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The Imperial German Army
German Army
(German: Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire
German Empire
(excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Kaiserliche Marine). The term Deutsches Heer is also used for the modern German Army, the land component of the Bundeswehr. The German Army
Army
was formed after the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership in 1871 and dissolved in 1919, after the defeat of the German Empire
German Empire
in World War I.

Contents

1 Formation and name 2 Command

2.1 Chiefs of the German General Staff
German General Staff
(1871–1919)

3 Structure

3.1 Army
Army
inspectorate 3.2 Corps 3.3 Division 3.4 Regiment 3.5 National contingents

4 Reserve system 5 Industrial base 6 Air Force 7 Ranks of the Imperial German Army

7.1 Enlisted (Mannschaften/Gemeine) ranks 7.2 Non-commissioned officers / Unteroffiziere

7.2.1 Junior NCOs (NCOs without Sword Knot) / Unteroffizier ohne Portepee 7.2.2 Senior NCOs (NCOs with Sword Knot) / Unteroffizier mit Portepee

7.3 Warrant Officers and Officer Cadets 7.4 Officer corps

7.4.1 Subalterns / Subalternoffiziere 7.4.2 Staff Officers / Stabsoffiziere 7.4.3 General Officers / Generäle

8 Dissolution 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Formation and name[edit]

German Army
German Army
hussars on the attack during maneuvers, 1912.

Draftees of the German Army, 1898.

The states that made up the German Empire
German Empire
contributed their armies; within the German Confederation, formed after the Napoleonic Wars, each state was responsible for maintaining certain units to be put at the disposal of the Confederation in case of conflict. When operating together, the units were known as the Federal Army
Army
(Bundesheer). The Federal Army
Army
system functioned during various conflicts of the 19th century, such as the First Schleswig War
First Schleswig War
from 1848–50 but by the time of the Second Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
of 1864, tension had grown between the main powers of the confederation, the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
and the German Confederation
German Confederation
was dissolved after the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
of 1866. Prussia
Prussia
formed the North German Confederation
German Confederation
and the treaty provided for the maintenance of a Federal Army
Army
and a Federal Navy (Bundesmarine or Bundeskriegsmarine).[1] Further laws on military duty also used these terms.[2] Conventions (some later amended) were entered into between the North German Confederation
German Confederation
and its member states, subordinating their armies to the Prussian army in time of war, and giving the Prussian Army
Army
control over training, doctrine and equipment.[a] Shortly after the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
in 1870, the North German Confederation
German Confederation
also entered into conventions on military matters with states that were not members of the confederation, namely the Bavaria, Württemberg, and Baden.[b] Through these conventions and the 1871 Constitution of the German Empire, an Army
Army
of the Realm (Reichsheer) was created. The contingents of the Bavarian, Saxon and Württemberg kingdoms remained semi-autonomous, while the Prussian Army
Army
assumed almost total control over the armies of the other states of the Empire. The Constitution of the German Empire, dated April 16, 1871, changed references in the North German Constitution from Federal Army
Army
to either Army
Army
of the Realm (Reichsheer) or German Army (Deutsches Heer).[3] After 1871, the peacetime armies of the four kingdoms remained relatively distinct. "German Army" was used in various legal documents, such as the Military Penal Code, but otherwise the Prussian, Bavarian, Saxon and Württemberg armies maintained distinct identities.[4] Each kingdom had its own War Ministry, Bavaria and Saxony published their own rank and seniority lists for their officers and the Württemberg list was a separate chapter of the Prussian army rank lists. Württemberg and Saxon units were numbered according to the Prussian system but Bavarian units maintained their own numbers (the 2nd Württemberg Infantry Regiment was Infantry Regiment No. 120 under the Prussian system).[citation needed] Command[edit] Main articles: German General Staff
German General Staff
and Oberste Heeresleitung The commander of the Imperial German Army, less the Bavarian contingent, was the Kaiser. He was assisted by a Military Cabinet and exercised control through the Prussian Ministry of War
Prussian Ministry of War
and the Great General Staff. The Chief of the General Staff became the Kaiser's main military advisor and the most powerful military figure in the Empire. Bavaria kept its own Ministry of War and General Staff, but coordinated planning with the Prussian Great General Staff. Saxony also maintained its own Ministry of War and the Ministry of War of Württemberg also continued to exist. Command of the Prussian Army
Army
had been reformed in the wake of the defeats suffered by Prussia
Prussia
in the Napoleonic Wars. Rather than rely primarily on the martial skills of the individual members of the German nobility, who dominated the military profession, the Prussian Army
Army
instituted changes to ensure excellence in leadership, organization and planning. The General Staff system, that sought to institutionalize military excellence, was the main result. It sought to identify military talent at the lower levels and develop it thoroughly through academic training and practical experience on division, corps and higher staffs, up to the Great General Staff, the senior planning body of the army. It provided planning and organizational work during peacetime and wartime. The Prussian General Staff, proven in battle in the Wars of Unification, became the German General Staff upon formation of the German Empire, given Prussia's leading role in the German Army. Chiefs of the German General Staff
German General Staff
(1871–1919)[edit]

