarian * Icelandic * Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) * Iñupiaq * IPA * Irish * Italian * Kazakh * Kyrgyz * Latvian * Lithuanian * Maltese * Mongolian * Māori * Nigerian * Northern Sami * Persian * Philippine * Polish * Portuguese * Romanian * Russian * Samoan * Scandinavian * Slovak * South African * Spanish * Tatar * Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) * Thai border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

FREQUENCY-BASED SCRIPTS

* American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

INDEPENDENT SCRIPTS

* Japanese * Korean * Two-Cell Chinese

EIGHT-DOT SCRIPTS

* Luxembourgish * Kanji * Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

SYMBOLS IN BRAILLE

* Braille
Braille
music * Canadian currency marks * Computer Braille
Braille
Code * Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) * International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) * Nemeth braille code

BRAILLE TECHNOLOGY

* Braille
Braille
e-book * Braille
Braille
embosser * Braille
Braille
translator * Braille
Braille
watch * Mountbatten Brailler * Optical braille recognition * Perforation * Perkins Brailler * Refreshable braille display * Slate and stylus * Braigo
Braigo

PERSONS

* Louis Braille
Braille
* Charles Barbier * Valentin Haüy * Thakur Vishva Narain Singh * Sabriye Tenberken * William Bell Wait
William Bell Wait

ORGANISATIONS

* Braille
Braille
Institute of America * Braille
Braille
Without Borders * Japan Braille
Braille
Library * National Braille
Braille
Association * Blindness organizations * Schools for the blind * American Printing House for the Blind

OTHER TACTILE ALPHABETS

* Decapoint * Moon type * New York Point * Night writing * Vibratese

RELATED TOPICS

* Accessible publishing * Braille
Braille
literacy * Robo Braille
Braille

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