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Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
(/kænt/;[8] German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.[9] Kant argues that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment, that space and time are forms of human sensibility, and that the world as it is "in-itself" is independent of humanity's concepts of it. Kant took himself to have effected a "Copernican revolution" in philosophy, akin to Copernicus' reversal of the age-old belief that the sun revolves around the earth. Kant's beliefs continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political theory, and aesthetics. Politically, Kant is one of the earliest exponents of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation. He believed that this will be the eventual outcome of universal history, although it is not rationally planned.[10] The exact nature of Kant's religious ideas continues to be the subject of especially heated philosophical dispute, as viewpoints are ranging from the idea that Kant was an early and radical exponent of atheism who finally exploded the ontological argument for God's existence, to more critical treatments epitomized by Nietzsche who claimed that Kant had "theologian blood"[11] and that Kant was merely a sophisticated apologist for traditional Christian religious belief, writing that "Kant wanted to prove, in a way that would dumbfound the common man, that the common man was right: that was the secret joke of this soul."[12] In one of Kant's major works, the Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason
(Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 1781),[13] he attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and to move beyond the failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume. Kant regarded himself as ending and showing the way beyond the impasse which modern philosophy had led to between rationalists and empiricists,[14] and is widely held to have synthesized these two early modern traditions in his thought.[15] Kant argued that our experiences are structured by necessary features of our minds. In his view, the mind shapes and structures experience so that, on an abstract level, all human experience shares certain essential structural features. Among other things, Kant believed that the concepts of space and time are integral to all human experience, as are our concepts of cause and effect.[16] One important consequence of this view is that our experience of things is always of the phenomenal world as conveyed by our senses: we do not have direct access to things in themselves, the so-called noumenal world. Kant published other important works on ethics, religion, law, aesthetics, astronomy, and history. These included the Critique of Practical Reason
Reason
(Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 1788), the Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Morals (Die Metaphysik der Sitten, 1797), which dealt with ethics, and the Critique of Judgment
Critique of Judgment
(Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Young scholar 1.2 Early work 1.3 Work hiatus 1.4 Later work and death

2 Philosophy

2.1 Theory of perception 2.2 Categories of the Faculty of Understanding 2.3 Transcendental schema doctrine 2.4 Moral philosophy

2.4.1 First formulation 2.4.2 Second formulation 2.4.3 Third formulation 2.4.4 Religion
Religion
Within the Limits of Reason 2.4.5 Idea
Idea
of freedom 2.4.6 Categories of freedom

2.5 Aesthetic philosophy 2.6 Political philosophy

3 Anthropology

3.1 Views on homosexuality

4 Influence

4.1 Historical influence 4.2 Influence on modern thinkers

5 Personal legacy 6 Tomb
Tomb
and statue 7 Bibliography

7.1 List of major works 7.2 Collected works in German

8 See also 9 References and footnotes

9.1 Works cited

10 Further reading

10.1 General introductions to his thought 10.2 Biography and historical context 10.3 Collections of essays 10.4 Theoretical philosophy 10.5 Practical philosophy 10.6 Aesthetics 10.7 Philosophy
Philosophy
of religion 10.8 Perpetual peace and international relations 10.9 Other works 10.10 Contemporary philosophy
Contemporary philosophy
with a Kantian influence

11 External links

Biography Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
was born on April 22, 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia (since 1946 the city of Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, Russia). His mother, Anna Regina Reuter[17] (1697–1737), was also born in Königsberg
Königsberg
to a father from Nuremberg. (Her name is sometimes erroneously given as Anna Regina Porter.) His father, Johann Georg Kant (1682–1746), was a German harness maker from Memel, at the time Prussia's most northeastern city (now Klaipėda, Lithuania). Immanuel Kant believed that his paternal grandfather Hans Kant was of Scottish origin.[18] While scholars of Kant's life long accepted the claim, there is no evidence that Kant's paternal line was Scottish; it is more likely that the Kants got their name from the village of Kantwaggen (today part of Priekulė) and were of Curonian origin.[19][20] Kant was the fourth of nine children (four of them reached adulthood).[21] Baptized 'Emanuel', he changed his name to 'Immanuel'[22] after learning Hebrew. Young Kant was a solid, albeit unspectacular, student[citation needed]. Kant was born into a Prussian
Prussian
German family of Lutheran Protestant
Protestant
faith in East Prussia. He was brought up in a Pietist household that stressed religious devotion, humility, and a literal interpretation of the Bible[citation needed]. His education was strict, punitive and disciplinary, and focused on Latin
Latin
and religious instruction over mathematics and science.[23] Kant maintained a belief in Christianity,[24] in his work Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals he reveals a belief in human immortality as the necessary condition of our continued approach to the highest good possible.[25][26] However, as Kant was skeptical about some of the arguments used prior to him in defence of Theism
Theism
and maintained that human understanding is limited and can never attain knowledge about God
God
or the soul, various commentators have labelled him a philosophical agnostic.[27][28][29][30][31][32] Common myths about Kant's personal mannerisms are listed, explained, and refuted in Goldthwait's introduction to his translation of Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime.[33] It is often held that Kant lived a very strict and disciplined life, leading to an oft-repeated story that neighbors would set their clocks by his daily walks. He never married, but seemed to have a rewarding social life — he was a popular teacher and a modestly successful author even before starting on his major philosophical works. He had a circle of friends whom he frequently met, among them Joseph Green, an English merchant in Königsberg. A common myth is that Kant never traveled more than 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from Königsberg
Königsberg
his whole life.[34] In fact, between 1750 and 1754 he worked as a tutor (Hauslehrer) in Judtschen[35] (now Veselovka, Russia, approximately 20 km) and in Groß-Arnsdorf[36] (now Jarnołtowo near Morąg
Morąg
(German: Mohrungen), Poland, approximately 145 km). Young scholar Kant showed a great aptitude for study at an early age. He first attended the Collegium Fridericianum
Collegium Fridericianum
from which he graduated at the end of the summer of 1740. In 1740, aged 16, he enrolled at the University of Königsberg, where he spent his whole career.[37] He studied the philosophy of Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz
and Christian
Christian
Wolff under Martin Knutzen (Associate Professor of Logic
Logic
and Metaphysics
Metaphysics
from 1734 until his death in 1756), a rationalist who was also familiar with developments in British philosophy
British philosophy
and science and introduced Kant to the new mathematical physics of Isaac Newton. Knutzen dissuaded Kant from the theory of pre-established harmony, which he regarded as "the pillow for the lazy mind". He also dissuaded Kant from idealism, the idea that reality is purely mental, which most philosophers in the 18th century regarded in a negative light. (The theory of transcendental idealism that Kant developed in the Critique of Pure Reason
Reason
is not traditional idealism and the Critique's second part even argues against traditional idealism.) His father's stroke and subsequent death in 1746 interrupted his studies. Kant left Königsberg
Königsberg
shortly after August 1748[38]—he would return there in August 1754.[39] He became a private tutor in the towns surrounding Königsberg, but continued his scholarly research. In 1749, he published his first philosophical work, Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces (written in 1745–47).[40] Early work Kant is best known for his work in the philosophy of ethics and metaphysics,[41] but he made significant contributions to other disciplines. He made an important astronomical discovery about the nature of Earth's rotation, for which he won the Berlin Academy Prize in 1754. According to Lord Kelvin in 1897, Kant made contributions useful to mathematicians or physical astronomers. According to Thomas Huxley in 1867 Kant made contributions to geology as well when, in 1775 [1755], he wrote his General Natural History and Theory of the Celestial Bodies; or, an Attempt to Account for the Constitutional and Mechanical Origin of the Universe, upon Newtonian Principles."

Kant's house in Königsberg

In the General History of Nature
Nature
and Theory of the Heavens (Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels) (1755), Kant laid out the Nebular hypothesis, in which he deduced that the Solar System
Solar System
formed from a large cloud of gas, a nebula. Thus he tried to explain the order of the solar system, which Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
had explained as imposed from the beginning by God. Kant also correctly deduced that the Milky Way was a large disk of stars, which he theorized also formed from a (much larger) spinning cloud of gas. He further suggested that other nebulae might also be similarly large and distant disks of stars. These postulations opened new horizons for astronomy: for the first time extending astronomy beyond the solar system to galactic and extragalactic realms.[42] From then on, Kant turned increasingly to philosophical issues, although he continued to write on the sciences throughout his life. In the early 1760s, Kant produced a series of important works in philosophy. The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures, a work in logic, was published in 1762. Two more works appeared the following year: Attempt to Introduce the Concept
Concept
of Negative Magnitudes into Philosophy
Philosophy
and The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God. In 1764, Kant wrote Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime
Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime
and then was second to Moses Mendelssohn
Moses Mendelssohn
in a Berlin Academy prize competition with his Inquiry
Inquiry
Concerning the Distinctness of the Principles of Natural Theology
Theology
and Morality
Morality
(often referred to as "The Prize Essay"). In 1766 Kant wrote Dreams of a Spirit-Seer which dealt with the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg. On 31 March 1770, aged 45, Kant was finally appointed Full Professor of Logic
Logic
and Metaphysics
Metaphysics
(Professor Ordinarius der Logic
Logic
und Metaphysic) at the University of Königsberg. In defense of this appointment, Kant wrote his inaugural dissertation (Inaugural-Dissertation) De Mundi Sensibilis atque Intelligibilis Forma et Principiis (On the Form and Principles of the Sensible and the Intelligible World).[1] This work saw the emergence of several central themes of his mature work, including the distinction between the faculties of intellectual thought and sensible receptivity. To miss this distinction would mean to commit the error of subreption, and, as he says in the last chapter of the dissertation, only in avoiding this error does metaphysics flourish. The issue that vexed Kant was central to what 20th-century scholars called "the philosophy of mind". The flowering of the natural sciences had led to an understanding of how data reaches the brain. Sunlight falling on an object is reflected from its surface in a way that maps the surface features (color, texture, etc.). The reflected light reaches the human eye, passes through the cornea, is focused by the lens onto the retina where it forms an image similar to that formed by light passing through a pinhole into a camera obscura. The retinal cells send impulses through the optic nerve and then they form a mapping in the brain of the visual features of the object. The interior mapping is not the exterior object, and our belief that there is a meaningful relationship between the object and the mapping in the brain depends on a chain of reasoning that is not fully grounded. But the uncertainty aroused by these considerations, by optical illusions, misperceptions, delusions, etc., are not the end of the problems. Kant saw that the mind could not function as an empty container that simply receives data from outside. Something must be giving order to the incoming data. Images of external objects must be kept in the same sequence in which they were received. This ordering occurs through the mind's intuition of time. The same considerations apply to the mind's function of constituting space for ordering mappings of visual and tactile signals arriving via the already described chains of physical causation. It is often claimed that Kant was a late developer, that he only became an important philosopher in his mid-50s after rejecting his earlier views. While it is true that Kant wrote his greatest works relatively late in life, there is a tendency to underestimate the value of his earlier works. Recent Kant scholarship has devoted more attention to these "pre-critical" writings and has recognized a degree of continuity with his mature work.[43] Work hiatus At age 46, Kant was an established scholar and an increasingly influential philosopher, as much was expected of him. In correspondence with his ex-student and friend Markus Herz, Kant admitted that, in the inaugural dissertation, he had failed to account for the relation between our sensible and intellectual faculties. He needed to explain how we combine what is known as sensory knowledge with the other type of knowledge – i.e. reasoned knowledge. These two being are related but have very different processes. Kant also credited David Hume
David Hume
with awakening him from dogmatic slumber (circa 1771).[44] Hume had stated that experience consists only of sequences of feelings, images or sounds. Ideas such as "cause", goodness, or objects were not evident in experience, so why do we believe in the reality of these? Kant felt that reason could remove this skepticism, and he set himself to solving these problems. He did not publish any work in philosophy for the next 11 years.

Immanuel Kant

Although fond of company and conversation with others, Kant isolated himself, and resisted friends' attempts to bring him out of his isolation. It's been noted that in 1778, in response to one of these offers by a former pupil, Kant wrote:

Any change makes me apprehensive, even if it offers the greatest promise of improving my condition, and I am persuaded by this natural instinct of mine that I must take heed if I wish that the threads which the Fates spin so thin and weak in my case to be spun to any length. My great thanks, to my well-wishers and friends, who think so kindly of me as to undertake my welfare, but at the same time a most humble request to protect me in my current condition from any disturbance.[45]

When Kant emerged from his silence in 1781, the result was the Critique of Pure Reason. Although now uniformly recognized as one of the greatest works in the history of philosophy, this Critique was largely ignored upon its initial publication. The book was long, over 800 pages in the original German edition, and written in a convoluted style. It received few reviews, and these granted it no significance. Kant's former student, Johann Gottfried Herder
Johann Gottfried Herder
criticized it for placing reason as an entity worthy of criticism instead of considering the process of reasoning within the context of language and one's entire personality.[46] Similar to Christian
Christian
Garve and Johann Georg Heinrich Feder, he rejected Kant's position that space and time possessed a form that could be analyzed. Additionally, Garve and Feder also faulted Kant's Critique for not explaining differences in perception of sensations.[47] Its density made it, as Herder said in a letter to Johann Georg Hamann, a "tough nut to crack", obscured by "all this heavy gossamer".[48] Its reception stood in stark contrast to the praise Kant had received for earlier works, such as his Prize Essay and shorter works that preceded the first Critique. These well-received and readable tracts include one on the earthquake in Lisbon that was so popular that it was sold by the page.[49] Prior to the change in course documented in the first Critique, his books sold well, and by the time he published Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime in 1764 he had become a notable popular author.[50] Kant was disappointed with the first Critique's reception. Recognizing the need to clarify the original treatise, Kant wrote the Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics
Metaphysics
in 1783 as a summary of its main views. Shortly thereafter, Kant's friend Johann Friedrich Schultz (1739–1805) (professor of mathematics) published Erläuterungen über des Herrn Professor Kant Critik der reinen Vernunft (Königsberg, 1784), which was a brief but very accurate commentary on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Kant's reputation gradually rose through the latter portion of the 1780s, sparked by a series of important works: the 1784 essay, "Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?"; 1785's Groundwork of the Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Morals (his first work on moral philosophy); and, from 1786, Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. But Kant's fame ultimately arrived from an unexpected source. In 1786, Karl Leonhard Reinhold published a series of public letters on Kantian philosophy. In these letters, Reinhold framed Kant's philosophy as a response to the central intellectual controversy of the era: the Pantheism Dispute. Friedrich Jacobi
Friedrich Jacobi
had accused the recently deceased Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (a distinguished dramatist and philosophical essayist) of Spinozism. Such a charge, tantamount to atheism, was vigorously denied by Lessing's friend Moses Mendelssohn, leading to a bitter public dispute among partisans. The controversy gradually escalated into a debate about the values of the Enlightenment and the value of reason. Reinhold maintained in his letters that Kant's Critique of Pure Reason could settle this dispute by defending the authority and bounds of reason. Reinhold's letters were widely read and made Kant the most famous philosopher of his era. Later work and death Kant published a second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason
(Kritik der reinen Vernunft) in 1787, heavily revising the first parts of the book. Most of his subsequent work focused on other areas of philosophy. He continued to develop his moral philosophy, notably in 1788's Critique of Practical Reason
Critique of Practical Reason
(known as the second Critique) and 1797's Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Morals. The 1790 Critique of Judgment
Critique of Judgment
(the third Critique) applied the Kantian system to aesthetics and teleology. In 1792, Kant's attempt to publish the Second of the four Pieces of Religion
Religion
within the Bounds of Bare Reason, in the journal Berlinische Monatsschrift, met with opposition from the King's censorship commission, which had been established that same year in the context of the French Revolution.[51] Kant then arranged to have all four pieces published as a book, routing it through the philosophy department at the University of Jena to avoid the need for theological censorship.[51] This insubordination earned him a now famous reprimand from the King.[51] When he nevertheless published a second edition in 1794, the censor was so irate that he arranged for a royal order that required Kant never to publish or even speak publicly about religion.[51] Kant then published his response to the King's reprimand and explained himself, in the preface of The Conflict of the Faculties.[51]