Helmuth von Moltke the Elder
Helmuth von Moltke the Elder
7 October 1857 – 10 August 1888 Alfred von Waldersee
Alfred von Waldersee
10 August 1888 – 7 February 1891 Alfred von Schlieffen
Alfred von Schlieffen
7 February 1891 – 1 January 1906 Helmuth von Moltke the Younger
Helmuth von Moltke the Younger
1 January 1906 – 14 September 1914 Erich von Falkenhayn
Erich von Falkenhayn
14 September 1914 – 29 August 1916 Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
29 August 1916 – 3 July 1919 Wilhelm Groener
Wilhelm Groener
3 July 1919 – 7 July 1919 Hans von Seeckt
Hans von Seeckt
7 July 1919 – 15 July 1919

Structure[edit] The basic peacetime organizational structure of the Imperial German Army
Army
were the Army
Army
inspectorate (Armee-Inspektion), the army corps (Armeekorps), the division and the regiment. During wartime, the staff of the Army
Army
inspectorates formed field army commands, which controlled the corps and subordinate units. During World War I, a higher command level, the army group (Heeresgruppe), was created. Each army group controlled several field armies. Army
Army
inspectorate[edit] Germany was divided into army inspectorates, each of which oversaw three or four corps. There were five in 1871, with three more added between 1907 and 1913.[5]

I Army
Army
Inspectorate: Headquartered in Danzig, became the 8th Army
Army
on mobilisation (2 August 1914) II Army
Army
Inspectorate: Headquartered in Berlin, became the 3rd Army
Army
on mobilisation (2 August 1914) III Army
Army
Inspectorate: Headquartered in Hannover, became the 2nd Army on mobilisation (2 August 1914) IV Army
Army
Inspectorate: Headquartered in Munich, became the 6th Army
Army
on mobilisation (2 August 1914) V Army
Army
Inspectorate: Headquartered in Karlsruhe, became the 7th Army on mobilisation (2 August 1914) VI Army
Army
Inspectorate: Headquartered in Stuttgart, became the 4th Army on mobilisation (2 August 1914) VII Army
Army
Inspectorate: Headquartered in Berlin, became the 5th Army
Army
on mobilisation (2 August 1914) VIII Army
Army
Inspectorate: Headquartered in Saarbrücken, became the 1st Army
Army
on mobilisation (2 August 1914)

