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The United States Immigration
Immigration
and Naturalization
Naturalization
Service (INS) was an agency of the U.S. Department of Labor from 1933 to 1940 and the U.S. Department of Justice from 1940 to 2003. Referred to by some as former INS[2] and by others as legacy INS, the agency ceased to exist under that name on March 1, 2003, when most of its functions were transferred to three new entities – U.S. Citizenship and Immigration
Immigration
Services (USCIS), U.S. Immigration
Immigration
and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) – within the newly created Department of Homeland Security, as part of a major government reorganization following the September 11 attacks of 2001. Prior to 1933, there were separate offices administering immigration and naturalization matters, known as the Bureau of Immigration
Immigration
and the Bureau of Naturalization, respectively. The INS was established on June 10, 1933, merging these previously separate areas of administration. In 1890, the federal government, rather than the individual states, regulated immigration into the United States,[3] and the Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1891 established a Commissioner of Immigration
Immigration
in the Treasury Department. Reflecting changing governmental concerns, immigration was transferred to the purview of the United States Department of Commerce and Labor
United States Department of Commerce and Labor
after 1903 and the Department of Labor after 1913.[4] In 1940, with increasing concern about national security, immigration and naturalization was organized under the authority of the Department of Justice.[5] In 2003 the administration of immigration services, including permanent residence, naturalization, asylum, and other functions, became the responsibility of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services (BCIS), which existed under that name only for a short time before changing to its current name, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). The investigative and enforcement functions of the INS (including investigations, deportation, and intelligence) were combined with the U.S. Customs investigators to create U.S. Immigration
Immigration
and Customs Enforcement (ICE). The border functions of the INS, which included the Border Patrol and INS Inspectors, were combined with U.S. Customs Inspectors to create U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP).

Contents

1 Mission 2 Structure 3 History 4 Films 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

7.1 Opinions and experiences with the INS

Mission[edit] The INS ( Immigration
Immigration
and Naturalization
Naturalization
Service) administered federal immigration laws and regulations including the Immigration
Immigration
and Nationality Act (Title 8, United States Code). Its officers inspected foreigners arriving at an official Port of Entry (POE), detecting and deterring illegal entry between the ports (with assistance of the Border Patrol, a component of the INS) and by sea, and conducting investigations of criminal and administrative violations of the Act. The INS also adjudicated applications for permanent residency ("green cards"), change of status, naturalization (the process by which an alien (foreign-born person) becomes a citizen), and similar matters. Structure[edit] At the head of the INS was a commissioner appointed by the President who reported to the Attorney General in the Department of Justice. The INS worked closely with the United Nations, the Department of State, and the Department of Health and Human Services. The INS was a very large and complex organization that had four main divisions—Programs, Field Operations, Policy and Planning, and Management—that were responsible for operations and management. The operational functions of the INS included the Programs and Field Operations divisions. The Programs division was responsible for handling all the functions involved with enforcement and examinations, including the arrest, detaining, and deportation of illegal immigrants as well as controlling illegal and legal entry. The Field Operations division was responsible for overseeing INS' many offices operating throughout the country and the world. The Field Operations division implemented policies and handled tasks for its three regional offices, which in turn oversaw 33 districts and 21 border areas throughout the country. Internationally, the Field Operations division oversaw the Headquarters Office of International Affairs which in turn oversaw 16 offices outside the country. Managerial functions of the INS included the Policy and Planning and Management divisions. The Office of Policy and Planning coordinated all information for the INS and communicated with other cooperating government agencies and the public. The office was divided into three areas: the Policy Division; the Planning Division; and the Evaluation and Research Center. The second managerial division, called the Management division, was responsible for maintaining the overall mission of the INS throughout its many offices and providing administrative services to these offices. These duties were handled by the offices of Information Resources Management, Finance, Human Resources and Administration, and Equal Employment Opportunity. History[edit] Shortly after the U.S. Civil War, some states started to pass their own immigration laws, which prompted the U.S. Supreme Court to rule in 1875 that immigration was a federal responsibility.[6] The Immigration Act of 1891 established an Office of the Superintendent of Immigration within the Treasury Department.[7] This office was responsible for admitting, rejecting, and processing all immigrants seeking admission to the United States and for implementing national immigration policy. 'Immigrant Inspectors', as they were called then, were stationed at major U.S. ports of entry collecting manifests of arriving passengers. Its largest station was located on Ellis Island
Ellis Island
in New York harbor. Among other things, a 'head tax' of fifty cents was collected on each immigrant. Paralleling some current immigration concerns, in the early 1900s Congress's primary interest in immigration was to protect American workers and wages: the reason it had become a federal concern in the first place. This made immigration more a matter of commerce than revenue. In 1903, Congress transferred the Bureau of Immigration
Immigration
to the newly created (now-defunct) Department of Commerce and Labor, and on June 10, 1933 the agency was established as the Immigration
Immigration
and Naturalization
Naturalization
Service.[1] After World War I, Congress attempted to stem the flow of immigrants, still mainly coming from Europe, by passing a law in 1921 and the Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1924 limiting the number of newcomers by assigning a quota to each nationality based upon its representation in previous U.S. Census figures. Each year, the U.S. State Department issued a limited number of visas; only those immigrants who could present valid visas were permitted entry. There were a number of predecessor agencies to INS between 1891 and 1933. The Immigration
Immigration
and Naturalization
Naturalization
Service (INS) was formed in 1933 by a merger of the Bureau of Immigration
Immigration
and the Bureau of Naturalization.[7] Both those Bureaus, as well as the newly created INS, were controlled by the Department of Labor. President Franklin Roosevelt moved the INS from the Department of Labor to the Department of Justice in 1940,[7] citing a need for "more effective control over aliens" as the United States moved closer to joining World War II.[8] By July 1941, Justice Department officials had decided that the INS would oversee the internment of enemy aliens arrested by the FBI should the U.S. enter the war, and immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor these plans went into effect. By December 10, three days after the attack, the INS had 1,291 Japanese, 857 German and 147 Italian nationals in custody.[9] These "enemy aliens," many of whom had resided in the United States for decades, were arrested without warrants or formal charges. They were held in immigration stations and various requisitioned sites, often for months, before receiving a hearing (without benefit of legal counsel or defense witnesses) and being released, paroled or transferred to a Department of Justice internment camp.[9] Starting in 1942, the INS also interned German, Italian and Japanese Latin Americans deported from Peru and other countries. It is estimated that 17,477 persons of Japanese ancestry, 11,507 of German ancestry, 2,730 of Italian ancestry, and 185 others were interned by the Immigration
Immigration
and Naturalization
Naturalization
Service during the war.[10] In November 1979, Attorney General Benjamin Civiletti
Benjamin Civiletti
announced that INS "raids" would only take place at places of work, not at residences where illegal aliens were suspected of living.[11] On 25 June 2012, the United States Supreme Court handed down a ruling that upheld the practice of requiring immigration status checks during routine police stops in a 5-3 majority vote. [12] Films[edit] The work of the immigration service has been dramatized or depicted in literature, music, art, and theatre. Films using its work as a theme include The Immigrant (1917), The Strong Man
The Strong Man
1926), Ellis Island (1936), Paddy O'Day
Paddy O'Day
(1936), Gateway (1938), Secret Service of the Air (1939), Exile Express
Exile Express
(1939), Five Came Back
Five Came Back
(1939), Illegal Entry (1949), Deported (1950), and Gambling House (1951). See also[edit]