Kant with friends, including Christian
Christian
Jakob Kraus, Johann Georg Hamann, Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel and Karl Gottfried Hagen

He also wrote a number of semi-popular essays on history, religion, politics and other topics. These works were well received by Kant's contemporaries and confirmed his preeminent status in 18th-century philosophy. There were several journals devoted solely to defending and criticizing Kantian philosophy. Despite his success, philosophical trends were moving in another direction. Many of Kant's most important disciples and followers (including Reinhold, Beck and Fichte) transformed the Kantian position into increasingly radical forms of idealism. The progressive stages of revision of Kant's teachings marked the emergence of German Idealism. Kant opposed these developments and publicly denounced Fichte in an open letter in 1799.[52] It was one of his final acts expounding a stance on philosophical questions. In 1800, a student of Kant named Gottlob Benjamin Jäsche (1762–1842) published a manual of logic for teachers called Logik, which he had prepared at Kant's request. Jäsche prepared the Logik using a copy of a textbook in logic by Georg Friedrich Meier
Georg Friedrich Meier
entitled Auszug aus der Vernunftlehre, in which Kant had written copious notes and annotations. The Logik has been considered of fundamental importance to Kant's philosophy, and the understanding of it. The great 19th-century logician Charles Sanders Peirce remarked, in an incomplete review of Thomas Kingsmill Abbott's English translation of the introduction to Logik, that "Kant's whole philosophy turns upon his logic."[53] Also, Robert Schirokauer Hartman and Wolfgang Schwarz, wrote in the translators' introduction to their English translation of the Logik, "Its importance lies not only in its significance for the Critique of Pure Reason, the second part of which is a restatement of fundamental tenets of the Logic, but in its position within the whole of Kant's work."[54] Kant's health, long poor, worsened and he died at Königsberg
Königsberg
on 12 February 1804, uttering "Es ist gut (It is good)" before expiring.[55] His unfinished final work was published as Opus Postumum. Kant wrote a book discussing his theory of virtue in terms of independence which he believed was "a viable modern alternative to more familiar Greek views about virtue". This book is often criticized for its hostile tone and for not articulating his thoughts about autocracy comprehensibly. In the self-governance model of Aristotelian virtue, the non-rational part of the soul can be made to listen to reason through training. Although Kantian self-governance appears to involve "a rational crackdown on appetites and emotions" with lack of harmony between reason and emotion, Kantian virtue denies requiring "self-conquest, self-suppression, or self-silencing". They dispute that "the self-mastery constitutive of virtue is ultimately mastery over our tendency of will to give priority to appetite or emotion unregulated by duty, it does not require extirpating, suppressing, or silencing sensibility in general".[56] Philosophy

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In Kant's essay "Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?", Kant defined the Enlightenment as an age shaped by the Latin
Latin
motto Sapere aude ("Dare to be wise"). Kant maintained that one ought to think autonomously, free of the dictates of external authority. His work reconciled many of the differences between the rationalist and empiricist traditions of the 18th century. He had a decisive impact on the Romantic and German Idealist philosophies of the 19th century. His work has also been a starting point for many 20th century philosophers. Kant asserted that, because of the limitations of argumentation in the absence of irrefutable evidence, no one could really know whether there is a God
God
and an afterlife or not. For the sake of morality and as a ground for reason, Kant asserted, people are justified in believing in God, even though they could never know God's presence empirically. He explained:

All the preparations of reason, therefore, in what may be called pure philosophy, are in reality directed to those three problems only [God, the soul, and freedom]. However, these three elements in themselves still hold independent, proportional, objective weight individually. Moreover, in a collective relational context; namely, to know what ought to be done: if the will is free, if there is a God, and if there is a future world. As this concerns our actions with reference to the highest aims of life, we see that the ultimate intention of nature in her wise provision was really, in the constitution of our reason, directed to moral interests only.[57]

Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
by Carle Vernet
Carle Vernet
(1758–1836)

The sense of an enlightened approach and the critical method required that "If one cannot prove that a thing is, he may try to prove that it is not. If he fails to do either (as often occurs), he may still ask whether it is in his interest to accept one or the other of the alternatives hypothetically, from the theoretical or the practical point of view. Hence the question no longer is as to whether perpetual peace is a real thing or not a real thing, or as to whether we may not be deceiving ourselves when we adopt the former alternative, but we must act on the supposition of its being real."[58] The presupposition of God, soul, and freedom was then a practical concern, for "Morality, by itself, constitutes a system, but happiness does not, unless it is distributed in exact proportion to morality. This, however, is possible in an intelligible world only under a wise author and ruler. Reason
Reason
compels us to admit such a ruler, together with life in such a world, which we must consider as future life, or else all moral laws are to be considered as idle dreams... ."[59] Kant drew a parallel between the "Copernican revolution" and the epistemology of his new transcendental philosophy, although, according to Tom Rockmore,[60] Kant himself never used the "Copernican revolution" phrase about himself, though it was "routinely" applied to his work by others. Kant's Copernican revolution involved two interconnected foundations of his "critical philosophy":

the epistemology of transcendental idealism and the moral philosophy of the autonomy of practical reason.

These teachings placed the active, rational human subject at the center of the cognitive and moral worlds. Kant argued that the rational order of the world as known by science was not just the accidental accumulation of sense perceptions. Conceptual unification and integration is carried out by the mind through concepts or the "categories of the understanding" operating on the perceptual manifold within space and time. The latter are not concepts,[61] but are forms of sensibility that are a priori necessary conditions for any possible experience. Thus the objective order of nature and the causal necessity that operates within it depend on the mind's processes, the product of the rule-based activity that Kant called, "synthesis." There is much discussion among Kant scholars about the correct interpretation of this train of thought. The 'two-world' interpretation regards Kant's position as a statement of epistemological limitation, that we are not able to transcend the bounds of our own mind, meaning that we cannot access the "thing-in-itself". However, Kant also speaks of the thing in itself or transcendental object as a product of the (human) understanding as it attempts to conceive of objects in abstraction from the conditions of sensibility. Following this line of thought, some interpreters have argued that the thing in itself does not represent a separate ontological domain but simply a way of considering objects by means of the understanding alone – this is known as the two-aspect view. The notion of the "thing in itself" was much discussed by philosophers after Kant. It was argued that because the "thing in itself" was unknowable, its existence must not be assumed. Rather than arbitrarily switching to an account that was ungrounded in anything supposed to be the "real," as did the German Idealists, another group arose to ask how our (presumably reliable) accounts of a coherent and rule-abiding universe were actually grounded. This new kind of philosophy became known as Phenomenology, and its founder was Edmund Husserl. With regard to morality, Kant argued that the source of the good lies not in anything outside the human subject, either in nature or given by God, but rather is only the good will itself. A good will is one that acts from duty in accordance with the universal moral law that the autonomous human being freely gives itself. This law obliges one to treat humanity – understood as rational agency, and represented through oneself as well as others – as an end in itself rather than (merely) as means to other ends the individual might hold. This necessitates practical self-reflection in which we universalize our reasons. These ideas have largely framed or influenced all subsequent philosophical discussion and analysis. The specifics of Kant's account generated immediate and lasting controversy. Nevertheless, his theses – that the mind itself necessarily makes a constitutive contribution to its knowledge, that this contribution is transcendental rather than psychological, that philosophy involves self-critical activity, that morality is rooted in human freedom, and that to act autonomously is to act according to rational moral principles – have all had a lasting effect on subsequent philosophy. Theory of perception Main article: Critique of Pure Reason Kant defines his theory of perception in his influential 1781 work the Critique of Pure Reason, which has often been cited as the most significant volume of metaphysics and epistemology in modern philosophy. Kant maintains that our understanding of the external world had its foundations not merely in experience, but in both experience and a priori concepts, thus offering a non-empiricist critique of rationalist philosophy, which is what he and others referred to as his "Copernican revolution".[62] Firstly, Kant distinguishes between analytic and synthetic propositions:

Analytic proposition: a proposition whose predicate concept is contained in its subject concept; e.g., "All bachelors are unmarried," or, "All bodies take up space." Synthetic proposition: a proposition whose predicate concept is not contained in its subject concept; e.g., "All bachelors are alone," or, "All bodies have weight."

An analytic proposition is true by nature of the meaning of the words in the sentence — we require no further knowledge than a grasp of the language to understand this proposition. On the other hand, a synthetic statement is one that tells us something about the world. The truth or falsehood of synthetic statements derives from something outside their linguistic content. In this instance, weight is not a necessary predicate of the body; until we are told the heaviness of the body we do not know that it has weight. In this case, experience of the body is required before its heaviness becomes clear. Before Kant's first Critique, empiricists (cf. Hume) and rationalists (cf. Leibniz) assumed that all synthetic statements required experience to be known. Kant, however, contests this: he claims that elementary mathematics, like arithmetic, is synthetic a priori, in that its statements provide new knowledge, but knowledge that is not derived from experience. This becomes part of his over-all argument for transcendental idealism. That is, he argues that the possibility of experience depends on certain necessary conditions — which he calls a priori forms — and that these conditions structure and hold true of the world of experience. In so doing, his main claims in the "Transcendental Aesthetic" are that mathematic judgments are synthetic a priori and in addition, that Space
Space
and Time
Time
are not derived from experience but rather are its preconditions. Once we have grasped the functions of basic arithmetic, we do not need any empirical experience to know that 100 + 100 = 200, and so it appears that arithmetic is analytic. However, that it is analytic can be disproved by considering the calculation 5 + 7 = 12: there is nothing in the numbers 5 and 7 by which the number 12 can be inferred. Thus "5 + 7" and "the cube root of 1,728" or "12" are not analytic because their reference is the same but their sense is not — the mathematical judgment "5 + 7 = 12" tells us something new about the world. It is self-evident, and undeniably a priori, but at the same time it is synthetic. Thus Kant proved that a proposition can be synthetic and known a priori. Kant asserts that experience is based both on the perception of external objects and a priori knowledge.[63] The external world, he writes, provides those things that we sense. But it is our mind that processes this information and gives it order, allowing us to comprehend it. Our mind supplies the conditions of space and time to experience objects. According to the "transcendental unity of apperception", the concepts of the mind (Understanding) and the perceptions or intuitions that garner information from phenomena (Sensibility) are synthesized by comprehension. Without the concepts, perceptions are nondescript; without the perceptions, concepts are meaningless — thus the famous statement, "Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions (perceptions) without concepts are blind."[64] Kant also claims that an external environment is necessary for the establishment of the self. Although Kant would want to argue that there is no empirical way of observing the self, we can see the logical necessity of the self when we observe that we can have different perceptions of the external environment over time. By uniting all of these general representations into one global representation, we can see how a transcendental self emerges. "I am therefore conscious of the identical self in regard to the manifold of the representations that are given to me in an intuition because I call them all together my representations."[65] Categories of the Faculty of Understanding See also: Category (Kant)

Kant statue in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

Kant deemed it obvious that we have some objective knowledge of the world, such as, say, Newtonian physics. But this knowledge relies on synthetic, a priori laws of nature, like causality and substance. The problem, then, is how this is possible. Kant's solution was to reason that the subject must supply laws that make experience of objects possible, and that these laws are the synthetic, a priori laws of nature that we know apply to all objects before we experience them. So, to deduce all these laws, Kant examined experience in general, dissecting in it what is supplied by the mind from what is supplied by the given intuitions. What has just been explicated is commonly called a transcendental deduction.[66] To begin with, Kant's distinction between the a posteriori being contingent and particular knowledge, and the a priori being universal and necessary knowledge, must be kept in mind. For if we merely connect two intuitions together in a perceiving subject, the knowledge is always subjective because it is derived a posteriori, when what is desired is for the knowledge to be objective, that is, for the two intuitions to refer to the object and hold good of it necessarily universally for anyone at any time, not just the perceiving subject in its current condition. What else is equivalent to objective knowledge besides the a priori, that is to say, universal and necessary knowledge? Nothing else, and hence before knowledge can be objective, it must be incorporated under an a priori category of the understanding.[66][67] For example, say a subject says, "The sun shines on the stone; the stone grows warm," which is all he perceives in perception. His judgment is contingent and holds no necessity. But if he says, "The sunshine causes the stone to warm," he subsumes the perception under the category of causality, which is not found in the perception, and necessarily synthesizes the concept sunshine with the concept heat, producing a necessarily universally true judgment.[66] To explain the categories in more detail, they are the preconditions of the construction of objects in the mind. Indeed, to even think of the sun and stone presupposes the category of subsistence, that is, substance. For the categories synthesize the random data of the sensory manifold into intelligible objects. This means that the categories are also the most abstract things one can say of any object whatsoever, and hence one can have an a priori cognition of the totality of all objects of experience if one can list all of them. To do so, Kant formulates another transcendental deduction.[66] Judgments are, for Kant, the preconditions of any thought. Man thinks via judgments, so all possible judgments must be listed and the perceptions connected within them put aside, so as to make it possible to examine the moments when the understanding is engaged in constructing judgments. For the categories are equivalent to these moments, in that they are concepts of intuitions in general, so far as they are determined by these moments universally and necessarily. Thus by listing all the moments, one can deduce from them all of the categories.[66] One may now ask: How many possible judgments are there? Kant believed that all the possible propositions within Aristotle's syllogistic logic are equivalent to all possible judgments, and that all the logical operators within the propositions are equivalent to the moments of the understanding within judgments. Thus he listed Aristotle's system in four groups of three: quantity (universal, particular, singular), quality (affirmative, negative, infinite), relation (categorical, hypothetical, disjunctive) and modality (problematic, assertoric, apodeictic). The parallelism with Kant's categories is obvious: quantity (unity, plurality, totality), quality (reality, negation, limitation), relation (substance, cause, community) and modality (possibility, existence, necessity).[66] The fundamental building blocks of experience, i.e. objective knowledge, are now in place. First there is the sensibility, which supplies the mind with intuitions, and then there is the understanding, which produces judgments of these intuitions and can subsume them under categories. These categories lift the intuitions up out of the subject's current state of consciousness and place them within consciousness in general, producing universally necessary knowledge. For the categories are innate in any rational being, so any intuition thought within a category in one mind is necessarily subsumed and understood identically in any mind. In other words, we filter what we see and hear.[66] Transcendental schema doctrine See also: Schema (Kant) Kant ran into a problem with his theory that the mind plays a part in producing objective knowledge. Intuitions and categories are entirely disparate, so how can they interact? Kant's solution is the (transcendental) schema: a priori principles by which the transcendental imagination connects concepts with intuitions through time. All the principles are temporally bound, for if a concept is purely a priori, as the categories are, then they must apply for all times. Hence there are principles such as substance is that which endures through time, and the cause must always be prior to the effect.[68][69] Moral philosophy