Corps[edit] The basic organizational formation was the army corps (Armeekorps). The corps consisted of two or more divisions and various support troops, covering a geographical area. The corps was also responsible for maintaining the reserves and Landwehr
Landwehr
in the corps area. By 1914, there were 21 corps areas under Prussian jurisdiction and three Bavarian army corps. Besides the regional corps, there was also a Guard Corps
Corps
(Gardecorps), which controlled the elite Prussian Guard units. A corps usually included a light infantry (Jäger) battalion, a heavy artillery (Fußartillerie) battalion, an engineer battalion, a telegraph battalion and a trains battalion. Some corps areas also disposed of fortress troops; each of the 25 corps had a Field Aviation Unit (Feldflieger Abteilung) attached to it normally equipped with six unarmed "A" or "B" class unarmed two-seat observation aircraft apiece.[6] In wartime, the army corps became a mobile tactical formation and four Höhere Kavallerie-Kommando (Higher Cavalry Commands) were formed from the Cavalry Inspectorate, the equivalent of corps, being made up of two divisions of cavalry. The areas formerly covered by the corps each became the responsibility of a Wehrkreis (Military District, sometimes translated as Corps Area). The Military Districts were to supervise the training and enlistment of reservists and new recruits. Originally each Military District was linked to an army corps; thus Wehrkreis I took over the area that I. Armeekorps had been responsible for and sent replacements to the same formation. The first sixteen Reserve Corps
Corps
raised followed the same pattern; X. Reserve-Korps was made up of reservists from the same area as X. Armeekorps. However, these links between rear areas and front line units were broken as the war went on and later corps were raised with troops from all over Germany. Division[edit] The basic tactical formation was the division. A standard Imperial German division consisted of two infantry brigades of two regiments each, a cavalry brigade of two regiments, and an artillery brigade of two regiments. One of the divisions in a corps area usually also managed the corps Landwehr
Landwehr
region (Landwehrbezirk). In 1914, besides the Guard Corps
Corps
(two Guard divisions and a Guard cavalry division), there were 42 regular divisions in the Prussian Army
Army
(including four Saxon divisions and two Württemberg divisions), and six divisions in the Bavarian Army. These divisions were all mobilized in August 1914. They were reorganized, receiving engineer companies and other support units from their corps, and giving up most of their cavalry to form cavalry divisions. Reserve divisions were also formed, Landwehr
Landwehr
brigades were aggregated into divisions, and other divisions were formed from replacement (Ersatz) units. As World War I
World War I
progressed, additional divisions were formed, and by wars' end, 251 divisions had been formed or reformed in the German Army's structure. Regiment[edit] The regiment was the basic combat unit as well as the recruiting base for soldiers. When inducted, a soldier entered a regiment, usually through its replacement battalion, and received his basic training. There were three basic types of regiment: infantry, cavalry and artillery. Other specialties, such as pioneers (combat engineers) and signal troops, were organized into smaller support units. Regiments also carried the traditions of the army, in many cases stretching back into the 17th and 18th centuries. After World War I, regimental traditions were carried forward in the Reichswehr
Reichswehr
and its successor, the Wehrmacht, but the chain of tradition was broken in 1945 as West German and East German units did not carry forward pre-1945 traditions. National contingents[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)

The German Empire
German Empire
was formed by 38 duchies and kingdoms each with their traditions of warfare. Although the new army of the united German Empire
German Empire
was nominally "German", it was formed from separate national contingents which behaved autonomously:

The Royal Saxon Army...was the national army of the Kingdom of Saxony one of the four states of the German Reich to retain its own armed forces. — Lucas & Schmieschek p. 8 (2015)

Nevertheless, in times of war, all of these would pledge allegiance to the Kaiser
Kaiser
and the German nation.[7] They did however remain organizationally distinct, being able to raise units of their own without assistance from the dominating Prussians. In one instance, Freiherr von Sonden (from Württemberg) was able to "quite legitimately send a request directly to the Ministry of War in Stuttgart
Stuttgart
for the raising of a new artillery regiment".[8] Regiments and units from separate constituents were also raised locally and often numbered independently from each other - for example, there was (among others) both a Bavarian 1st Infantry Regiment and a Württemberger 1st Infantry Regiment.[citation needed] Reserve system[edit] When the British decided to reform their army in the 1860s, they surveyed the major European forces and decided that the Prussian system was the best one. That system was continued into the Imperial Army
Army
after 1871 and resulted in a modest cadre of professional officers and sergeants, and a large reserve force that could be quickly mobilised at the start of a war. The British could not use the system because they rejected conscription. The Japanese, however, were also observing the reserve system and, unlike the British, decided to copy the Prussian model.[9] Barnett explains that every young man was drafted at age 18, with the upper-class becoming officers:

the Prussian system... was based on service of only three years with the colors... and four years in the reserve. The Prussian standing army had become simply a training cadre for the intake of conscripts. The Prussian army's organization for peace and war was virtually the same. Prussia
Prussia
was divided into army-corps districts for the purposes both of administration and of recruitment. On the outbreak of war the command organizations of the district became that of a corps in the field. Localization of the Army
Army
and its recruitment gave the districts pride and interest in their 'own' corps.[10]

