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The doctrine of the Imamate
Imamate
in Isma'ilism
Isma'ilism
differs from that of the Twelvers because the Isma'ilis had living Imams for centuries after the last Twelver
Twelver
Imam went into concealment. They followed Isma'il ibn Jafar, elder brother of Musa al-Kadhim, as the rightful Imam after his father, Ja'far al-Sadiq.[1] The Ismailis believe that whether Imam Ismail did or did not die before Imam Ja'far, he had passed on the mantle of the imamate to his son Muhammad ibn Isma'il
Muhammad ibn Isma'il
as the next imam.[2]

Part of a series on Islam Aqidah

Five Pillars of Islam

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

Sunni Six articles of belief

God Prophets Holy books Angels The Last Judgement Predestination

Sunni
Sunni
theological traditions

Ilm al-Kalam

Ash'ari1 Maturidi

Sunni
Sunni
Murji'ah Traditionalist2

Shi'a Twelver3

Principles

Tawhid Adalah Prophecy Imamah Qiyamah

Practices

Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj Khums Jihad Commanding what is just Forbidding what is evil Tawalla Tabarra

Seven pillars of Ismailism4

Walayah Tawhid Salah Zakat Sawm Hajj Jihad

Other Shia concepts of Aqidah

Imamate Batin Sixth Pillar of Islam

Other schools of theology

Khawarij5 Ibadi6 Murji'ah

Qadariyah Muʿtazila7 Sufism8

Including: 1Jahmi; 2Karramiyya; 3 Alawites
Alawites
& Qizilbash 4Sevener-Qarmatians, Assassins
Assassins
& Druzes 5Ajardi, Azariqa, Bayhasiyya, Najdat
Najdat
& Sūfrī 6Nūkkārī; 7 Bahshamiyya
Bahshamiyya
& Ikhshîdiyya 8Alevism, Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
& Qalandariyya Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Contents

1 The Seven Imāms

1.1 Qarmatian - Imamāte of Seven Imāms[3] 1.2 Early beliefs

2 The first seven Mustaali
Mustaali
and Nizari
Nizari
imams

2.1 Taiyabi Mustaali
Mustaali
and Nizari
Nizari
imams 2.2 Imams after Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isma'il

3 References

The Seven Imāms[edit] Main articles: Qarmatians
Qarmatians
and Sevener Qarmatian - Imamāte of Seven Imāms[3][edit] According to some early Isma'ilis, the Seveners, as well as the Qarmatians, a splinter group, the number of imams was fixed, with seven Imams preordained by God. These groups considers Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isma'il, the foundation Imam of the Isma'ili branch of Shia Islam, to be the Mahdi
Mahdi
and to be preserved in hiding, which is referred to as the Occultation.[4] Qarmatians
Qarmatians
believed that Muhammad ibn Isma'il
Muhammad ibn Isma'il
was Imām
Imām
al-Qā'im al- Mahdi
Mahdi
and the last of the great messenger - prophets.[3] On his reappearance, he would bring a new religious law by abrogating the one conveyed by the Prophet Muhammad. Qarmatians
Qarmatians
recognized a series of Seven law-announcing prophets called ūlul’l-ʿazm, namely, Nūh, Ibrāhīm, Mūsā, ʿIsā, Muhammad
Muhammad
bin ʿAbd Allāh, Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Tālib, and Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Ismā‘īl, who was the seal of the series.[3]

Imām Personage Period

1 Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Taleb[3] Imām
Imām
and a messenger - prophet (Rasūl) as well (632–661)

2 Hasan ibn Ali (661–669)

3 Husayn ibn Ali (669–680)

4 Ali
Ali
ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (680–713)

5 Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir (713–733)

6 Ja'far al-Sadiq (733–765)

7 Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isma'il[3] Imām
Imām
al-Qā'im al- Mahdi
Mahdi
also a messenger - prophet (Rasūl) (775-813)