Immanuel Kant

Kant developed his moral philosophy in three works: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (1785), Critique of Practical Reason
Critique of Practical Reason
(1788), and Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Morals (1797). In the Groundwork, Kant's method involves trying to convert our everyday, obvious, rational[70] knowledge of morality into philosophical knowledge. The latter two works followed a method of using "practical reason", which is based only on things about which reason can tell us, and not deriving any principles from experience, to reach conclusions which can be applied to the world of experience (in the second part of The Metaphysic of Morals). Kant is known for his theory that there is a single moral obligation, which he called the "Categorical Imperative", and is derived from the concept of duty. Kant defines the demands of the moral law as "categorical imperatives". Categorical imperatives are principles that are intrinsically valid; they are good in and of themselves; they must be obeyed by everyone in all situations and circumstances, if our behavior is to observe the moral law. The Categorical Imperative provides a test against which moral statements can be assessed. Kant also stated that the moral means and ends can be applied to the categorical imperative, that rational beings can pursue certain "ends" using the appropriate "means". Ends based on physical needs or wants can create merely hypothetical imperatives. The categorical imperative can only be based on something that is an "end in itself", that is, an end that is not a means to some other need, desire, or purpose.[71] Kant believed that the moral law is a principle of reason itself, and is not based on contingent facts about the world, such as what would make us happy, but to act on the moral law which has no other motive than "worthiness of being happy".[72] Accordingly, he believed that moral obligation applies only to rational agents.[73] Unlike a hypothetical imperative, a categorical imperative is an unconditional obligation; that is, it has the force of an obligation regardless of our will or desires[74] In Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (1785) Kant enumerated three formulations of the categorical imperative that he believed to be roughly equivalent.[75] In the same book, Kant stated:

Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law.[76]

In other words, according to Kant, one cannot make exceptions for oneself. The philosophical maxim on which one acts should always be considered to be a universal law without exception. One cannot allow oneself to do a particular action unless one thinks it appropriate that the reason for the action should become a universal law. For example, one should not steal, however dire the circumstances—because, by permitting oneself to steal, one makes stealing a universally acceptable act, without contradiction. This is the first formulation of the categorical imperative, often known as the universalizability principle. Kant believed that, if an action is not done with the motive of duty, then it is without moral value. He thought that every action should have pure intention behind it; otherwise, it is meaningless. The final result is not the most important aspect of an action; rather, how the person feels while carrying out the action is the time at which value is attached to the result. In Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, Kant also posited the "counter-utilitarian idea that there is a difference between preferences and values, and that considerations of individual rights temper calculations of aggregate utility", a concept that is an axiom in economics:[77]

Everything has either a price or a dignity. Whatever has a price can be replaced by something else as its equivalent; on the other hand, whatever is above all price, and therefore admits of no equivalent, has a dignity. But that which constitutes the condition under which alone something can be an end in itself does not have mere relative worth, i.e., price, but an intrinsic worth, i.e., a dignity. (p. 53, italics in original).

A phrase quoted by Kant, which is used to summarize the counter-utilitarian nature of his moral philosophy, is Fiat justitia, pereat mundus, ("Let justice be done, though the world perish"), which he translates loosely as "Let justice reign even if all the rascals in the world should perish from it". This appears in his 1795 "Perpetual Peace" ("Zum ewigen Frieden. Ein philosophischer Entwurf"), Appendix 1.[78][79][80] First formulation

In his Metaphysics, Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
introduced the categorical imperative: "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law."

The first formulation (Formula of Universal Law) of the moral imperative "requires that the maxims be chosen as though they should hold as universal laws of nature" .[75] This formulation in principle has as its supreme law the creed "Always act according to that maxim whose universality as a law you can at the same time will" and is the "only condition under which a will can never come into conflict with itself [....]"[81] One interpretation of the first formulation is called the "universalizability test".[82] An agent's maxim, according to Kant, is his "subjective principle of human actions": that is, what the agent believes is his reason to act.[83] The universalisability test has five steps:

Find the agent's maxim (i.e., an action paired with its motivation). Take for example the declaration "I will lie for personal benefit". Lying is the action; the motivation is to fulfill some sort of desire. Paired together, they form the maxim. Imagine a possible world in which everyone in a similar position to the real-world agent followed that maxim. With no exception of one's self. This is in order for you to hold people to the same principle required of yourself. Decide whether any contradictions or irrationalities arise in the possible world as a result of following the maxim. If a contradiction or irrationality arises, acting on that maxim is not allowed in the real world. If there is no contradiction, then acting on that maxim is permissible, and is sometimes required.

(For a modern parallel, see John Rawls' hypothetical situation, the original position.) Second formulation The second formulation (or Formula of the End in Itself) holds that "the rational being, as by its nature an end and thus as an end in itself, must serve in every maxim as the condition restricting all merely relative and arbitrary ends".[75] The principle dictates that you "[a]ct with reference to every rational being (whether yourself or another) so that it is an end in itself in your maxim", meaning that the rational being is "the basis of all maxims of action" and "must be treated never as a mere means but as the supreme limiting condition in the use of all means, i.e., as an end at the same time".[84] Third formulation The third formulation (i.e. Formula of Autonomy) is a synthesis of the first two and is the basis for the "complete determination of all maxims". It states "that all maxims which stem from autonomous legislation ought to harmonize with a possible realm of ends as with a realm of nature".[75] In principle, "So act as if your maxims should serve at the same time as the universal law (of all rational beings)", meaning that we should so act that we may think of ourselves as "a member in the universal realm of ends", legislating universal laws through our maxims (that is, a universal code of conduct), in a "possible realm of ends".[85] None may elevate themselves above the universal law, therefore it is one's duty to follow the maxim(s). Religion
Religion
Within the Limits of Reason Kant articulates his strongest criticisms of the organization and practices of religious organizations to those that encourage what he sees as a religion of counterfeit service to God.[86] Among the major targets of his criticism are external ritual, superstition and a hierarchical church order. He sees all of these as efforts to make oneself pleasing to God
God
in ways other than conscientious adherence to the principle of moral rightness in choosing one's actions. The severity of Kant's criticisms on these matters, along with his rejection of the possibility of theoretical proofs for the existence of God
God
and his philosophical re-interpretation of some basic Christian doctrines, allow interpretations that see Kant as thoroughly hostile to religion in general and Christianity
Christianity
in particular (e.g., Walsh 1967). Nevertheless, other interpreters consider that Kant was trying to mark off a defensible rational core of Christian
Christian
belief.[87] Kant sees in Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
the affirmation of a "pure moral disposition of the heart" that "can make man well-pleasing to God".[86] Regarding Kant’s conception of religion, some critics have highlighted his deism, for example Peter Byrne, who wrote about Kant’s precise relationship with deism.[88] Other critics have argued that Kant’s moral conception moves from deism to theism (as moral theism), for example Allen W. Wood[89] and Merold Westphal.[90] As for Kant’s book entitled Religion
Religion
within the Boundaries of bare Reason, it was emphasized that Kant reduced religiosity to rationality, religion to morality and Christianity
Christianity
to ethics.[91] Idea
Idea
of freedom In the Critique of Pure Reason,[92] Kant distinguishes between the transcendental idea of freedom, which as a psychological concept is "mainly empirical" and refers to "the question whether we must admit a power of spontaneously beginning a series of successive things or states" as a real ground of necessity in regard to causality,[93] and the practical concept of freedom as the independence of our will from the "coercion" or "necessitation through sensuous impulses". Kant finds it a source of difficulty that the practical idea of freedom is founded on the transcendental idea of freedom,[94] but for the sake of practical interests uses the practical meaning, taking "no account of... its transcendental meaning," which he feels was properly "disposed of" in the Third Antinomy, and as an element in the question of the freedom of the will is for philosophy "a real stumbling-block" that has "embarrassed speculative reason".[93] Kant calls practical "everything that is possible through freedom", and the pure practical laws that are never given through sensuous conditions but are held analogously with the universal law of causality are moral laws. Reason
Reason
can give us only the "pragmatic laws of free action through the senses", but pure practical laws given by reason a priori[95] dictate "what ought to be done".[96][97] Categories of freedom In the Critique of Practical Reason, at the end of the second Main Part of the Analytics,[98] Kant introduces the categories of freedom, in analogy with the categories of understanding their practical counterparts. Kant's categories of freedom apparently function primarily as conditions for the possibility for actions (i) to be free, (ii) to be understood as free and (iii) to be morally evaluated. For Kant, although actions as theoretical objects are constituted by means of the theoretical categories, actions as practical objects (objects of practical use of reason, and which can be good or bad) are constituted by means of the categories of freedom. Only in this way can actions, as phenomena, be a consequence of freedom, and be understood and evaluated as such.[99] Aesthetic philosophy Kant discusses the subjective nature of aesthetic qualities and experiences in Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (1764). Kant's contribution to aesthetic theory is developed in the Critique of Judgment
Critique of Judgment
(1790) where he investigates the possibility and logical status of "judgments of taste." In the "Critique of Aesthetic Judgment," the first major division of the Critique of Judgment, Kant used the term "aesthetic" in a manner that, according to Kant scholar W.H. Walsh, differs from its modern sense.[100] Prior to this, in the Critique of Pure Reason, to note essential differences between judgments of taste, moral judgments, and scientific judgments, Kant abandoned the term "aesthetic" as "designating the critique of taste," noting that judgments of taste could never be "directed" by "laws a priori".[101] After A. G. Baumgarten, who wrote Aesthetica (1750–58),[102] Kant was one of the first philosophers to develop and integrate aesthetic theory into a unified and comprehensive philosophical system, utilizing ideas that played an integral role throughout his philosophy.[103] In the chapter "Analytic of the Beautiful" of the Critique of Judgment, Kant states that beauty is not a property of an artwork or natural phenomenon, but is instead a consciousness of the pleasure that attends the 'free play' of the imagination and the understanding. Even though it appears that we are using reason to decide what is beautiful, the judgment is not a cognitive judgment,[104] "and is consequently not logical, but aesthetical" (§ 1). A pure judgement of taste is in fact subjective insofar as it refers to the emotional response of the subject and is based upon nothing but esteem for an object itself: it is a disinterested pleasure, and we feel that pure judgements of taste, i.e. judgements of beauty, lay claim to universal validity (§§20–22). It is important to note that this universal validity is not derived from a determinate concept of beauty but from common sense (§40). Kant also believed that a judgement of taste shares characteristics engaged in a moral judgement: both are disinterested, and we hold them to be universal. In the chapter "Analytic of the Sublime" Kant identifies the sublime as an aesthetic quality that, like beauty, is subjective, but unlike beauty refers to an indeterminate relationship between the faculties of the imagination and of reason, and shares the character of moral judgments in the use of reason. The feeling of the sublime, itself officially divided into two distinct modes (the mathematical and the dynamical sublime), describes two subjective moments, both of which concern the relationship of the faculty of the imagination to reason. Some commentators,[105] however, argue that Kant's critical philosophy contains a third kind of the sublime, the moral sublime, which is the aesthetic response to the moral law or a representation thereof, and a development of the "noble" sublime in Kant's theory of 1764. The mathematical sublime is situated in the failure of the imagination to comprehend natural objects that appear boundless and formless, or appear "absolutely great" (§ 23–25). This imaginative failure is then recuperated through the pleasure taken in reason's assertion of the concept of infinity. In this move the faculty of reason proves itself superior to our fallible sensible self (§§ 25–26). In the dynamical sublime there is the sense of annihilation of the sensible self as the imagination tries to comprehend a vast might. This power of nature threatens us but through the resistance of reason to such sensible annihilation, the subject feels a pleasure and a sense of the human moral vocation. This appreciation of moral feeling through exposure to the sublime helps to develop moral character. Kant had developed the distinction between an object of art as a material value subject to the conventions of society and the transcendental condition of the judgment of taste as a "refined" value in the propositions of his Idea
Idea
of A Universal History (1784). In the Fourth and Fifth Theses of that work he identified all art as the "fruits of unsociableness" due to men's "antagonism in society",[106] and in the Seventh Thesis asserted that while such material property is indicative of a civilized state, only the ideal of morality and the universalization of refined value through the improvement of the mind of man "belongs to culture".[107] Political philosophy Main article: Political philosophy
Political philosophy
of Immanuel Kant

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v t e

In "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch",[108] Kant listed several conditions that he thought necessary for ending wars and creating a lasting peace. They included a world of constitutional republics.[109] His classical republican theory was extended in the Science
Science
of Right, the first part of the Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Morals (1797).[110] Kant believed that universal history leads to the ultimate world of republican states at peace, but his theory was not pragmatic. The process was described in "Perpetual Peace" as natural rather than rational:

The guarantee of perpetual peace is nothing less than that great artist, nature...In her mechanical course we see that her aim is to produce a harmony among men, against their will, and indeed through their discord. As a necessity working according to laws we do not know, we call it destiny. But, considering its designs in universal history, we call it "providence," inasmuch as we discern in it the profound wisdom of a higher cause which predetermines the course of nature and directs it to the objective final end of the human race.[111]

Kant's political thought can be summarized as republican government and international organization. "In more characteristically Kantian terms, it is doctrine of the state based upon the law (Rechtsstaat) and of eternal peace. Indeed, in each of these formulations, both terms express the same idea: that of legal constitution or of 'peace through law'. Taken simply by itself, Kant's political philosophy, being essentially a legal doctrine, rejects by definition the opposition between moral education and the play of passions as alternate foundations for social life. The state is defined as the union of men under law. The state rightly so called is constituted by laws which are necessary a priori because they flow from the very concept of law. A regime can be judged by no other criteria nor be assigned any other functions, than those proper to the lawful order as such." [112] He opposed "democracy," which at his time meant direct democracy, believing that majority rule posed a threat to individual liberty. He stated, "...democracy is, properly speaking, necessarily a despotism, because it establishes an executive power in which 'all' decide for or even against one who does not agree; that is, 'all,' who are not quite all, decide, and this is a contradiction of the general will with itself and with freedom."[113] As with most writers at the time, he distinguished three forms of government i.e. democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy with mixed government as the most ideal form of it. Anthropology

5 DM 1974 D silver coin commemorating the 250th birthday of Immanuel Kant in Königsberg

Kant lectured on anthropology for over 25 years. His Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View was published in 1798. (This was the subject of Michel Foucault's secondary dissertation for his State doctorate, Introduction to Kant's Anthropology.) Kant's Lectures on Anthropology were published for the first time in 1997 in German.[114] The former was translated into English and published by the Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy
Philosophy
series in 2006.[115] Kant was among the first people of his time to introduce anthropology as an intellectual area of study long before the field gained popularity. As a result, his texts are considered to have advanced the field. Kant's point of view also influenced the works of philosophers after him such as Martin Heidegger, Paul Ricoeur, and Jean Greisch. Kant viewed anthropology in two broad categories. One category was the physiological approach which he referred to as "what nature makes of the human being". The other category was the pragmatic approach which explored the things a human "can and should make of himself".[116] Views on homosexuality

"A second crimen carnis contra naturam is intercourse between seux hornogenii, in which the object of sexual impulse is a human being but there is homogeneity instead of heterogeneity of sex, as when a woman satisfies her desire on a woman or a man on a man. This practice too is contrary to the ends of humanity: for the end of humanity in respect of sexuality is to preserve the species without debasing the person: but in this instance the species is not being preserved."[117]

Influence Kant's influence on Western thought has been profound.[118] Over and above his influence on specific thinkers, Kant changed the framework within which philosophical inquiry has been carried out. He accomplished a paradigm shift: very little philosophy is now carried out in the style of pre-Kantian philosophy. This shift consists in several closely related innovations that have become axiomatic, in philosophy itself and in the social sciences and humanities generally:

Kant's "Copernican revolution", that placed the role of the human subject or knower at the center of inquiry into our knowledge, such that it is impossible to philosophize about things as they are independently of us or of how they are for us;[119] His invention of critical philosophy, that is of the notion of being able to discover and systematically explore possible inherent limits to our ability to know through philosophical reasoning; His creation of the concept of "conditions of possibility", as in his notion of "the conditions of possible experience" – that is that things, knowledge, and forms of consciousness rest on prior conditions that make them possible, so that, to understand or to know them, we must first understand these conditions; His theory that objective experience is actively constituted or constructed by the functioning of the human mind; His notion of moral autonomy as central to humanity; His assertion of the principle that human beings should be treated as ends rather than as means.