Industrial base[edit] Germany had the largest industrial base in Europe, having surpassed Britain by 1900. The Army
Army
closely cooperated with industry, especially in the World War, with particular focus on the very rapidly changing aircraft industry. The Army
Army
set prices and labor exemptions, regulated the supply of credit and raw materials, limited patent rights so as to allow cross-licensing among firms, and supervised management–labor relationships. The result was very rapid expansion and a high output of high quality aircraft, as well as high wages that attracted the best machinists. Apart from aircraft, the Army's regulation of the rest of the war economy was inefficient.[11] Air Force[edit] The Deutsche Luftstreitkräfte, known before October 1916 as Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches (Imperial German Flying Troops),[12] was the over-land air arm of the German Army
German Army
during World War I (1914–1918). Although its name actually means something very close to "The German Air Force", it remained an integral part of the German Army
German Army
for the duration of the war. The Kaiserliche Marine
Kaiserliche Marine
naval forces of the German Empire
German Empire
had their own, separate Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation forces, apart from the Luftstreitkräfte
Luftstreitkräfte
of the Army. Ranks of the Imperial German Army[edit] The German Army
German Army
from 1871 to 1914 inherited the various traditions and military ranks of its constituent states, thus becoming a truly federal armed service. Enlisted (Mannschaften/Gemeine) ranks[edit]

Musketeer
Musketeer
(Musketier, Prussian army infantry regiments), Infantryman (Infanterist, Bavarian army infantry regiments), Soldier (Soldat, Saxon army infantry regiments), Gunner (Kanonier, foot artillery), Pioneer (Pionier, pioneer branch). Other unit-specific enlisted ranks were: Fusilier
Fusilier
(Füsilier), Grenadier
Grenadier
(Grenadier), Huntsman otherwise Light-Infantryman (Jäger), Dragoon
Dragoon
(Dragoner), Hussar
Hussar
(Husar), Cuirassier
Cuirassier
(Kürassier), Uhlan
Uhlan
(Ulan), Fusilier
Fusilier
Guard (Garde-Füsilier), Grenadier
Grenadier
Guard (Garde-Grenadier), etc. Lance Corporal
Lance Corporal
(Gefreiter); up until 1918 the only rank (with exception of Obergefreiter in the foot artillery) to which an enlisted soldier could be promoted, the rank was a deputy rank to the Corporal (Unteroffizier)[13] rank.[14] Senior Lance Corporal
Lance Corporal
(Obergefreiter); established in the Prussian Army
Army
from 1846 to 1853, reestablished in 1859, then in foot artillery only, replacing the artillery Bombardier rank that had been introduced in 1730.[14]

Additionally, the following voluntary enlistees were distinguished:

One-Year Volunteer Enlistee (Einjährig-Freiwilliger): despite the name, one-year volunteers were actually conscripts who served a short-term form of active military service, open for enlistees up to the age of 25. Such enlisted soldiers were usually high school graduates (Matura, Abitur), who would opt to serve a one-year term rather than the regular two or three-year conscription term, with free selection of their chosen military service branch and unit, but throughout were obligated to equip and subsist themselves at entirely their own cost. In today's monetary value, this could at bare minimum cost some 10,000 euro, which purposely reserved this path open to officer-material sons from mostly affluent social class families wishing to pursue the Reserve-Officer path; it was the specific intention of Wilhelm II that such Reserve-Officer career path should only be open to members of so-called "officer-material" social classes.[15] On absolving their primary recruit training and shorter military service term, those aspiring to become Reserve-Officers would have to qualify and achieve suitability for promotion to the Gefreiter rank and then would continue to receive further specialized instruction until the end of their one-year term, usually attaining and leaving as surplus Corporals (überzählige Unteroffiziere) (Reservists), with the opportunity to advance further as reservists. Enlistees who did not aspire to officer grade would leave at the end of their one-year term as Gemeine[16] (Ordinary soldier) enlisted rank (for example Musketier or Infanterist) and a six-year reserve duty obligation.[15] Eligibility for this specific one-year path of military service was a privilege approved upon examining the enlistee's suitability and academic qualifications. Long-Term Volunteer Enlistee "Capitulant" (Kapitulant): enlisted soldiers who had already absolved their regular two or three-year military conscription term and had now volunteered to continue serving for further terms, minimum was 4 years, generally up to 12 years.[17][18]

Note: Einjährig-Freiwilliger and Kapitulant were not ranks as such during this specific period of use, but voluntary military enlistee designations. They, however, wore a specific uniform distinction (twisted wool piping along their shoulder epaulette edging for Einjährig-Freiwilliger, the Kapitulant a narrow band across their lower shoulder epaulette) in the colours of their respective nation state. This distinction was never removed throughout their military service nor during any rank grade advancements. Non-commissioned officers / Unteroffiziere[edit]

Late WWI uniform of the 73rd Fusilier
Fusilier
Regiment at the Imperial War Museum in London

