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The impenitent thief is a character described in the New Testament account of the Crucifixion of Jesus. In the Gospel
Gospel
narrative, two criminal bandits are crucified alongside Jesus. In the Gospels of Mark and Matthew, they join the crowd in mocking him. In the version of the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke, however, one taunts Jesus
Jesus
about not saving himself, and the other (known as the penitent thief) asks for mercy. In apocryphal writings, the impenitent thief is given the name Gestas, which first appears in the Gospel
Gospel
of Nicodemus, while his companion is called Dismas. Pious folk beliefs later embellished that Gestas was on the cross to the left of Jesus
Jesus
and Dismas was on the cross to the right of Jesus. In Jacobus de Voragine's Golden Legend, the name of the impenitent thief is given as Gesmas. The impenitent thief is sometimes referred to as the "bad thief" in contrast to the good thief. The apocryphal Arabic Infancy Gospel
Arabic Infancy Gospel
refers to Gestas and Dismas as Dumachus and Titus, respectively. According to tradition – seen, for instance, in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's The Golden Legend[1] – Dumachus was one of a band of robbers who attacked Saint Joseph
Saint Joseph
and the Holy Family
Holy Family
on their flight into Egypt.

Contents

1 New Testament narrative 2 Filipino idiom 3 See also 4 References

New Testament narrative[edit] The earliest version of the story is considered to be that in the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark,[2][3][4] usually dated to around AD 70.[5][6][2] The author says that two bandits were crucified with Jesus, one on each side of him. The passers by and chief priests mock Jesus
Jesus
for claiming to be the Messiah and yet being unable to save himself, and the two crucified with him join in. (Mark 15:27-32)[3] Some texts include a reference to the Book of Isaiah, citing this as a fulfilment of prophecy (Isaiah 53:12: "And he ... was numbered among the transgressors"). The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew, written around the year 85,[2] repeats the same details.[7] (Matthew 27:38-44) In the Gospel of Luke
Gospel of Luke
version however, from around 80-90,[8][2] the details are varied: one of the bandits rebukes the other for mocking Jesus, and asks Jesus
Jesus
to remember him "when you come into your kingdom". Jesus
Jesus
replies by promising him that he would be with him the same day in Paradise. (Luke 23:33-45)[3] Tradition has given this bandit the name of the penitent thief, and the other the impenitent thief. The Gospel
Gospel
of John, thought to be written about AD 90-95,[2] also says that Jesus
Jesus
was crucified with two others, but in this account they are not described and they do not speak. (John 19:18-25) Filipino idiom[edit] Among Filipino Catholics, the name is popularly exclaimed as Hudas, Barabas, Hestas!, a term invoked as an exclamation of disappointment or chastisement, mentioning Gestas along with two other individuals Judas Iscariot
Judas Iscariot
and Barabbas. The phrase gained prominence in the 1973 Filipino television series John En Marsha
John En Marsha
(1973–1990), starring actor Dolphy
Dolphy
along with actresses Nida Blanca
Nida Blanca
and Dely Atay-Atayan.[9] See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gestas.

List of names for the Biblical nameless Life of Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament Penitent thief
Penitent thief
– Dismas, the other thief crucified alongside Jesus

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne. 

v t e

New Testament people

Jesus
Jesus
Christ

In Christianity Historical Life in the New Testament

Gospels

Individuals

Alphaeus Anna the Prophetess Annas Barabbas Bartimaeus Blind man (Bethsaida) Caiaphas Man born blind ("Celidonius") Cleopas Clopas Devil Penitent thief
Penitent thief
("Dismas") Elizabeth Gabriel Impenitent thief
Impenitent thief
("Gestas") Jairus' daughter Joanna John the Baptist Joseph Joseph of Arimathea Joses Jude Lazarus Legion Luke Lysanias Malchus Martha Mary, mother of Jesus Mary Magdalene Mary, mother of James Mary of Bethany Mary of Clopas Naked fugitive Son of Nain's widow Nathanael Nicodemus ( Nicodemus
Nicodemus
ben Gurion) Salome Samaritan woman Satan Simeon Simon, brother of Jesus Simon of Cyrene Simon the Leper Simon the Pharisee Susanna Syrophoenician woman Theophilus Zacchaeus Zebedee Zechariah

Groups

Angels Jesus's brothers Demons Disciples Evangelists Female disciples of Jesus God-fearers Herodians Magi Myrrhbearers Nameless Pharisees Proselytes Sadducees Samaritans Sanhedrin Scribes Seventy disciples Shepherds Zealots

Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James of Alphaeus (James the Less) James of Zebedee John

Evangelist Patmos "Disciple whom Jesus
Jesus
loved"

Judas Iscariot Jude Thaddeus Matthew Philip Simon Peter Simon the Zealot Thomas

Acts

Aeneas Agabus Ananias (Damascus) Ananias (Judaea) Ananias son of Nedebeus Apollos Aquila Aristarchus Barnabas Blastus Cornelius Demetrius Dionysius Dorcas Elymas Egyptian Ethiopian eunuch Eutychus Gamaliel James, brother of Jesus Jason Joseph Barsabbas Judas Barsabbas Judas of Galilee Lucius Luke Lydia Manaen (John) Mark

Evangelist cousin of Barnabas

Mary, mother of (John) Mark Matthias Mnason Nicanor Nicholas Parmenas Paul Philip Priscilla Prochorus Publius Rhoda Sapphira Sceva Seven Deacons Silas / Silvanus Simeon Niger Simon Magus Sopater Sosthenes Stephen Theudas Timothy Titus Trophimus Tychicus Zenas

Romans Herod's family

Gospels

Antipas Archelaus Herod the Great Herodias Longinus Philip Pilate Pilate's wife Quirinius Salome Tiberius

Acts

Agrippa Agrippa II Berenice Cornelius Drusilla Felix Festus Gallio Lysias Paullus

Epistles

Achaicus Alexander Andronicus Archippus Aretas IV Carpus Claudia Crescens Demas Diotrephes Epaphras Epaphroditus Erastus Eunice Euodia and Syntyche Herodion Hymenaeus Jesus
Jesus
Justus John the Presbyter Junia Lois Mary Michael Nymphas Olympas Onesimus Onesiphorus Pudens Philemon Philetus Phoebe Quartus Sosipater Tertius

Revelation

Antipas Four Horsemen Apollyon Two witnesses Woman Beast Three Angels Whore of Babylon

References[edit]

^ The Golden Legend ^ a b c d e Professor Bart D. Ehrman, The Historical Jesus, Part I, p. 6, The Teaching Company, 2000. Quote: "Scholars are fairly unanimous that they were written some decades after Jesus’ death: Mark, AD 65–70; Matthew and Luke, AD 80–85; and John, AD 90–95." ^ a b c Bart D. Ehrman (2008). Whose Word is It?: The Story Behind who Changed the New Testament and why. A&C Black. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-84706-314-4.  ^ Ehrman (2000: 5). Quote: "Maybe we should begin with the earliest Gospel
Gospel
to be written, which most scholars agree was the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark." ^ Witherington (2001), p. 31: 'from 66 to 70, and probably closer to the latter' ^ Hooker (1991), p. 8: 'the Gospel
Gospel
is usually dated between AD 65 and 75.' ^ Harrington (1991), p. 8. ^ Davies (2004), p. xii. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0439933/

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