Kant's ideas have been incorporated into a variety of schools of thought. These include German Idealism, Marxism, positivism, phenomenology, existentialism, critical theory, linguistic philosophy, structuralism, post-structuralism, and deconstructionism.[citation needed] Historical influence

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During his own life, there was much critical attention paid to his thought. He had an influence on Reinhold, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, and Novalis
Novalis
during the 1780s and 1790s. The school of thinking known as German Idealism
Idealism
developed from his writings. The German Idealists Fichte and Schelling, for example, tried to bring traditional "metaphysically" laden notions like "the Absolute", "God", and "Being" into the scope of Kant's critical thought.[120] In so doing, the German Idealists tried to reverse Kant's view that we cannot know what we cannot observe.

Statue of Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
(Königsberg), Russia. Replica by Harald Haacke (de) of the original by Christian
Christian
Daniel Rauch lost in 1945.

Hegel was one of Kant's first major critics. In response to what he saw as Kant's abstract and formal account, Hegel brought about an ethic focused on the "ethical life" of the community.[121] But Hegel's notion of "ethical life" is meant to subsume, rather than replace, Kantian ethics. And Hegel can be seen as trying to defend Kant's idea of freedom as going beyond finite "desires", by means of reason. Thus, in contrast to later critics like Nietzsche or Russell, Hegel shares some of Kant's most basic concerns.[122] Kant's thinking on religion was used in Britain to challenge the decline in religious faith in the nineteenth century. British Catholic writers, notably G. K. Chesterton
G. K. Chesterton
and Hilaire Belloc, followed this approach. Ronald Englefield debated this movement, and Kant's use of language. See Englefield's article,[123] reprinted in Englefield.[124] Criticisms of Kant were common in the realist views of the new positivism at that time. Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer
was strongly influenced by Kant's transcendental idealism. He, like G. E. Schulze, Jacobi, and Fichte before him, was critical of Kant's theory of the thing in itself. Things in themselves, they argued, are neither the cause of what we observe nor are they completely beyond our access. Ever since the first Critique of Pure Reason
Reason
philosophers have been critical of Kant's theory of the thing in itself. Many have argued, if such a thing exists beyond experience then one cannot posit that it affects us causally, since that would entail stretching the category 'causality' beyond the realm of experience. For a review of this problem and the relevant literature see The Thing in Itself and the Problem of Affection in the revised edition of Henry Allison's Kant's Transcendental Idealism. For Schopenhauer
Schopenhauer
things in themselves do not exist outside the non-rational will. The world, as Schopenhauer
Schopenhauer
would have it, is the striving and largely unconscious will. Michael Kelly, in the preface to his 1910 book Kant's Ethics
Ethics
and Schopenhauer's Criticism, stated: "Of Kant it may be said that what is good and true in his philosophy would have been buried with him, were it not for Schopenhauer...." With the success and wide influence of Hegel's writings, Kant's influence began to wane, though there was in Germany a movement that hailed a return to Kant in the 1860s, beginning with the publication of Kant und die Epigonen in 1865 by Otto Liebmann. His motto was "Back to Kant", and a re-examination of his ideas began (See Neo-Kantianism). During the turn of the 20th century there was an important revival of Kant's theoretical philosophy, known as the Marburg School, represented in the work of Hermann Cohen, Paul Natorp, Ernst Cassirer,[125] and anti-Neo-Kantian Nicolai Hartmann.[126] Kant's notion of "Critique" has been quite influential. The Early German Romantics, especially Friedrich Schlegel in his "Athenaeum Fragments", used Kant's self-reflexive conception of criticism in their Romantic theory of poetry.[127] Also in Aesthetics, Clement Greenberg, in his classic essay "Modernist Painting", uses Kantian criticism, what Greenberg refers to as "immanent criticism", to justify the aims of Abstract painting, a movement Greenberg saw as aware of the key limitiaton—flatness—that makes up the medium of painting.[128] French philosopher Michel Foucault
Michel Foucault
was also greatly influenced by Kant's notion of "Critique" and wrote several pieces on Kant for a re-thinking of the Enlightenment as a form of "critical thought". He went so far as to classify his own philosophy as a "critical history of modernity, rooted in Kant".[129] Kant believed that mathematical truths were forms of synthetic a priori knowledge, which means they are necessary and universal, yet known through intuition.[130] Kant's often brief remarks about mathematics influenced the mathematical school known as intuitionism, a movement in philosophy of mathematics opposed to Hilbert's formalism, and the logicism of Frege
Frege
and Bertrand Russell.[131] Influence on modern thinkers

West German postage stamp, 1974, commemorating the 250th anniversary of Kant's birth

With his "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch", Kant is considered to have foreshadowed many of the ideas that have come to form the democratic peace theory, one of the main controversies in political science.[132] Prominent recent Kantians include the British philosophers P. F. Strawson[133] and Quassim Cassam[134] and the American philosophers Wilfrid Sellars[135] and Christine Korsgaard.[136] Due to the influence of Strawson and Sellars, among others, there has been a renewed interest in Kant's view of the mind. Central to many debates in philosophy of psychology and cognitive science is Kant's conception of the unity of consciousness.[137] Jürgen Habermas
Jürgen Habermas
and John Rawls
John Rawls
are two significant political and moral philosophers whose work is strongly influenced by Kant's moral philosophy.[138] They have each argued against relativism,[139] supporting the Kantian view that universality is essential to any viable moral philosophy. Jean-Francois Lyotard, however, has emphasized the indeterminacy in the nature of thought and language and has engaged in debates with Habermas based on the effects this indeterminacy has on philosophical and political debates.[140] Kant's influence also has extended to the social, behavioral, and physical sciences, as in the sociology of Max Weber, the psychology of Jean Piaget, and the linguistics of Noam Chomsky. Kant's work on mathematics and synthetic a priori knowledge is also cited by theoretical physicist Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
as an early influence on his intellectual development.[141] Because of the thoroughness of the Kantian paradigm shift, his influence extends to thinkers who neither specifically refer to his work nor use his terminology. Personal legacy Kant always cut a curious figure in his lifetime for his modest, rigorously scheduled habits, which have been referred to as clocklike. But Heinrich Heine
Heinrich Heine
noted the magnitude of "his destructive, world-crushing thoughts" and considered him a sort of philosophical "executioner", comparing him to Robespierre with the observation that both men "represented in the highest the type of provincial bourgeois. Nature
Nature
had destined them to weigh coffee and sugar, but Fate determined that they should weigh other things and placed on the scales of the one a king, on the scales of the other a god."[142] When he was exhumed for his body's transfer to a new burial spot, his skull was measured amidst his exhumation ceremony, and found to be larger than the average German male's with a "high and broad" forehead.[143] His forehead has been an object of interest ever since it became well-known through his portraits: “In Döbler’s portrait and in Kiefer’s faithful if expressionistic reproduction of it — as well as in many of the other late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century portraits of Kant — the forehead is remarkably large and decidedly retreating. Was Kant’s forehead shaped this way in these images because he was a philosopher, or, to follow the implications of Lavater’s system, was he a philosopher because of the intellectual acuity manifested by his forehead? Kant and Lavater were correspondents on theological matters, and Lavater cites Kant in the Physiognomy.”[144] Tomb
Tomb
and statue

Kant's tomb in Kaliningrad, Russia

Kant's tomb is today in a mausoleum adjoining the northeast corner of Königsberg
Königsberg
Cathedral in what is now known as Kaliningrad, Russia. The mausoleum was constructed by the architect Friedrich Lahrs
Friedrich Lahrs
and was finished in 1924 in time for the bicentenary of Kant's birth. Originally, Kant was buried inside the cathedral, but in 1880 his remains were moved outside and placed in a neo-Gothic chapel adjoining the northeast corner of the cathedral. Over the years, the chapel became dilapidated before it was demolished to make way for the mausoleum, which was built on the same spot, where it is today. The tomb and its mausoleum are among the few artifacts of German times preserved by the Soviets
Soviets
after they conquered and annexed the city.[145] Today, many newlyweds bring flowers to the mausoleum. Artifacts previously owned by Kant, known as Kantiana, were included in the Königsberg
Königsberg
City Museum. However, the museum was destroyed during World War
War
II. A replica of the statue of Kant that stood in German times in front of the main University of Königsberg
Königsberg
building was donated by a German entity in the early 1990s and placed in the same grounds. After the expulsion of Königsberg's German population at the end of World War
War
II, the University of Königsberg
Königsberg
where Kant taught was replaced by the Russian-language Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
State University, which took up the campus and surviving buildings of the historic German university. In 2005, the university was renamed Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
State University of Russia. The change of name was announced at a ceremony attended by President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
of Russia
Russia
and Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of Germany, and the university formed a Kant Society, dedicated to the study of Kantianism.

Bibliography List of major works

(1749) Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces
Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces
(Gedanken von der wahren Schätzung der lebendigen Kräfte) (March 1755) Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven (Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels) (Apr. 1755) Brief Outline of Certain Meditations on Fire (Meditationum quarundam de igne succinta delineatio (master's thesis under Johann Gottfried Teske))[146][147][148][149] (Sep. 1755) A New Elucidation of the First Principles of Metaphysical Cognition (Principiorum primorum cognitionis metaphysicae nova dilucidatio (doctoral thesis))[150][151] (1756) The Use in Natural Philosophy
Philosophy
of Metaphysics
Metaphysics
Combined with Geometry, Part I: Physical Monadology (Metaphysicae cum geometrica iunctae usus in philosophin naturali, cuius specimen I. continet monadologiam physicam, abbreviated as Monadologia Physica (thesis as a prerequisite of associate professorship))[152] (1762) The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures (Die falsche Spitzfindigkeit der vier syllogistischen Figuren) (1763) The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God
God
(Der einzig mögliche Beweisgrund zu einer Demonstration des Daseins Gottes) (1763) Attempt to Introduce the Concept
Concept
of Negative Magnitudes into Philosophy
Philosophy
(Versuch den Begriff der negativen Größen in die Weltweisheit einzuführen) (1764) Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen) (1764) Essay on the Illness of the Head (Über die Krankheit des Kopfes) (1764) Inquiry
Inquiry
Concerning the Distinctness of the Principles of Natural Theology
Theology
and Morality
Morality
(the Prize Essay) (Untersuchungen über die Deutlichkeit der Grundsätze der natürlichen Theologie und der Moral) (1766) Dreams of a Spirit-Seer (Träume eines Geistersehers)[153] (1770) Dissertation on the Form and Principles of the Sensible and the Intelligible World (De mundi sensibilis atque intelligibilis forma et principiis (doctoral thesis))[154][155][156][1] (1775) On the Different Races of Man (Über die verschiedenen Rassen der Menschen) (1781) First edition of the Critique of Pure Reason[157] (Kritik der reinen Vernunft)[158] (1783) Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics
Metaphysics
(Prolegomena zu einer jeden künftigen Metaphysik) (1784) "An Answer to the Question: What Is Enlightenment?" ("Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?")[159] (1784) " Idea
Idea
for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose" ("Idee zu einer allgemeinen Geschichte in weltbürgerlicher Absicht") (1785) Groundwork of the Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Morals (Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten) (1786) Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft) (1786) "What does it mean to orient oneself in thinking?" ("Was heißt: sich im Denken orientieren?") (1786) Conjectural Beginning of Human
Human
History (1787) Second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason[160] (Kritik der reinen Vernunft)[161] (1788) Critique of Practical Reason
Critique of Practical Reason
(Kritik der praktischen Vernunft)[162] (1790) Critique of Judgment
Critique of Judgment
(Kritik der Urteilskraft)[163] (1793) Religion
Religion
within the Limits of Reason
Reason
Alone (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft)[164] (1793) On the Old Saw: That may be right in theory, but it won't work in practice (Über den Gemeinspruch: Das mag in der Theorie richtig sein, taugt aber nicht für die Praxis) (1795) "Perpetual Peace"[165] ("Zum ewigen Frieden")[166] (1797) Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Morals (Metaphysik der Sitten). First part is The Doctrine of Right, which has often been published separately as The Science
Science
of Right. (1798) Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht) (1798) The Contest of Faculties[167] (Der Streit der Fakultäten)[168] (1800) Logic
Logic
(Logik) (1803) On Pedagogy (Über Pädagogik)[169] (1804) Opus Postumum (1817) Lectures on Philosophical Theology
Theology
(Immanuel Kants Vorlesungen über die philosophische Religionslehre edited by K. H. L. Pölitz) [The English edition of A. W. Wood & G. M. Clark (Cornell, 1978) is based on Pölitz' second edition, 1830, of these lectures.][170]

Collected works in German Wilhelm Dilthey
Wilhelm Dilthey
inaugurated the Academy edition (the Akademie-Ausgabe abbreviated as AA or Ak) of Kant's writings (Gesammelte Schriften, Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, 1902–38) in 1895,[171] and served as its first editor. The volumes are grouped into four sections:

I. Kant's published writings (vols. 1–9), II. Kant's correspondence (vols. 10–13), III. Kant's literary remains, or Nachlass
Nachlass
(vols. 14–23), and IV. Student notes from Kant’s lectures (vols. 24–29).