Junior NCOs (NCOs without Sword Knot) / Unteroffizier ohne Portepee[edit]

Corporal/ Sub-Officer (Unteroffizier) Sergeant

Senior NCOs (NCOs with Sword Knot) / Unteroffizier mit Portepee[edit]

Sergeant
Sergeant
Major
Major
2nd class (Infantry: Vice-Feldwebel, Cavalry and Artillery: Vizewachtmeister/Vice-Wachtmeister) – rank held by reserve officer candidates after they passed lieutenant's examination Sergeant- Major
Major
(Infantry: Feldwebel
Feldwebel
(i.e. Etatmäßiger Feldwebel: CSM officially listed on the regiment's payroll, i.e. Etat), Cavalry and Artillery: (Etatmäßiger) Wachtmeister)

Warrant Officers and Officer Cadets[edit]

Cadet
Cadet
(Fahnenjunker, ranking between Sergeant
Sergeant
and Vizefeldwebel) – served as cadets in the various military academies and schools. Ensign
Ensign
(Fähnrich, ranking between Vize- Feldwebel
Feldwebel
and Etatmäßiger Feldwebel) Deputy Officer (Offizierstellvertreter, ranking above Etatmäßiger Feldwebel) Acting Lieutenant (Feldwebelleutnant, ranking as youngest 2nd Lieutenant, but without officer's commission and still member of the NCO's Mess until 1917)

Officer corps[edit] Critics long believed that the Army's officer corps was heavily dominated by Junker aristocrats, so that commoners were shunted into low-prestige branches, such as the heavy artillery or supply. However, by the 1890s, the top ranks were opened to highly talented commoners.[19][20] Subalterns / Subalternoffiziere[edit]

2nd Lieutenant ( Leutnant
Leutnant
in the infantry, cavalry and other arms, Feuerwerksleutnant in the artillery) First Lieutenant (Oberleutnant, Feuerwerksoberleutnant) Staff Captain (Infantry and Artillery: Hauptmann/Kapitän II Klasse, Cavalry: Rittmeister
Rittmeister
II Klasse) Captain (Infantry and Artillery: Hauptmann/Kapitän I Klasse, Cavalry: Rittmeister
Rittmeister
I Klasse)

Staff Officers / Stabsoffiziere[edit]

Major Lieutenant Colonel
Colonel
(Oberstleutnant) Colonel
Colonel
(Oberst)

General Officers / Generäle[edit]

Major
Major
General (Generalmajor) Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
(Generalleutnant) General of the Infantry, General of the Cavalry, General of the Artillery (General der Infanterie, General der Kavallerie, General der Artillerie) Colonel
Colonel
General (Generaloberst) Colonel
Colonel
General in the rank of General Field Marshal (Generaloberst mit dem Rang als Generalfeldmarschall) General Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall)

Dissolution[edit] The Imperial Army
Army
was abolished on 6 March 1919, and the provisional Reichswehr
Reichswehr
was created.[21] See also[edit]

German Empire
German Empire
portal Military of Germany portal

German General Staff Oberste Heeresleitung German Army Prussian Army Bavarian Army Reichswehr Wehrmacht German Army
German Army
order of battle (1914) German Army
German Army
order of battle, Western Front (1918) All Quiet on the Western Front
All Quiet on the Western Front
(novel set in World War I
World War I
about German Army
Army
comrades)

Notes[edit]

^ The conventions were:

Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde (bzw. Preußen) und Sachsen vom 7. Februar 1867 Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Hessen vom 13. Juni 1871 (Ersatz für die vom 7. April 1867) Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Mecklenburg-Schwerin vom 19. Dezember 1872 (Ersatz für die von 24. Juni 1868) Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Mecklenburg-Strelitz vom 23. Dezember 1872 (Ersatz für die vom 9. November 1867) Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Oldenburg vom 15. Juni 1867 Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Braunschweig vom 9./18. März 1886 Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde einerseits und Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, Sachsen-Altenburg, Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha, Sachsen-Meiningen, Reuß ältere Linie, Reuß jüngere Linie und Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt vom 15. September 1873 Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Anhalt vom 16. September 1873 (Ersatz für die vom 28. Juni 1867) Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Schwarzburg-Sondershausen vom 17. September 1873 (Ersatz für die vom 28. Juni 1867) Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Lippe vom 14. November 1873 (Ersatz für die vom 26. Juni 1867) Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Schaumburg-Lippe vom 25. September 1873 (Ersatz für die vom 30. Juni 1867) Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Waldeck vom 24. November 1877 (Ersatz für die vom 6. August 1867) Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Lübeck vom 27. Juni 1867 Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Bremen vom 27. Juni 1867 Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Hamburg vom 23. Juli 1867