Government of the United States portal

Immigration Asylum in the United States Well-Founded Fear

References[edit]

^ a b "Records of the Immigration
Immigration
and Naturalization
Naturalization
Service". National Archives and Records Administration. 1995. Retrieved July 15, 2010. Established: In the Department of Labor by EO 6166, June 10, 1933.)  ^ What's correct, the term legacy INS or the term the former INS? ^ Ellis Island, National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior ^ Darrell Hevenor Smith and H. Guy Herring, The Bureau of Immigration: Its History, Activities, and Organization (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1924). ^ Sharon D. Masanz, History of the Immigration
Immigration
and Naturalization Service: A Congressional Research Service Report (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1980) ^ Chy Lung v. Freeman ^ a b c Records of the Immigration
Immigration
and Naturalization
Naturalization
Service, National Archives. Accessed July 15, 2010 ^ "The President Presents Plan No. V to Carry Out the Provisions of the Reorganization Act," The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1940 Volume (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941) pp 223-29. ^ a b Mak, Stephen. " Immigration
Immigration
and Naturalization
Naturalization
Service". Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 30, 2014.  ^ Kashima, Tetsuden. Judgement Without Trial: Japanese American Imprisonment During World War II
World War II
(Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003), pp 124-25. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 271. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.  ^ Barnes, R. (25 June 2012). "Supreme Court Rejects much of Arizona immigration law". The Washington Post.  access-date= requires url= (help)

External links[edit]

Official Site (2000–2003) (Archive) History site Department of Homeland Security (DHS) U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
(USCIS) of the DHS U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
(ICE) of the DHS U.S. Customs and Border Protection
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
(CBP) of the DHS

Opinions and experiences with the INS[edit]