See also

Philosophy
Philosophy
portal

Aenesidemus Agnosticism Arthur Schopenhauer's criticism of Immanuel Kant's schemata Johann Georg Hamann Kant Russian State University List of liberal theorists On Vision and Colors Political philosophy
Political philosophy
of Immanuel Kant Schopenhauer's criticism of Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals Schopenhauer's criticism of the Kantian philosophy

References and footnotes

^ a b c Since he had written his last habilitation thesis 14 years earlier, a new habilitation thesis was required (see S. J. McGrath, Joseph Carew (eds.), Rethinking German Idealism, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 24). ^ Frederick C. Beiser, German Idealism: The Struggle Against Subjectivism, 1781-1801, Harvard University Press, 2002, part I. ^ Biographies: Königsberg
Königsberg
Professors – Manchester University: "His lectures on logic and metaphysics were quite popular, and he still taught theology, philosophy, and mathematics when Kant studied at the university. The only textbook found in Kant's library that stems from his student years was Marquardt's book on astronomy." ^ KrV A51/B75–6. See also: Edward Willatt, Kant, Deleuze and Architectonics, Continuum, 2010 p. 17: "Kant argues that cognition can only come about as a result of the union of the abstract work of the understanding and the concrete input of sensation." ^ "Immanuel Kant: Aesthetics
Aesthetics
– Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". www.iep.utm.edu.  ^ KpV 101–2 (=Ak V, 121–2). See also: Paul Saurette, The Kantian Imperative: Humiliation, Common Sense, Politics, University of Toronto Press, 2005, p. 255 n. 32. ^ Kuehn 2001, p. 251. ^ "Kant". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ "Immanuel Kant". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 20 May 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2015.  ^ Idea
Idea
for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose. ^ Friedrich Nietzsche, The Anti-Christ (1895), para. 10. ^ Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
(trans. Walter Arnold Kaufmann), The Portable Nietzsche, 1976, p. 96. ^ Kant, Immanuel; Kitcher, Patricia (intro.); Pluhar, W. (trans.) (1996). Critique of Pure Reason. Indianapolis: Hackett. xxviii.  ^ Vanzo, Alberto. "Kant on Empiricism
Empiricism
and Rationalism". History of Philosophy
Philosophy
Quarterly. 30 (1): 53–74.  ^ "He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism". [permanent dead link] ^ Nigel Warburton (2011). "Chapter 19: Rose-tinted reality: Immanuel Kant". A little history of philosophy. Yale University Press. pp. 111 ff. ISBN 0300152086.  ^ "Cosmopolis". Koenigsberg-is-dead.de. 23 April 2001. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Mortensen, Hans and Gertrud, Kants väterliche Ahnen und ihre Umwelt, Rede von 1952 in Jahrbuch der Albertus-Universität zu Königsberg, Pr., Holzner-Verlag, Kitzingen, Main 1953, Vol. 3, p. 26. ^ R. K. Murray, "The Origin of Immanuel Kant's Family Name", Kantian Review 13(1), March 2008, pp. 190-193. ^ Rosa Kohlheim, Volker Kohlheim, Duden – Familiennamen: Herkunft und Bedeutung von 20.000 Nachnamen, Bibliographisches Institut & F. A. Brockhaus AG, Mannheim 2005, p. 365. ^ freunde-kants.com Archived 25 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kuehn 2001, p. 26. ^ Kuehn 2001, p. 47. ^ "Immanuel Kant: Philosophy
Philosophy
of Religion
Religion
– Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". www.iep.utm.edu.  ^ Metaphysics, p. 131 ^ " Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
- Christian
Christian
Research Institute".  ^ "While this sounds skeptical, Kant is only agnostic about our knowledge of metaphysical objects such as God. And, as noted above, Kant's agnosticism leads to the conclusion that we can neither affirm nor deny claims made by traditional metaphysics." Andrew Fiala, J. M. D. Meiklejohn, Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason
– Introduction, page xi. ^ Edward J. Verstraete (2008). Ed Hindson; Ergun Caner, eds. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the Truth
Truth
of Christianity. Harvest House Publishers. p. 82. ISBN 9780736920841. It is in this sense that modern atheism rests heavily upon the skepticism of David Hume
David Hume
and the agnosticism of Immanuel Kant.  ^ Norman L. Geisler; Frank Turek (2004). "Kant's Agnosticism: Should We Be Agnostic
Agnostic
About It?". I Don't Have Enough Faith
Faith
to Be an Atheist. Crossway. pp. 59–60. ISBN 9781581345612. Immanuel Kant's impact has been even more devastating to the Christian
Christian
worldview than David Hume's. For if Kant's philosophy is right, then there is no way to know anything about the real world, even empirically verifiable things!  ^ Gary D. Badcock (1997). Light of Truth
Truth
and Fire of Love: A Theology of the Holy Spirit. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 113. ISBN 9780802842886. Kant has no interest in prayer or worship, and is in fact agnostic when it comes to such classical theological questions as the doctrine of God
God
or of the Holy Spirit.  ^ Norman L. Geisler, Paul K. Hoffman, ed. (2006). "The Agnosticism
Agnosticism
of Immanuel Kant". Why I Am a Christian: Leading Thinkers Explain Why They Believe. Baker Books. p. 45. ISBN 9780801067129.  ^ Frank K. Flinn (2007). Encyclopedia of Catholicism. Infobase Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 9780816075652. Following Locke, the classic agnostic claims not to accept more propositions than are warranted by empirical evidence. In this sense an agnostic appeals to Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
(1724–1804), who claims in his Critique of Pure Reason that since God, freedom, immortality, and the soul can be both proved and disproved by theoretical reason, we ought to suspend judgement about them.  ^ Kant, Immanuel. Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime. Trans. John T. Goldthwait. University of California Press, 1961, 2003. ISBN 0-520-24078-2 ^ Lewis, Rick. 2005. 'Kant 200 Years On'. Philosophy
Philosophy
Now. No. 49. ^ Vorländer, Karl. "Immanuel Kant: Bei Pfarrer Andersch in Judtschen".  ^ Vorländer, Karl. "Immanuel Kant: Bei Major von Hülsen in Arnsdorf".  ^ The American International Encyclopedia (New York: J.J. Little & Ives, 1954), Vol. IX. ^ Kuehn 2001, p. 94. ^ Kuehn 2001, p. 98. ^ Eric Watkins (ed.), Immanuel Kant: Natural Science, Cambridge University Press, 2012: "Thoughts on the true estimation...". ^ "Immanuel Kant: Metaphysics
Metaphysics
– Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". www.iep.utm.edu. Retrieved 6 February 2015.  ^ George Gamow, One, Two, Three... Infinity, pp. 300ff. Viking Press, 1954 ^ Cf., for example, Susan Shell, The Embodiment of Reason
Reason
(Chicago, 1996) ^ "Vadim V. Vasilyev, "The Origin of Kant's Deduction of the Categories"" (PDF).  ^ Christopher Kul-Want and Andrzej Klimowski, Introducing Kant (Cambridge: Icon Books, 2005).[page needed] ISBN 1-84046-664-2 ^ Copleston, Frederick Charles. The Enlightenment: Voltaire
Voltaire
to Kant. 2003. p. 146. ^ Sassen, Brigitte. Kant's Early Critics: The Empiricist Critique of the Theoretical Philosophy. 2000. ^ Ein Jahrhundert deutscher Literaturkritik, vol. III, Der Aufstieg zur Klassik in der Kritik der Zeit (Berlin, 1959), p. 315; as quoted in Gulyga, Arsenij. Immanuel Kant: His Life and Thought. Trans., Marijan Despaltović. Boston: Birkhäuser, 1987. ^ Gulyga, Arsenij. Immanuel Kant: His Life and Thought. Trans., Marijan Despaltović. Boston: Birkhäuser, 1987 pp. 28–9. ^ Gulyga, Arsenij. Immanuel Kant: His Life and Thought. Trans., Marijan Despaltović. Boston: Birkhäuser, 1987, p. 62. ^ a b c d e Derrida Vacant Chair p. 44. ^ "Open letter by Kant denouncing Fichte's Philosophy
Philosophy
(in German)". Korpora.org. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Peirce, C.S., Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, v.1, (HUP, 1960), 'Kant and his Refutation of Idealism' p. 15 ^ Kant, Immanuel, Logic, G.B. Jäsche (ed), R.S. Hartman, W. Schwarz (translators), Indianapolis, 1984, p. xv. ^ Karl Vorländer, Immanuel Kant: Der Mann und das Werk, Hamburg: Meiner, 1992, p. II 332. ^ McAleer, Sean. "Kant's Theory of Virtue: The Value of Autocracy. Ethics". Heythrop Journal.  ^ Critique of Pure Reason, A801. ^ The Science
Science
of Right, Conclusion. ^ Critique of Pure Reason, A811. ^ Tom Rockmore, Marx After Marxism: The Philosophy
Philosophy
of Karl Marx (2002), p. 184. ^ In the first edition of the Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason
Kant refers to space as "no discursive or...general conception of the relation of things, but a pure intuition" and maintained that "We can only represent to ourselves one space". The "general notion of spaces...depends solely upon limitations" (Meikeljohn trans., A25). In the second edition of the CPR, Kant adds, "The original representation of space is an a priori intuition, not a concept" (Kemp Smith trans., B40). In regard to time, Kant states that " Time
Time
is not a discursive, or what is called a general concept, but a pure form of sensible intuition. Different times are but parts of one and the same time; and the representation which can be given only through a single object is intuition" (A31/B47). For the differences in the discursive use of reason according to concepts and its intuitive use through the construction of concepts, see Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason
(A719/B747 ff. and A837/B865). On "One and the same thing in space and time" and the mathematical construction of concepts, see A724/B752. ^ "Kant, Immanuel definition of Kant, Immanuel in the Free Online Encyclopedia". Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 26 February 2014.  ^ The German word Anschauung, which Kant used, literally means 'looking at' and generally means what in philosophy in English is called "perception". However it sometimes is rendered as "intuition": not, however, with the vernacular meaning of an indescribable or mystical experience or sixth sense, but rather with the meaning of the direct perception or grasping of sensory phenomena. In this article, both terms, "perception" and "intuition" are used to stand for Kant's Anschauung. ^ Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason
[1781], trans. Norman Kemp Smith (N.Y.: St. Martins, 1965), A 51/B 75. ^ Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Ed. Paul Guyer
Paul Guyer
and Allen W. Wood. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998. p. 248. ^ a b c d e f g Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena to perhaps Any Future Metaphysics, pages 35 to 43. ^ Deleuze on Kant Archived 14 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine., from where the definitions of a priori and a posteriori were obtained. ^ Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, pages 35 to 43. ^ Immanuel Kant, Critique of Judgment, the Introduction to the Hackett edition. ^ The distinction between rational and philosophical knowledge is given in the Preface to the Groundwork, 1785. ^ Kant, Foundations, p. 421. ^ Critique of Pure Reason, A806/B834. ^ Kant, Foundations, p. 408. ^ Kant, Foundations, pp. 420–1. ^ a b c d Kant, Foundations, p. 436. ^ Kant, Immanuel (1993) [1785]. Grounding for the Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Morals. Translated by Ellington, James W. (3rd ed.). Hackett. p. 30. ISBN 0-87220-166-X. . It is standard to also reference the Akademie Ausgabe of Kant's works. The Groundwork occurs in the fourth volume.The above citation is taken from 4:421. ^ Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2003) Ecosystems and Well-being: A Framework for Assessment. Washington DC: Island Press, p. 142. ^ "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch: Appendix 1". Constitution.org. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Project for a Perpetual Peace, p. 61. Books.google.com. 1796. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Immanuel Kant's Werke, revidirte Gesammtausg, p. 456. Books.google.com. 1838. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Kant, Foundations, p. 437. ^ "Kant and the German Enlightenment" in "History of Ethics". Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Vol. 3, pp. 95–96. MacMillan, 1973. ^ Kant, Foundations, pp. 400, 429. ^ Kant, Foundations, pp. 437–8. ^ Kant, Foundations, pp. 438–9. See also Kingdom of Ends ^ a b Immanuel Kant. Religion
Religion
within the Limits of Reason
Reason
Alone (1793), Book
Book
IV, Part 1, Section 1, "The Christian
Christian
religion as a natural religion." ^ "Kant's Philosophy
Philosophy
of Religion
Religion
(Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Byrne, Peter (2007), Kant on God, London: Ashgate, page 159. ^ Wood, Allen W. (1970), Kant's moral religion, London and Ithaca: Cornell University Press, page 16. ^ Westphal, Merold (2010),The Emerge of Modern Philosophy
Philosophy
of Religion, in Taliaferro, Charles, Draper, Paul and Quinn, Philip (editors), A Companion to Philosophy
Philosophy
of Religion, Oxford: Blackwell, page 135. ^ Iţu, Mircia (2004), Dumnezeu şi religia în concepţia lui Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
din Religia în limitele raţiunii, in Boboc, Alexandru and Mariş, N. I. (editors), Studii de istoria filosofiei universale, volume 12, Bucharest: Romanian Academy. ^ The Norman Kemp Smith translation has been used for this section, with citation noting the pagination of the first and second editions. ^ a b Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, A448/B476. ^ Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, A534/B562. ^ the same distinction of transcendental and practical meaning can be applied to the idea of God, with the proviso that the practical concept of freedom can be experienced (Critique of Pure Reason, A801-804/B829-832). ^ Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, A800–2/B828–30. ^ The concept of freedom is also handled in the third section of the Foundations of the Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Morals. In the Critique of Practical Reason
Reason
see § VII and § VIII. ^ 5:65–67 ^ Susanne Bobzien, 'Die Kategorien der Freiheit bei Kant', in Kant: Analysen, Probleme, Kritik Vol. 1, 1988, 193–220. ^ Critique of Judgment
Critique of Judgment
in "Kant, Immanuel" Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol 4. Macmillan, 1973. ^ Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, A22/B36. ^ Beardsley, Monroe. "History of Aesthetics". Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol. 1, section on "Toward a unified aesthetics", p. 25, Macmillan 1973. Baumgarten coined the term "aesthetics" and expanded, clarified, and unified Wolffian aesthetic theory, but had left the Aesthetica unfinished (See also: Tonelli, Giorgio. "Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten". Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol. 1, Macmillan 1973). In Bernard's translation of the Critique of Judgment
Critique of Judgment
he indicates in the notes that Kant's reference in § 15 in regard to the identification of perfection and beauty is probably a reference to Baumgarten. ^ German Idealism
Idealism
in "History of Aesthetics" Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol 1. Macmillan, 1973. ^ Kant's general discussions of the distinction between "cognition" and "conscious of" are also given in the Critique of Pure Reason (notably A320/B376), and section V and the conclusion of section VIII of his Introduction in Logic. ^ Clewis, Robert (2009). "The Kantian Sublime and the Revelation of Freedom". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  ^ Kant, Immanuel. Idea
Idea
for a Universal History. Trans. Lewis White Beck (20, 22). ^ Kant, Immanuel. Idea
Idea
for a Universal History. Trans. Lewis White Beck (26). ^ Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch (1795) ^ Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace. Trans. Lewis White Beck (377). ^ Manfred Riedel Between Tradition and Revolution: The Hegelian Transformation of Political Philosophy, Cambridge 1984 ^ On History, (ed. L. W. Beck, New York: Bobbs Merill, 1963, p 106). ^ History of Political Philosophy, edited by Leo Strauss
Leo Strauss
and Joseph Cropsey, The University of Chicago Press, 1987, pp. 581–582, 603 ^ Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace. Trans. Lewis White Beck (352). ^ Thomas Sturm, Kant und die Wissenschaften vom Menschen (Paderborn: Mentis Verlag, 2009). ^ Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, ed. Robert B. Louden, introduction by Manfred Kuehn, Cambridge University Press, 2006 ^ Gregor, Brian. "Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View. By Immanuel Kant. Translated and edited by Robert B. Louden". Heythrop.  ^ Lectures on Ethics, translated by L. Infield (New York: Harper & Row, 1'163), p. 170, quoted by Ruse, op. cit., p. 186. ^ Prof. Oliver A. Johnson claims that, "With the possible exception of Plato's Republic, (Critique of Pure Reason) is the most important philosophical book ever written." Article on Kant within the collection "Great thinkers of the Western World", Ian P. McGreal, Ed., HarperCollins, 1992. ^ See Stephen Palmquist, "The Architectonic Form of Kant's Copernican Logic", Metaphilosophy 17:4 (October 1986), pp. 266–288; revised and reprinted as Chapter III of Kant's System of Perspectives: An architectonic interpretation of the Critical philosophy
Critical philosophy
(Lanham: University Press of America, 1993). ^ There is much debate in the recent scholarship about the extent to which Fichte and Schelling actually overstep the boundaries of Kant's critical philosophy, thus entering the realm of dogmatic or pre-Critical philosophy. Beiser's German Idealism
Idealism
discusses some of these issues. Beiser, Frederick C. German Idealism: The Struggle against Subjectivism, 1781–1801. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002. ^ Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Natural Law: The Scientific Ways of Treating Natural Law, Its Place in Moral Philosophy, and Its Relation to the Positive Sciences. trans. T. M. Knox. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1975. Hegel's mature view and his concept of "ethical life" is elaborated in his Philosophy
Philosophy
of Right. Hegel, Philosophy
Philosophy
of Right. trans. T. M. Knox. Oxford University Press, 1967. ^ Robert Pippin's Hegel's Idealism
Idealism
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989) emphasizes the continuity of Hegel's concerns with Kant's. Robert Wallace, Hegel's Philosophy
Philosophy
of Reality, Freedom, and God
God
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005) explains how Hegel's Science
Science
of Logic
Logic
defends Kant's idea of freedom as going beyond finite "inclinations", contra skeptics such as David Hume. ^ Englefield, Ronald, Kant as Defender of the Faith
Faith
in Nineteenth-century England", Question, 12, 16–27, (Pemberton, London) ^ Englefield, Ronald, Critique of Pure Verbiage, Essays on Abuses of Language in Literary, Religious, and Philosophical Writings, edited by G. A. Wells and D. R. Oppenheimer, Open Court, 1990. ^ Beck, Lewis White. "Neo-Kantianism". In Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol. 5–6. Macmillan, 1973. Article on Neo- Kantianism
Kantianism
by a translator and scholar of Kant. ^ Cerf, Walter. "Nicolai Hartmann". In Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol. 3–4. Macmillan, 1973. Nicolai was a realist who later rejected the idealism of Neo-Kantianism, his anti-Neo-Kantian views emerging with the publication of the second volume of Hegel (1929). ^ Schlegel, Friedrich. "Athenaeum Fragments", in Philosophical Fragments. Trans. Peter Firchow. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1991. See especially fragments Nos. 1, 43, 44. ^ Greenberg, Clement. "Modernist Painting", in The Philosophy
Philosophy
of Art, ed. Alex Neill and Aaron Ridley, McGraw-Hill, 1995. ^ See "Essential Works of Foucault: 1954–1984 vol.2: Aesthetics, Method, and Epistemology." Ed. by James Faubion, Trans. Robert Hurley et al. New York City, New York: The New Press, 1998 (2010 reprint). See "Foucault, Michel, 1926 –" entry by Maurice Florence. ^ For a discussion and qualified defense of this position, see Stephen Palmquist, "A Priori Knowledge
Knowledge
in Perspective: (I) Mathematics, Method and Pure Intuition", The Review of Metaphysics
Metaphysics
41:1 (September 1987), pp. 3–22. ^ Körner, Stephan, The Philosophy
Philosophy
of Mathematics, Dover, 1986. For an analysis of Kant's writings on mathematics see, Friedman, Michael, Kant and the Exact Sciences, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992. ^ Ray, James Lee. Does Democracy
Democracy
Cause Peace? Archived 17 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Annual Review of Political Science
Science
1998. 1:27–46. ^ Strawson, P. F., The Bounds of Sense: An Essay on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Routledge: 2004. When first published in 1966, this book forced many Anglo-American philosophers to reconsider Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. ^ Cassam, Q., "The Possibility of Knowledge" Oxford: 2009 ^ Sellars, Wilfrid, Science
Science
and Metaphysics: Variations on Kantian Themes. Ridgeview Publishing Company, 1967 ^ Korsgaard, Christine. Creating the Kingdom of Ends. Cambridge; New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-521-49644-6, ISBN 0-521-49962-3 (pbk.) Not a commentary, but a defense of a broadly Kantian approach to ethics ^ Brook, Andrew. Kant and the Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. See also, Meerbote, R. "Kant's Functionalism". In: J. C. Smith, ed. Historical Foundations of Cognitive Science. Dordrecht, Holland: Reidel, 1991. Brook has an article on Kant's View of the Mind in the Stanford Encyclopedia ^ See Habermas, J. Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. Trans. Christian
Christian
Lenhardt and Shierry Weber Nicholsen. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. For Rawls see, Rawls, John. Theory of Justice Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971. Rawls has a well-known essay on Kant's concept of good. See, Rawls, "Themes in Kant's Moral Philosophy" in Kant's Transcendental Deductions. Ed. Eckart Förster. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1989. ^ Habermas, J. (1994): The Unity of Reason
Reason
in the Diversity of Its Voices. In: Habermas, J. (Eds.): Postmetaphysical Thinking. Political Essays, Cambridge, Massachusetts: 115–148. ^ Rorty, R. (2984) Habermas and Lyotard on postmodernity. Praxis International (32-44) ^ Issacson, Walter. "Einstein: His Life and Universe." p. 20. ^ "Heine on Immanuel Kant" (PDF). Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ Examined Lives, From Socrates
Socrates
to Nietzsche, James Miller p.284 ^ Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
and the Bo(a)rders of Art
Art
History Mark Cheetham, in The Subjects of Art
Art
History: Historical Objects in Contemporary Perspectives, p. 16 ^ Beyer, Susanne (2014-07-25). "Resurrecting Königsberg: Russian City Looks to German Roots". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 2018-02-03.  ^ The thesis was submitted on 17 April 1755. "The public examination was held four weeks later on 13 May, and the degree was formally awarded on 12 June" (Eric Watkins, Kant: Natural Science, Cambridge University Press, 2012, p. 309). ^ Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant and the Sciences, Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 27. ^ Martin Schonfeld, The Philosophy
Philosophy
of the Young Kant: The Precritical Project, Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 74. ^ Available online at Bonner Kant-Korpus. ^ The thesis was publicly disputed on 27 September 1755 (Kuehn 2001, p. 100). ^ Available online at Bonner Kant-Korpus. ^ Kant's application for the position was unsuccessful. He defended it on 10 April 1756 (Kuehn 2001, p. 102). ^ Available online at Archive.org. ^ The thesis was publicly disputed on 21 August 1770 (Kuehn 2001, p. 189). ^ Available online at Google Books. ^ English translation available online at Wikisource. ^ Immanuel Kant. "The Critique of Pure Reason". Etext.library.adelaide.edu.au. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
(20 July 2009). "Projekt Gutenberg-DE – Spiegel Online – Nachrichten – Kultur". Gutenberg.spiegel.de. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Frank- Christian
Christian
Lilienweihs (10 June 1999). "Immanuel Kant: Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklaerung?". Prometheusonline.de. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ "Critique of Pure Reason". Hkbu.edu.hk. 31 October 2003. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ "Projekt Gutenberg-DE – Spiegel Online – Nachrichten – Kultur". Gutenberg.spiegel.de. 20 July 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
(20 July 2009). "Projekt Gutenberg-DE – Spiegel Online – Nachrichten – Kultur". Gutenberg.spiegel.de. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ s:The Critique of Judgment ^ Immanuel Kant. " Religion
Religion
within the Limits of Reason
Reason
Alone by Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
1793". Marxists.org. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ "Immanuel Kant, "Perpetual Peace"". Mtholyoke.edu. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ "Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden, 12.02.2004 (Friedensratschlag)". Uni-kassel.de. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ "Kant, The Contest of Faculties". Chnm.gmu.edu. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
(20 July 2009). "Projekt Gutenberg-DE – Spiegel Online – Nachrichten – Kultur". Gutenberg.spiegel.de. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Available online at DeutschesTextArchiv.de. ^ As noted by Allen W. Wood
Allen W. Wood
in his Introduction, p. 12. Wood further speculates that the lectures themselves were delivered in the Winter of 1783–84. ^ Immanuel Kant, Notes and Fragments, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. xvi.