Early beliefs[edit] According to the early Ismāʿīlis, God
God
sent Seven great prophets, known as nātiq "speakers", in order to disseminate and improve Islam. All of these great prophets has an assistant, the Sāmad (Silent) Imam. After six silent imams, a nātiq was sent to reinvigorate Islam. After Adam
Adam
and his son Seth, and after six “Nātiq” (Speaker) – “Sāmad” (Silent) silsila[5] (Noah–Shem), (Abraham–Ishmael), (Moses– Aaron
Aaron
or Joshua), (Jesus–Simeon), ( Muhammad
Muhammad
bin ʿAbd Allāh– Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Tālib); the silsila of “Nātıqs and Sāmads have been completed with ( Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Ismā‘īl as-ṣaghīr (Maymūn al-Qaddāh[6]) – ʿAbd Allāh Ibn-i Maymūn[7] and his sons). Early Ismāʿīlis believed that hierarchical history of the mankind is created in Seven Eras of various durations each one inaugurated by "speaker-prophet" (known as nātiq). In the first Six Eras of human history, nātiqs or ūlul’l-ʿazm had been Adam, Nūh, Ibrāhīm, Mūsā, ʿIsā, Muhammad
Muhammad
bin ʿAbd Allāh. Qarmatians, on the other hand, originally included Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Tālib instead of Adam
Adam
in their list of law-announcing prophets. Later substitution of Adam
Adam
in place of Ali
Ali
as one of the nātiqs, and the reduction of Ali's rank from a prophet level to that of Muhammad's successor indicate the renouncement of their extremist views. Furthermore, they believed that each of the first six nātiqs were succeeded by a spiritual legatee called wāsi or foundation asās or silent sāmit, who interpreted the inner esoteric (batin) meaning of the revelation. Each sāmit in turn was followed by Seven Imāms called atimmā', who guarded the true meaning of the scriptures and the laws.[8] The first seven Mustaali
Mustaali
and Nizari
Nizari
imams[edit] Main article: List of Ismaili
Ismaili
imams Taiyabi Mustaali
Mustaali
and Nizari
Nizari
imams[edit] Further information: Fatimid Caliphate, Imamate
Imamate
in Nizari
Nizari
doctrine, Böszörmény, Assassins, Satpanth, Mustaali, Hafizi, Taiyabi Ismaili, Dawoodi Bohra, Sulaymani, Alavi Bohra, Hebtiahs Bohra, Atba-i-Malak, and Progressive Dawoodi Bohra The Nizari
Nizari
and Mustaali
Mustaali
have several Imams in common; the Nizari consider Ali
Ali
the first Imam and his son Hasan a pir while the Mustali label him al-Asās or "the Foundation" and call Hasan the first Imam.

Nizari Musta'li Personage Period

1 Asās/Wāsīh Ali (632–661)

Pir 1 Hasan ibn Ali (661–669) Mustaali

2 2 Husayn ibn Ali (669–680) (Mustaali) (661 - 680) (Nizari)

3 3 Ali
Ali
ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (680–713)

4 4 Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir (713–733)

5 5 Ja'far al-Sadiq (733–765)

6 6 Isma'il ibn Jafar (765 - 775)

7 7 Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isma'il (775-813)

Imams after Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isma'il[edit] See also: Nizar (Fatimid Imam), Al-Musta'li, and At-Tayyib Abu'l-Qasim

Ahmad al-Wafi (Abadullah)
Ahmad al-Wafi (Abadullah)
(813-829) Muhammad at-Taqi (Ahmed ibn Abadullah)
Muhammad at-Taqi (Ahmed ibn Abadullah)
(829-840) Radi Abdullah
Radi Abdullah
(840-881)

References[edit]

^ Rise of The Fatimids, by W. Ivanow. Page 81, 275 ^ Ismaʿilism xvii. The Imamate
Imamate
In Ismaʿilism at Encyclopædia Iranica ^ a b c d e Daftary, Farhad (2007). Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, ed. The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. p. 97.  ^ MUHAMMAD BIN ISMAIL (158-197/775-813) ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, DAWR (1) ^ Öz, Mustafa, Mezhepler Tarihi ve Terimleri Sözlüğü (The History of madh'habs and its terminology dictionary), Ensar Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 2011. (This is the name of the trainer of Muhammed bin Ismā‘īl ibn Jā’far. He had established the principles of the Batiniyya Madh'hab, later.) ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica, "ʿAbdallāh b. Maymūn al-Qaddāḥ: Legendary founder of the Qarmatian-Ismaʿili doctrine and alleged forefather of the Fatimid dynasty" ^ Daftary, Farhad (1990). Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, ed. The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. p. 139. 

v t e

Islamic theology

Fields Theologians Books

Fields

Aqidah ‘aql Astronomy Cosmology Eschatology Ethics Kalam Fiqh Logic in philosophy Peace in philosophy Philosophy Physics Philosophy of education

Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni
Sunni
books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology
Theology
of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

v t e

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God
as

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Trinity
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v t e

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Islam
topics

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port

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