^ The conventions were:

Artikel III. § 5 of the Bundesvertrag vom 23. November 1870 mit Bayern Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Baden vom 25. November 1870 Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Württemberg vom 25. November 1870

References[edit]

^ documentArchiv.de – Verfassung des Norddeutschen Bundes (16.04.1867) ^ documentArchiv.de – Gesetz, betreffend die Verpflichtung zum Kriegsdienste (09.11.1867) ^ documentArchiv.de – Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs ^ Militär-Strafgesetzbuch für das Deutsche Reich ^ Günter Wegner, Stellenbesetzung der deutschen Heere 1815–1939. (Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück, 1993), Bd. 1, pp.33–36 ^ van Wyngarden, G (2006). Early German Aces of World War I, Osprey Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-84176-997-5 ^ Sheldon, Fighting the Somme, 2017, p. 34 ^ Sheldon 2017, pp. 34–35 ^ Xavier Bara, Xavier (2012). "The Kishū Army
Army
and the Setting of the Prussian Model in Feudal Japan, 1860–1871". War in History. 19 (2): 153–171.  ^ Correlli Barnett, "Britain and her Army
Army
1509–1970: A Military, Political and Social Survey" (1970) p. 285 ^ Morrow, John H., Jr (1977). "Industrialization Mobilization in World War I: The Prussian Army
Army
and the Aircraft Industry". Journal of Economic History. 37 (1): 3651. JSTOR 2119443.  ^ Grey and Thetford, P.xxix ^ Duden; Origin and meaning of "Korporal", in German. [1] ^ a b "Gefreiter" – Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste, Erste Section, A-G, (Universal Encyclopaedia of the Sciences and Arts, First Section, A-G), Author: Johann Samuel Ersch and Johann Gottfried Gruber, Publisher: F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1852, Page 471-472, in German. [2] ^ a b Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4th Edition, Volume 6, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1885–1892, Page 659. in German ^ Duden; Definition of "Gemeine", in German. [3] ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4th Edition, Volume 10, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1885–1892, Page 116, in German ^ Duden; Definition of "Kapitulant", in German. [4] ^ Ulrich Trumpener, "Junkers and Others: The Rise of Commoners in the Prussian Army, 1871–1914," Canadian Journal of History (1979) 14#1 pp 29–47 ^ Dennis E. Showalter, "The Political Soldiers of Bismarck's Germany: Myths and Realities," German Studies Review (1994) 17#1 pp. 59–77 in JSTOR ^ Edmonds, James (1987). The Occupation of the Rhineland. London: HMSO. p. 213. ISBN 0-11-290454-8. 

Further reading[edit]