Works cited

Kant, Immanuel. Foundations of the Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Morals. Trans. Lewis White Beck, Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1969. Page numbers citing this work are Beck's marginal numbers that refer to the page numbers of the standard edition of Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin, 1902–38). Kuehn, Manfred. Kant: a Biography. Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-521-49704-3.

Further reading

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Any suggestion of further reading on Kant has to take cognizance of the fact that his work has dominated philosophy like no other figure after him. Nevertheless, several guideposts can be made out. In Germany, one important contemporary interpreter of Kant and the movement of German Idealism
Idealism
he began is Dieter Henrich, who has some work available in English. P. F. Strawson's The Bounds of Sense (1966) played a significant role in determining the contemporary reception of Kant in England and America. More recent interpreters of note in the English-speaking world include Lewis White Beck, Jonathan Bennett, Henry Allison, Paul Guyer, Christine Korsgaard, Stephen Palmquist, Robert B. Pippin, Roger Scruton, Rudolf Makkreel, and Béatrice Longuenesse.

General introductions to his thought

Broad, C. D. Kant: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, 1978. ISBN 0521217555, ISBN 0521292654 Gardner, Sebastian. Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason. Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0-415-11909-X Martin, Gottfried. Kant's Metaphysics
Metaphysics
and Theory of Science. Greenwood Press, 1955 ISBN 978-0-8371-7154-8 (elucidates Kant's most fundamental concepts in their historical context) Palmquist, Stephen. Kant's System of Perspectives: an architectonic interpretation of the Critical philosophy. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1993. ISBN 0-8191-8927-8 Seung, T. K. 2007. Kant: a Guide for the Perplexed. London: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-8580-4 Satyananda Giri. Kant. Durham, CT: Strategic Publishing Group, 2010. ISBN 978-1-60911-686-6 Scruton, Roger. Kant: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-280199-6 (provides a brief account of his life, and a lucid introduction to the three major critiques) Uleman, Jennifer. An Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-521-13644-0 Luchte, James. Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-0826493224

Biography and historical context

Bader, Ralph (2008). "Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804)". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 269–71. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n161. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.  Beck, Lewis White. Early German Philosophy: Kant and his Predecessors. Harvard University Press, 1969. (a survey of Kant's intellectual background) Beiser, Frederick C. The Fate of Reason: German Philosophy
Philosophy
from Kant to Fichte. Harvard University Press, 1987. Beiser, Frederick C. German Idealism: the Struggle against Subjectivism, 1781–1801. Harvard University Press, 2002 Cassirer, Ernst. Kant's Life and Thought. Translation of Kants Leben und Lehre. Trans., Jame S. Haden, intr. Stephan Körner. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981. Chamberlain, Houston Stewart. Immanuel Kant – a study and a comparison with Goethe, Leonardo da Vinci, Bruno, Plato
Plato
and Descartes, the authorised translation from the German by Lord Redesdale, with his 'Introduction', The Bodley Head, London, 1914, (2 volumes). Gulyga, Arsenij. Immanuel Kant: His Life and Thought. Trans., Marijan Despaltović. Boston: Birkhäuser, 1987. Johnson, G.R. (ed.). Kant on Swedenborg. Dreams of a Spirit-Seer and Other Writings. Swedenborg Foundation, 2002. (new translation and analysis, many supplementary texts) Lehner, Ulrich L., Kants Vorsehungskonzept auf dem Hintergrund der deutschen Schulphilosophie und -theologie (Leiden: 2007) (Kant's concept of Providence and its background in German school philosophy and theology) Pinkard, Terry. German Philosophy, 1760–1860: the Legacy of Idealism. Cambridge, 2002. Pippin, Robert. Idealism
Idealism
as Modernism. Cambridge University Press, 1996. Sassen, Brigitte (ed.). Kant's Early Critics: the Empiricist Critique of the Theoretical Philosophy, Cambridge, 2000. Schabert, Joseph A. "Kant's Influence on his Successors", The American Catholic Quarterly Review, Vol. XLVII, January 1922.

Collections of essays

Firestone, Chris L. and Palmquist, Stephen (eds.). Kant and the New Philosophy
Philosophy
of Religion. Notre Dame: Indiana University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-253-21800-4 Förster, Eckart (ed.). Kant's Transcendental Deductions:. The Three 'Critiques' and the 'Opus Postumum' Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989. Includes an important essay by Dieter Henrich. Guyer, Paul (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Kant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-521-36587-2, ISBN 0-521-36768-9. Excellent collection of papers that covers most areas of Kant's thought. Mohanty, J. N. and Shahan, Robert W. (eds.). Essays on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982. ISBN 0-8061-1782-6 Phillips, Dewi et al. (eds.). Kant and Kierkegaard on Religion. New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2000, ISBN 0-312-23234-9 Collection of essays about Kantian religion and its influence on Kierkegaardian and contemporary philosophy of religion. Proceedings of the International Kant Congresses. Several Congresses (numbered) edited by various publishers.