Well-Founded Fear at Epidavros Well-Founded Fear POV archive site U.S. Immigration
Immigration
Life

v t e

Immigration
Immigration
to the United States and related topics

Relevant colonial era, United States and international laws

Colonial era

Nationality law in the American Colonies Plantation Act 1740

18th century

Naturalization
Naturalization
Act 1790 / 1795 / 1798

19th century

Naturalization
Naturalization
Law 1802 Civil Rights Act of 1866 14th Amendment (1868) Naturalization
Naturalization
Act 1870 Page Act (1875) Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1882 Chinese Exclusion (1882) Scott Act (1888) Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1891 Geary Act
Geary Act
(1892)

1900–1949

Naturalization
Naturalization
Act 1906 Gentlemen's Agreement (1907) Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1907 Immigration
Immigration
Act 1917 (Asian Barred Zone) Emergency Quota Act
Emergency Quota Act
(1921) Cable Act
Cable Act
(1922) Immigration
Immigration
Act 1924 Tydings–McDuffie Act
Tydings–McDuffie Act
(1934) Filipino Repatriation Act (1935) Nationality Act of 1940 Bracero Program (1942–1964) Magnuson Act
Magnuson Act
(1943) War Brides Act (1945) Luce–Celler Act (1946)

1950–1999

UN Refugee Convention (1951) Immigration
Immigration
and Nationality Act 1952 / 1965 Refugee Act
Refugee Act
(1980) Immigration
Immigration
Reform and Control Act (1986) American Homecoming Act
American Homecoming Act
(1989) Immigration
Immigration
Act 1990 Illegal Immigration
Immigration
Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) (1996) Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act (NACARA) (1997) American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act (ACWIA) (1998)

21st century

American Competitiveness in the 21st Century Act (AC21) (2000) Legal Immigration
Immigration
Family Equity Act (LIFE Act) (2000) H-1B Visa Reform Act (2004) REAL ID Act
REAL ID Act
(2005) Secure Fence Act (2006) DACA (2012) Executive Order 13769
Executive Order 13769
(2017) Executive Order 13780
Executive Order 13780
(2017)

Visas and policies

Visa policy

Permanent residence Visa Waiver Program Temporary protected status Asylum Green Card Lottery

US-VISIT Security Advisory Opinion E-Verify Section 287(g) National Origins Formula

Government organizations

Department of Homeland Security Immigration
Immigration
and Customs Enforcement U.S. Border Patrol U.S. Customs and Border Protection Immigration
Immigration
and Naturalization
Naturalization
Service (INS) Board of Immigration
Immigration
Appeals

Supreme Court cases

United States v. Wong Kim Ark
United States v. Wong Kim Ark
(1898) United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind
United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind
(1923) United States v. Brignoni-Ponce
United States v. Brignoni-Ponce
(1975) Chamber of Commerce v. Whiting
Chamber of Commerce v. Whiting
(2011)

Related issues and events

Economic impact Eugenics in the United States Guest worker program Human trafficking Human smuggling

Coyotaje

Immigration
Immigration
reform Immigration
Immigration
reduction Mexico–United States barrier Labor shortage March for America Illegal immigrant population Reverse immigration 2006 protests Unaccompanied minors from Central America List of people deported from the United States

Geography

Mexico–United States border Canada–United States border United States Border Patrol interior checkpoints

Proposed legislation

DREAM Act
DREAM Act
(2001–2010) H.R. 4437 (2005) McCain–Kennedy (2005) SKIL (2006) Comprehensive Immigration
Immigration
Reform Act 2006 STRIVE Act (2007) Comprehensive Immigration
Immigration
Reform Act 2007 Uniting American Families Act
Uniting American Families Act
(2000–2013) Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration
Immigration
Modernization Act of 2013 SAFE Act (2015) RAISE Act
RAISE Act
(2017)

Immigration
Immigration
stations and points of entry

Angel Island Castle Garden East Boston Ellis Island Sullivan's Island Washington Avenue

Operations

"Wetback" (1954) "Peter Pan" (1960–1962) "Babylift" (1975) "Gatekeeper" (1994) "Endgame" (2003–2012) "Front Line" (2004–2005) "Streamline" (2005–present) "Return to Sender" (2006–2007) "Jump Start" (2006–2008) "Phalanx" (2010–2016)

State legislation

California DREAM Act
DREAM Act
(2006–2010) Arizona SB 1070
Arizona SB 1070
(2010) Alabama HB 56 (2011)

Non-governmental organizations

Arizona Border Recon Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles Coalition for Comprehensive Immigration
Immigration
Reform National Immigration
Immigration
Forum Center for Community Change We Are America Alliance CASA of Maryland Mexica Movement Mexicans Without Borders Federation for American Immigration
Immigration
Reform Minuteman Project Minuteman Civil Defense Corps California Coalition for Immigration
Immigration
Reform Save Our State Center for Immigration
Immigration
Studies National Korean American Service & Education Consortium (NAKASEC) NumbersUSA Negative Population Growth Migration Policy Institute Utah Compact Center for Migration Studies

.