Brose, Eric Dorn. The Kaiser's army: the politics of military technology in Germany during the machine age, 1870–1918 (Oxford University Press, 2004) online Citino, Robert M.. The German way of war: from the Thirty Years' War to the Third Reich (University Press of Kansas, 2005) Clemente, Steven E. For King and Kaiser! The Making of the Prussian Army
Army
Officer, 1860–1914 (1992) online Coetzee, Marilyn Shevin. The German Army
German Army
League: Popular Nationalism in Wilhelmine Germany (Oxford University Press, 1990) Craig, Gordon A. The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1640–1945 (Oxford University Press, 1964) Demeter, K. The German Officer Corps
Corps
in Society and State 1650–1945 (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1965) Feldman, Gerald. Army, Industry and Labour in Germany, 1914–1918 (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014) Foley, Robert T. "Institutionalized innovation: The German army and the changing nature of war 1871–1914." RUSI Journal 147.2 (2002): 84–90. online Herrera, Geoffrey L. "Inventing the Railroad and Rifle Revolution: Information, Military Innovation and the Rise of Germany." Journal of Strategic Studies (2004) 27#2 pp: 243–271. online Hull, Isabel V. Absolute destruction: Military culture and the practices of war in imperial Germany (Cornell University Press, 2004) Jackman, Steven D. "Shoulder to Shoulder: Close Control and" Old Prussian Drill" in German Offensive Infantry Tactics, 1871–1914." Journal of Military History 68.1 (2004): 73–104. online Kitchen, Martin. A Military History of Germany: From the Eighteenth Century to the Present Day (Indiana University Press, 1975) Kitchen, Martin. The German Officer Corps
Corps
(Oxford UP, 1968) Mitchell, Allan. The great train race: railways and the Franco-German rivalry, 1815–1914 (Berghahn Books, 2000) Murphy, Patrick. "The Effect of Industrialization and Technology on Warfare: 1854–1878." (2006) online Muth, Jörg. Command Culture: Officer Education in the US Army
Army
and the German Armed Forces, 1901–1940, and the Consequences for World War II (University of North Texas Press, 2011) Showalter, Dennis. "From Deterrence to Doomsday Machine: The German Way of War, 1890–1914." Journal of Military History (2000) 64#3 pp: 679–710. in JSTOR Showalter, Dennis E. Railroads and rifles: soldiers, technology, and the unification of Germany (Archon Books, 1975) Showalter, Dennis E. " Army
Army
and Society in Imperial Germany: The Pains of Modernization." Journal of Contemporary History (1983): 583–618. in JSTOR Stevenson, David. "Fortifications and the European Military Balance before 1914." Journal of Strategic Studies (2012) 35#6 pp: 829–859. Stone, James. The war scare of 1875: Bismarck and Europe in the mid-1870s (Steiner, 2010) Stone, James. "Spies and diplomats in Bismarck’s Germany: collaboration between military intelligence and the Foreign Office, 1871–1881." Journal of Intelligence History (2014) 13#1 pp: 22–40.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Deutsches Heer.

WWI German Army
German Army
Artillery & Infantry Attack Reenactment (video)

v t e

Divisions of the Imperial German Army

Standing

Guards

1st 2nd Cavalry

Regular

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st 32nd 33rd 34th 35th 36th 37th 38th 39th 40th 41st 42nd

Bavarian

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th

Raised in World War I

Guards

3rd 4th 5th 1st Guards Reserve 2nd Guards Reserve Guards Ersatz

Cavalry

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th Bavarian

Infantry

50th 52nd 54th 56th 58th 83rd 84th 86th 87th 88th 89th 91st 92nd 93rd 94th 95th 96th 101st 103rd 105th 107th 108th 109th 111th 113th 115th 117th 119th 121st 123rd 183rd 185th 187th 192nd 195th 197th 199th 200th 201st 202nd 203rd 204th 205th 206th 207th 208th 211th 212th 213th 214th 215th 216th 217th 218th 219th 220th 221st 222nd 223rd 224th 225th 226th 227th 228th 231st 232nd 233rd 234th 235th 236th 237th 238th 239th 240th 241st 242nd 243rd 255th 301st 302nd 303rd

Reserve

1st 3rd 5th 6th 7th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 28th 30th 33rd 35th 36th 39th 43rd 44th 45th 46th 47th 48th 49th 50th 51st 52nd 53rd 54th 75th 76th 77th 78th 79th 80th 81st 82nd

Landwehr

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 25th 26th 38th 44th 45th 46th 47th 48th 85th

Ersatz

4th 5th 8th 10th 19th

Naval

Naval 1st 2nd 3rd

Bavarian infantry

10th 11th 12th 14th 15th 16th

Bavarian reserve

1st 5th 6th 8th 9th 30th 39th

Bavarian Landwehr and Ersatz

1st 2nd 6th Ersatz

Other

Alpenkorps Deutsche Jäger Ostsee (Baltic Sea)

Corps
Corps
of the Imperial German Army

Regular

Guards I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX XXI

Reserve

Guards I III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XII XIV XV XVII XVIII XXII XXIII XXIV XXV XXVI XXVII XXXVIII XXXIX XXXX XXXXI

Bavarian

I II III I Reserve II Reserve XV Reserve

Cavalry

I II III IV V VI Schmettow

Genkdo z.b.V

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68

Other

Landwehr Ersatz Naval

Army
Army
level commands of the Imperial German Army
German Army
in World War I

Numbered Armies

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 14th 17th 18th 19th

Named Armies

Bug Niemen North South High Command of Coastal Defence

Armee-Abteilung

A (Falkenhausen) B (Gaede) C (Strantz) D (Scholtz) Gronau Lauenstein Woyrsch

Coordinates: 50°41′56″N 7°02′29″E / 50.6990°N 7.0415°E / 50.

.