Theoretical philosophy

Allison, Henry. Kant's Transcendental Idealism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983, 2004. ISBN 0-300-03629-9, ISBN 0-300-03002-9 (a very influential defense of Kant's idealism, recently revised). Ameriks, Karl. Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982 (one of the first detailed studies of the Dialectic in English). Banham, Gary. Kant's Transcendental Imagination. London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Deleuze, Gilles. Kant's Critical Philosophy. Trans., Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam. University of Minnesota Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8166-1341-9, ISBN 0-8166-1436-9 Gram, Moltke S. The Transcendental Turn: The Foundation of Kant's Idealism. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1984. ISBN 0813007879 Greenberg, Robert. Kant's Theory of A Priori Knowledge. Penn State Press, 2001 ISBN 0-271-02083-0 Guyer, Paul. Kant and the Claims of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987 (modern defense of the view that Kant's theoretical philosophy is a "patchwork" of ill-fitting arguments). Heidegger, Martin. Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics. Trans., Richard Taft. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-253-21067-4 Henrich, Dieter. The Unity of Reason: Essays on Kant's Philosophy. Ed. with introduction by Richard L. Velkley; trans. Jeffrey Edwards et al. Harvard University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-674-92905-5 Kemp Smith, Norman. A Commentary to Kant's 'Critique of Pure Reason. London: Macmillan, 1930 (influential commentary on the first Critique, recently reprinted). Kitcher, Patricia. Kant's Transcendental Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Longuenesse, Béatrice. Kant and the Capacity to Judge. Princeton University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-691-04348-5. (argues that the notion of judgment provides the key to understanding the overall argument of the first Critique) Melnick, Arthur. Kant's Analogies of Experience. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973. (important study of Kant's Analogies, including his defense of the principle of causality) Paton, H. J. Kant's Metaphysic of Experience: a Commentary on the First Half of the Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Two volumes. London: Macmillan, 1936. (extensive study of Kant's theoretical philosophy) Pippin, Robert B.. Kant's Theory of Form: An Essay on the Critique of Pure Reason. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982. (influential examination of the formal character of Kant's work) Schopenhauer, Arthur. Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung. Erster Band. Anhang. Kritik der Kantischen Philosophie. F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1859 (In English: Arthur Schopenhauer, New York: Dover Press, Volume I, Appendix, "Criticism of the Kantian Philosophy", ISBN 0-486-21761-2) Schott, Robin May (1997). Feminist interpretations of Immanuel Kant. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 9780271016764.  Seung, T. K. Kant's Transcendental Logic. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969. Strawson, P. F. The Bounds of Sense: An Essay on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Routledge, 1989 (the work that revitalized the interest of contemporary analytic philosophers in Kant). Sturm, Thomas, Kant und die Wissenschaften vom Menschen. Paderborn: Mentis Verlag, 2009. ISBN 3897856085; ISBN 978-3897856080. review (Treats Kant's anthropology and his views on psychology and history in relation to his philosophy of science.) Tonelli, Giorgio. Kant's Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason
within the Tradition of Modern Logic. A Commentary on its History. Hildesheim, Olms 1994 Werkmeister, W.H., Kant: The Architectonic and Development of His Philosophy, Open Court Publishing Co., La Salle, Ill.; 1980 ISBN 0-87548-345-3 (it treats, as a whole, the architectonic and development of Kant's philosophy from 1755 through the Opus postumum.) Wolff, Robert Paul. Kant's Theory of Mental Activity: A Commentary on the Transcendental Analytic of the Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963. (detailed and influential commentary on the first part of the Critique of Pure Reason) Yovel, Yirmiahu. Kant and the Philosophy
Philosophy
of History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980. (review)

Practical philosophy

Allison, Henry. Kant's Theory of Freedom. Cambridge University Press 1990. Banham, Gary. Kant's Practical Philosophy: From Critique to Doctrine. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Dorschel, Andreas. Die idealistische Kritik des Willens: Versuch über die Theorie der praktischen Subjektivität bei Kant und Hegel. Hamburg: Felix Meiner, 1992 (Schriften zur Transzendentalphilosophie 10) ISBN 3-7873-1046-0. Friedman, Michael (June 1998). "Kantian themes in contemporary philosophy". Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes. Wiley. 72 (1): 111–130. doi:10.1111/1467-8349.00038. JSTOR 4107015.  Koorsgaard, Christine M. The Sources of Normativity. Cambridge University Press, 1996. Michalson, Gordon E. Fallen Freedom: Kant on Radical Evil and Moral Regeneration. Cambridge University Press, 1990. Michalson, Gordon E. Kant and the Problem of God. Blackwell Publishers, 1999. Paton, H. J. The Categorical Imperative: A Study in Kant's Moral Philosophy. University of Pennsylvania Press
University of Pennsylvania Press
1971. Rawls, John. Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy. Cambridge, 2000. Seung, T.K. Kant's Platonic Revolution
Revolution
in Moral and Political Philosophy. Johns Hopkins, 1994. Wolff, Robert Paul. The Autonomy of Reason: A Commentary on Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals. New York: HarperCollins, 1974. ISBN 0-06-131792-6. Wood, Allen. Kant's Ethical Thought. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Aesthetics

Allison, Henry. Kant's Theory of Taste: A Reading of the Critique of Aesthetic Judgment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Banham, Gary. Kant and the Ends of Aesthetics. London and New York: Macmillan Press, 2000. Clewis, Robert. The Kantian Sublime and the Revelation of Freedom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Crawford, Donald. Kant's Aesthetic Theory. Wisconsin, 1974. Doran, Robert. The Theory of the Sublime from Longinus to Kant. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2015. Guyer, Paul. Kant and the Claims of Taste. Cambridge, MA and London, 1979. Hammermeister, Kai. The German Aesthetic Tradition. Cambridge University Press, 2002. Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
entry in Kelly, Michael (Editor in Chief) (1998) Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Kaplama, Erman. Cosmological Aesthetics
Aesthetics
through the Kantian Sublime and Nietzschean Dionysian. Lanham: UPA, Rowman & Littlefield, 2014. Makkreel, Rudolf, Imagination and Interpretation in Kant. Chicago, 1990. McCloskey, Mary. Kant's Aesthetic. SUNY, 1987. Schaper, Eva. Studies in Kant's Aesthetics. Edinburgh, 1979. Zammito, John H. The Genesis of Kant's Critique of Judgment. Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1992. Zupancic, Alenka. Ethics
Ethics
of the Real: Kant and Lacan. Verso, 2000.

Philosophy
Philosophy
of religion

Palmquist, Stephen. Kant's Critical Religion: Volume Two of Kant's System of Perspectives. Ashgate, 2000. ISBN 0-7546-1333-X Perez, Daniel Omar. "Religión, Política y Medicina en Kant: El Conflicto de las Proposiciones". Cinta de Moebio. Revista de Epistemologia de Ciencias Sociales, v. 28, p. 91–103, 2007. Uchile.cl (Spanish)

Perpetual peace and international relations

Sir Harry Hinsley, Power and the Pursuit of Peace, Cambridge University Press, 1962. Martin Wight, Four Seminal Thinkers in International Theory: Machiavelli, Grotius, Kant and Mazzini ed. Gabriele Wight & Brian Porter (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). Bennington, Geoffrey (December 2011). "Kant's open secret". Theory, Culture & Society. Sage. 28 (7–8): 26–40. doi:10.1177/0263276411423036. 

Other works

Botul, Jean-Baptiste. La vie sexuelle d'Emmanuel Kant. Paris, FR; Éd. Mille et une Nuits, 2008. ISBN 978-2842054243 Caygill, Howard. A Kant Dictionary. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Mass., US: Blackwell Reference, 1995. ISBN 0-631-17534-2, ISBN 0-631-17535-0 Derrida, Jacques. Mochlos; or, The Conflict of the Faculties. Columbia University, 1980. Kelly, Michael. Kant's Ethics
Ethics
and Schopenhauer's Criticism, London: Swan Sonnenschein
Swan Sonnenschein
1910. [Reprinted 2010 Nabu Press, ISBN 978-1171707950] Mosser, Kurt. Necessity and Possibility; The Logical Strategy of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Catholic University of America Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8132-1532-7 White, Mark D. Kantian Ethics
Ethics
and Economics: Autonomy, Dignity, and Character. Stanford University Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0-8047-6894-8. (Reviewed in The Montreal Review)

Contemporary philosophy
Contemporary philosophy
with a Kantian influence

Assiter, Alison (July 2013). "Kant and Kierkegaard on freedom and evil". Royal Institute of Philosophy
Philosophy
Supplement. Cambridge Journals Online. 72: 275–296. doi:10.1017/S1358246113000155.  Bird, Graham (June 1998). "Kantian themes in contemporary philosophy". Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes. Wiley. 72 (1): 131–152. doi:10.1111/1467-8349.00039. JSTOR 4107015.  Guyer, Paul. Knowledge, Reason, and Taste: Kant's Response to Hume. Princeton University Press, 2008. Hanna, Robert, Kant and the Foundations of Analytic Philosophy. Clarendon Press, 2004. Hanna, Robert, Kant, Science, and Human
Human
Nature. Clarendon Press, 2006. Herman, Barbara. The Practice of Moral Judgement. Harvard University Press, 1993. Hill, Judith M. (June 1987). "Pornography and degradation". Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy. Wiley. 2 (2): 39–54. doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.1987.tb01064.x. JSTOR 3810015.  (A Kantian approach to the issue of pornography and degradation.) Korsgaard, Christine. Creating the Kingdom of Ends. Cambridge; New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-521-49644-6, ISBN 0-521-49962-3 (pbk.) (not a commentary, but a defense of a broadly Kantian approach to ethics) McDowell, John. Mind
Mind
and World. Harvard University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-674-57609-8. (offers a Kantian solution to a dilemma in contemporary epistemology regarding the relation between mind and world) O'Neill, Onora (June 1998). "Kant on duties regarding nonrational nature". Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes. Wiley. 72 (1): 211–228. doi:10.1111/1467-8349.00043. JSTOR 4107017.  Parfit, Derek. On What Matters (2 vols.). New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0-19-926592-3 Pinker, Steven. The Stuff of Thought. Viking Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-670-06327-7. (Chapter 4 "Cleaving the Air" discusses Kant's anticipation of modern cognitive science) Wood, Allen W.. Kant's Ethical Thought. Cambridge; New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-521-64836-X. (comprehensive, in-depth study of Kant's ethics, with emphasis on formula of humanity as most accurate formulation of the categorical imperative) Wood, Allen W. (June 1998). "Kant on duties regarding nonrational nature". Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes. Wiley. 72 (1): 189–210. doi:10.1111/1467-8349.00042. JSTOR 4107017. 

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Atheism Capitalism Civil liberties Counter-Enlightenment Critical thinking Deism Democracy Empiricism Encyclopédistes Enlightened absolutism Free markets Haskalah Humanism Human
Human
rights Liberalism Liberté, égalité, fraternité Methodological skepticism Nationalism Natural philosophy Objectivity Rationality Rationalism Reason Reductionism Sapere aude Science Scientific method Socialism Universality Weimar Classicism

Thinkers

France

Jean le Rond d'Alembert Étienne Bonnot de Condillac Marquis de Condorcet Denis Diderot Claude Adrien Helvétius Baron d'Holbach Georges-Louis Leclerc Montesquieu François Quesnay Jean-Jacques Rousseau Marquis de Sade Voltaire

Germany

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Georg Hamann Johann Gottfried von Herder Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi Immanuel Kant Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Moses Mendelssohn Friedrich Schiller Thomas Wizenmann

Greece

Neophytos Doukas Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Theophilos Kairis Adamantios Korais

Ireland

Robert Boyle Edmund Burke

Italy

Cesare Beccaria Gaetano Filangieri Antonio Genovesi Pietro Verri

The Netherlands

Spinoza Hugo Grotius Balthasar Bekker Bernard Nieuwentyt Frederik van Leenhof Christiaan Huygens Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Jan Swammerdam

Poland

Tadeusz Czacki Hugo Kołłątaj Stanisław Konarski Ignacy Krasicki Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz Stanisław August Poniatowski Jędrzej Śniadecki Stanisław Staszic Józef Wybicki Andrzej Stanisław Załuski Józef Andrzej Załuski

Portugal

Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo

Russia

Catherine II

Spain

Charles III Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro

United Kingdom (Scotland)

Francis Bacon Jeremy Bentham Joseph Black James Boswell Adam Ferguson Edward Gibbon Robert Hooke David Hume Francis Hutcheson Samuel Johnson John Locke Isaac Newton Thomas Reid Adam Smith Mary Wollstonecraft

United States

Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson James Madison George Mason Thomas Paine

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Metaphysics

Metaphysicians

Parmenides Plato Aristotle Plotinus Duns Scotus Thomas Aquinas Francisco Suárez Nicolas Malebranche René Descartes John Locke David Hume Thomas Reid Immanuel Kant Isaac Newton Arthur Schopenhauer Baruch Spinoza Georg W. F. Hegel George Berkeley Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Henri Bergson Friedrich Nietzsche Charles Sanders Peirce Joseph Maréchal Ludwig Wittgenstein Martin Heidegger Alfred N. Whitehead Bertrand Russell Dorothy Emmet G. E. Moore Jean-Paul Sartre Gilbert Ryle Hilary Putnam P. F. Strawson R. G. Collingwood Adolph Stöhr Rudolf Carnap Saul Kripke Willard V. O. Quine G. E. M. Anscombe Donald Davidson Michael Dummett David Malet Armstrong David Lewis Alvin Plantinga Peter van Inwagen Derek Parfit more ...

Theories

Abstract object theory Action theory Anti-realism Determinism Dualism Enactivism Essentialism Existentialism Free will Idealism Libertarianism Liberty Materialism Meaning of life Monism Naturalism Nihilism Phenomenalism Realism Physicalism Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality Platonic idealism Relativism Scientific realism Solipsism Subjectivism Substance theory Type theory

Concepts

Abstract object Anima mundi Being Category of being Causality Choice Cogito ergo sum Concept Embodied cognition Entity Essence Existence Experience Hypostatic abstraction Idea Identity Identity and change Information Insight Intelligence Intention Linguistic modality Matter Meaning Memetics Mental representation Mind Motion Necessity Notion Object Pattern Perception Physical body Principle Property Qualia Quality Reality Soul Subject Substantial form Thought Time Truth Type–token distinction Universal Unobservable Value more ...

Related topics

Axiology Cosmology Epistemology Feminist metaphysics Interpretations of quantum mechanics Meta- Ontology Philosophy
Philosophy
of mind Philosophy
Philosophy
of psychology Philosophy
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of self Philosophy
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Epistemology

Epistemologists

Thomas Aquinas Augustine of Hippo William Alston Robert Audi A. J. Ayer George Berkeley Laurence BonJour René Descartes John Dewey Fred Dretske Edmund Gettier Roger Gibson Alvin Goldman Nelson Goodman Paul Grice David Hume Immanuel Kant Søren Kierkegaard Saul Kripke David Lewis John Locke G. E. Moore Robert Nozick Alvin Plantinga Plato Hilary Putnam Thomas Reid Gilbert Ryle P. F. Strawson Willard Van Orman Quine Bertrand Russell Baruch Spinoza Timothy Williamson Ludwig Wittgenstein Nicholas Wolterstorff Vienna Circle

Theories

Coherentism Constructivist epistemology Contextualism Determinism Empiricism Evolutionary epistemology Fallibilism Feminist epistemology Fideism Foundationalism Genetic epistemology Holism Infinitism Innatism Internalism and externalism Naïve realism Naturalized epistemology Phenomenalism Positivism Reductionism Reliabilism Representative realism Rationalism Skepticism Theory of forms Transcendental idealism Uniformitarianism

Concepts

A priori knowledge Analysis Analytic–synthetic distinction Belief Causality Common sense Descriptive knowledge Exploratory thought Gettier problem Justification Knowledge Induction Objectivity Problem of induction Problem of other minds Perception Proposition Regress argument Simplicity Speculative reason Truth more...

Related articles

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Faith
and rationality Formal epistemology Meta-epistemology Philosophy
Philosophy
of perception Philosophy
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of science Social epistemology

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Philosophy
Philosophy
of science

Concepts

Analysis Analytic–synthetic distinction A priori and a posteriori Causality Commensurability Consilience Construct Creative synthesis Demarcation problem Empirical evidence Explanatory power Fact Falsifiability Feminist method Ignoramus et ignorabimus Inductive reasoning Intertheoretic reduction Inquiry Nature Objectivity Observation Paradigm Problem of induction Scientific law Scientific method Scientific revolution Scientific theory Testability Theory choice Theory-ladenness Underdetermination Unity of science

Metatheory of science

Coherentism Confirmation holism Constructive empiricism Constructive realism Constructivist epistemology Contextualism Conventionalism Deductive-nomological model Hypothetico-deductive model Inductionism Epistemological anarchism Evolutionism Fallibilism Foundationalism Instrumentalism Pragmatism Model-dependent realism Naturalism Physicalism Positivism / Reductionism / Determinism Rationalism / Empiricism Received view / Semantic view of theories Scientific realism / Anti-realism Scientific essentialism Scientific formalism Scientific skepticism Scientism Structuralism Uniformitarianism Vitalism

Philosophy
Philosophy
of

Physics

thermal and statistical Motion

Chemistry Biology Environment Geography Social science Technology

Engineering Artificial intelligence Computer science

Information Mind Psychiatry Psychology Perception Space
Space
and time

Related topics

Alchemy Criticism of science Epistemology Faith
Faith
and rationality History and philosophy of science History of science History of evolutionary thought Logic Metaphysics Pseudoscience Relationship between religion and science Rhetoric of science Sociology of scientific knowledge Sociology of scientific ignorance

Philosophers of science by era

Ancient

Plato Aristotle Stoicism Epicureans

Medieval

Averroes Avicenna Roger Bacon William of Ockham Hugh of Saint Victor Dominicus Gundissalinus Robert Kilwardby

Early modern

Francis Bacon Thomas Hobbes René Descartes Galileo Galilei Pierre Gassendi Isaac Newton David Hume

Classical modern

Immanuel Kant Friedrich Schelling William Whewell Auguste Comte John Stuart Mill Herbert Spencer Wilhelm Wundt Charles Sanders Peirce Wilhelm Windelband Henri Poincaré Pierre Duhem Rudolf Steiner Karl Pearson

Late modern

Alfred North Whitehead Bertrand Russell Albert Einstein Otto Neurath C. D. Broad Michael Polanyi Hans Reichenbach Rudolf Carnap Karl Popper Carl Gustav Hempel W. V. O. Quine Thomas Kuhn Imre Lakatos Paul Feyerabend Jürgen Habermas Ian Hacking Bas van Fraassen Larry Laudan Daniel Dennett

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Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist political theory Gandhism Individualism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Vaisheshika

Concepts

Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more...

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Ethics

Theories

Casuistry Consequentialism Deontology

Kantian ethics

Ethics
Ethics
of care Existentialist ethics Meta-ethics Particularism Pragmatic ethics Role ethics Virtue
Virtue
ethics

Concepts

Autonomy Axiology Belief Conscience Consent Equality Care Free will Good and evil Happiness Ideal Justice Morality Norm Freedom Principles Suffering
Suffering
or Pain Stewardship Sympathy Trust Value Virtue Wrong full index...

Philosophers

Laozi Plato Aristotle Diogenes Valluvar Cicero Confucius Augustine of Hippo Mencius Mozi Xunzi Thomas Aquinas Baruch Spinoza David Hume Immanuel Kant Georg W. F. Hegel Arthur Schopenhauer Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill Søren Kierkegaard Henry Sidgwick Friedrich Nietzsche G. E. Moore Karl Barth Paul Tillich Dietrich Bonhoeffer Philippa Foot John Rawls John Dewey Bernard Williams J. L. Mackie G. E. M. Anscombe William Frankena Alasdair MacIntyre R. M. Hare Peter Singer Derek Parfit Thomas Nagel Robert Merrihew Adams Charles Taylor Joxe Azurmendi Christine Korsgaard Martha Nussbaum more...

Applied ethics

Bioethics Business ethics Discourse ethics Engineering ethics Environmental ethics Legal ethics Media ethics Medical ethics Nursing ethics Professional ethics Sexual ethics Ethics
Ethics
of eating meat Ethics
Ethics
of technology

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Christian
Christian
ethics Descriptive ethics Ethics
Ethics
in religion Evolutionary ethics Feminist ethics History of ethics Ideology Islamic ethics Jewish ethics Normative ethics Philosophy
Philosophy
of law Political philosophy Population ethics Social philosophy

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Philosophy
Philosophy
of religion

Concepts in religion

Afterlife Euthyphro dilemma Faith Intelligent design Miracle Problem of evil Religious belief Soul Spirit Theodicy Theological veto

Conceptions of God

Aristotelian view Brahman Demiurge Divine simplicity Egoism Holy Spirit Misotheism Pandeism Personal god Process theology Supreme Being Unmoved mover

God
God
in

Abrahamic religions Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism Mormonism Sikhism Bahá'í Faith Wicca

Existence of God

For

Beauty Christological Consciousness Cosmological

Kalam Contingency

Degree Desire Experience Fine-tuning of the Universe Love Miracles Morality Necessary existent Ontological Pascal's Wager Proper basis Reason Teleological

Natural law Watchmaker analogy

Transcendental

Against

747 gambit Atheist's Wager Evil Free will Hell Inconsistent revelations Nonbelief Noncognitivism Occam's razor Omnipotence Poor design Russell's teapot

Theology

Acosmism Agnosticism Animism Antireligion Atheism Creationism Dharmism Deism Demonology Divine command theory Dualism Esotericism Exclusivism Existentialism

Christian Agnostic Atheistic

Feminist theology

Thealogy Womanist theology

Fideism Fundamentalism Gnosticism Henotheism Humanism

Religious Secular Christian

Inclusivism Theories about religions Monism Monotheism Mysticism Naturalism

Metaphysical Religious Humanistic

New Age Nondualism Nontheism Pandeism Panentheism Pantheism Perennialism Polytheism Possibilianism Process theology Religious skepticism Spiritualism Shamanism Taoic Theism Transcendentalism more...

Religious language

Eschatological verification Language-game Logical positivism Apophatic theology Verificationism

Problem of evil

Augustinian theodicy Best of all possible worlds Euthyphro dilemma Inconsistent triad Irenaean theodicy Natural evil Theodicy

Philosophers of religion

(by date active)

Ancient and Medieval

Anselm of Canterbury Augustine of Hippo Avicenna Averroes Boethius Erasmus Gaunilo of Marmoutiers Pico della Mirandola Heraclitus King James VI and I Marcion of Sinope Thomas Aquinas Maimonides

Enlightenment

Augustin Calmet René Descartes Blaise Pascal Baruch Spinoza Nicolas Malebranche Gottfried W Leibniz William Wollaston Thomas Chubb David Hume Baron d'Holbach Immanuel Kant Johann G Herder

1800 1850

Friedrich Schleiermacher Karl C F Krause Georg W F Hegel

William Whewell Ludwig Feuerbach Søren Kierkegaard Karl Marx Albrecht Ritschl Afrikan Spir

1880 1900

Ernst Haeckel W. K. Clifford Friedrich Nietzsche Harald Høffding William James

Vladimir Solovyov Ernst Troeltsch Rudolf Otto Lev Shestov Sergei Bulgakov Pavel Florensky Ernst Cassirer Joseph Maréchal

1920 postwar

George Santayana Bertrand Russell Martin Buber René Guénon Paul Tillich Karl Barth Emil Brunner Rudolf Bultmann Gabriel Marcel Reinhold Niebuhr

Charles Hartshorne Mircea Eliade Frithjof Schuon J L Mackie Walter Kaufmann Martin Lings Peter Geach George I Mavrodes William Alston Antony Flew

1970 1990 2010

William L Rowe Dewi Z Phillips Alvin Plantinga Anthony Kenny Nicholas Wolterstorff Richard Swinburne Robert Merrihew Adams

Peter van Inwagen Daniel Dennett Loyal Rue Jean-Luc Marion William Lane Craig Ali Akbar Rashad

Alexander Pruss

Related topics

Criticism of religion Ethics
Ethics
in religion Exegesis History of religions Religion Religious language Religious philosophy Relationship between religion and science Political science of religion Faith
Faith
and rationality more...

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Aesthetics
Aesthetics
topics

Philosophers

Abhinavagupta Theodor W. Adorno Leon Battista Alberti Thomas Aquinas Hans Urs von Balthasar Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten Clive Bell Bernard Bosanquet Edward Bullough R. G. Collingwood Ananda Coomaraswamy Arthur Danto John Dewey Denis Diderot Hubert Dreyfus Curt John Ducasse Thierry de Duve Roger Fry Nelson Goodman Clement Greenberg Georg Hegel Martin Heidegger David Hume Immanuel Kant Paul Klee Susanne Langer Theodor Lipps György Lukács Jean-François Lyotard Joseph Margolis Jacques Maritain Thomas Munro Friedrich Nietzsche José Ortega y Gasset Dewitt H. Parker Stephen Pepper David Prall Jacques Rancière Ayn Rand George Lansing Raymond I. A. Richards George Santayana Friedrich Schiller Arthur Schopenhauer Roger Scruton Irving Singer Rabindranath Tagore Giorgio Vasari Morris Weitz Johann Joachim Winckelmann Richard Wollheim more...

Theories

Classicism Evolutionary aesthetics Historicism Modernism New Classical Postmodernism Psychoanalytic theory Romanticism Symbolism more...

Concepts

Aesthetic emotions Aesthetic interpretation Art
Art
manifesto Avant-garde Axiology Beauty Boredom Camp Comedy Creativity Cuteness Disgust Ecstasy Elegance Entertainment Eroticism Gaze Harmony Judgement Kama Kitsch Life imitating art Magnificence Mimesis Perception Quality Rasa Reverence Style Sublime Taste Work of art

Related topics

Aesthetics
Aesthetics
of music Applied aesthetics Architecture Art Arts criticism Feminist aesthetics Gastronomy History of painting Humour Japanese aesthetics Literary merit Mathematical beauty Mathematics
Mathematics
and architecture Mathematics
Mathematics
and art Music theory Neuroesthetics Painting Patterns in nature Philosophy
Philosophy
of design Philosophy
Philosophy
of film Philosophy
Philosophy
of music Poetry Sculpture Theory of painting Theory of art Tragedy Visual arts

Index Outline Category Portal

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Jurisprudence

Legal theory

Critical legal studies Comparative law Economic analysis International legal theory Legal history Philosophy
Philosophy
of law Sociology of law

Philosophers

Alexy Allan Aquinas Aristotle Austin Beccaria Bentham Betti Bickel Blackstone Bobbio Bork Brożek Cardozo Castanheira Neves Chafee Coleman Del Vecchio Durkheim Dworkin Ehrlich Feinberg Fineman Finnis Frank Fuller Gardner George Green Grisez Grotius Gurvitch Habermas Han Hart Hegel Hobbes Hohfeld Hägerström Jellinek Jhering Kant Kelsen Köchler Kramer Llewellyn Lombardía Luhmann Lundstedt Lyons MacCormick Marx Nussbaum Olivecrona Pashukanis Perelman Petrazycki Pontes de Miranda Posner Pound Puchta Radbruch Rawls Raz Reale Reinach Renner Ross Rumi Savigny Scaevola Schmitt Shang Simmonds Somló Suárez Tribe Unger Voegelin Waldron Walzer Weber

Theories

Analytical jurisprudence Deontological ethics Interpretivism Legalism Legal moralism Legal positivism Legal realism Libertarian theories of law Natural law Paternalism Utilitarianism Virtue
Virtue
jurisprudence

Concepts

Dharma Fa Judicial interpretation Justice Legal system Li Rational-legal authority

Related articles

Law Political philosophy more...

Category Law
Law
portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portal WikiProject Law WikiProject Philosophy changes

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  Liberalism

Development

Contributions to liberal theory History of liberalism

Ideas

Civil and political rights Cultural liberalism Democracy

Liberal democracy

Economic liberalism Egalitarianism Free market Free trade Freedom of the press Freedom of religion Freedom of speech Gender equality Harm principle Internationalism Laissez-faire Liberty Market economy Natural and legal rights Negative/Positive liberty Open society Permissive society Private property Rule of law Secularism Separation of church and state Social contract Welfare state

Schools

Anarcho-capitalism Civic nationalism Classical liberalism Conservative liberalism Democratic liberalism Geolibertarianism Green liberalism Liberal feminism

Equity feminism

Liberal internationalism Liberal socialism Muscular liberalism Neoliberalism Ordoliberalism Libertarianism Radical centrism Radicalism Religious liberalism Christian Islamic Secular liberalism Social liberalism Technoliberalism

Key figures

Juan Bautista Alberdi Jean le Rond d'Alembert Rifa'a al-Tahtawi Chu Anping Matthew Arnold Raymond Aron Frédéric Bastiat Simone de Beauvoir Jeremy Bentham Isaiah Berlin Eduard Bernstein William Beveridge Norberto Bobbio Ludwig Joseph Brentano John Bright Edmund Burke Thomas Carlyle Anders Chydenius Richard Cobden Marquis de Condorcet Benjamin Constant Benedetto Croce Ralf Dahrendorf John Dewey Charles Dickens Denis Diderot Zhang Dongsun Ronald Dworkin Ralph Waldo Emerson Karl-Hermann Flach Milton Friedman John Kenneth Galbraith William Lloyd Garrison José Ortega y Gasset David Lloyd George William Gladstone Piero Gobetti Francisco Luís Gomes John Gray Thomas Hill Green Friedrich Hayek Auberon Herbert Thomas Hobbes Leonard Hobhouse John A. Hobson Qin Hui Wilhelm von Humboldt Thomas Jefferson Immanuel Kant Namık Kemal John Maynard Keynes Will Kymlicka John Locke Salvador de Madariaga James Madison Harriet Martineau Minoo Masani James Mill John Stuart Mill John Milton Ludwig von Mises Donald Barkly Molteno Leo Chiozza Money Charles de Montesquieu José María Luis Mora Chantal Mouffe Dadabhai Naoroji Friedrich Naumann Robert Nozick Bertil Ohlin Thomas Paine Alan Paton Karl Popper Richard Price Joseph Priestley Guillermo Prieto François Quesnay Ignacio Ramírez Ayn Rand Walther Rathenau John Rawls Joseph Raz David Ricardo Wilhelm Röpke Richard Rorty Carlo Rosselli Murray Rothbard Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Baptiste Say Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed Amartya Sen Li Shenzhi Hu Shih Algernon Sidney Emmanuel Sieyès İbrahim Şinasi Adam Smith Hernando de Soto Herbert Spencer Anne Louise Germaine de Staël William Graham Sumner R. H. Tawney Johan Rudolph Thorbecke Henry David Thoreau Alexis de Tocqueville Antoine Destutt de Tracy Anne Robert Jacques Turgot Voltaire Lester Frank Ward Max Weber Mary Wollstonecraft Tao Xingzhi Gu Zhun

Regional variants

Africa

Egypt Nigeria Senegal South Africa Tunisia Zimbabwe

Asia

China Hong Kong India Iran Israel Japan South Korea Philippines Taiwan Thailand Turkey

Europe

Albania Armenia Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech lands Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Latin
Latin
America and the Caribbean

Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Cuba Ecuador Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay

North America

Canada United States

Modern liberalism

Oceania

Australia New Zealand

Organisations

Liberal parties Africa Liberal Network (ALN) Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
(ALDE) Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Party (ALDEP) Arab Liberal Federation Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats (CALD) European Democratic Party (EDP) European Liberal Youth
European Liberal Youth
(LYMEC) International Federation of Liberal Youth
International Federation of Liberal Youth
(IFLRY) Liberal International Liberal Network for Latin
Latin
America (Relial) Liberal South East European Network (LIBSEEN)

Related topics

Liberal bias in academia Liberal conservatism Liberal socialism National liberalism Regressive left

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Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist political theory Gandhism Individualism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Vaisheshika

Concepts

Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more...

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Philosophy
and economics Philosophy
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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 82088490 LCCN: n79021614 ISNI: 0000 0001 2282 4025 GND: 118559796 SELIBR: 192570 SUDOC: 02694507X BNF: cb11909393p (data) BIBSYS: 90066754 ULAN: 500107055 MusicBrainz: 871df78f-da37-417c-a898-a5de1f9a7ef0 MGP: 106921 NLA: 35259064 NDL: 00445131 NKC: jn19990004171 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV00707 BNE: XX1002482 RKD: 447

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