HOME
The Info List - Imadaddin Nasimi


--- Advertisement ---



‘Alī ‘Imādu d-Dīn Nasīmī (Azerbaijani: Seyid Əli İmadəddin Nəsimi عمادالدین نسیمی, Arabic: عمادالدین نسیمی‎), often known as Nesimi, (1369 – 1417 skinned alive in Aleppo) was a 14th-century Azerbaijani[1][2][3][4] or Turkmen[5][6][7] Ḥurūfī poet. Known mostly by his pen name (or takhallus) of Nesîmî, he composed one divan in Azerbaijani,[8][9] one in Persian,[3][10] and a number of poems in Arabic.[11] He is considered one of the greatest Turkic mystical poets of the late 14th and early 15th centuries[11] and one of the most prominent early divan masters in Turkic literary history (the language used in this divan is the same with Azerbaijani).[11]

Contents

1 Life 2 Poetry 3 Legacy 4 Memory 5 See also 6 References

Life[edit] Very little is known for certain about Nesîmî's life, including his real name. Most sources indicate that his name was İmâdüddîn[12][13], but it is also claimed that his name may have been Alî or Ömer.[14] It is also possible that he was descended from Muhammad, since he has sometimes been accorded the title of sayyid that is reserved for people claimed to be in Muhammad's line of descent. Nesîmî's birthplace, like his real name, is wrapped in mystery: some claim that he was born in a province called Nesîm — hence the pen name — located either near Aleppo
Aleppo
in modern-day Syria,[12] or near Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq,[13] but no such province has been found to exist. There are also claims that he was born in Shamakhi-which is mostly likely because his brother is buried in Shamakhi, Azerbaijan. According to the Encyclopædia of Islam,[10]

an early Ottoman poet and mystic, believed to have come from Nesīm near Baghdād, whence his name. As a place of this name no longer exists, it is not certain whether the laqab (Pen-Name) should not be derived simply from nasīm zephyr, breath of wind. That Nesīmī was of Turkoman origin seems to be fairly certain, although the Seyyid before his name also points to Arab blood. Turkic was as familiar to him as Persian, for he wrote in both languages. Arabic poems are also ascribed to him.

Stamp of the USSR
USSR
devoted to Imadaddin Nasimi, 1973

Death of Nisimi by Azim Azimzade.

From his poetry, it's evident that Nesîmî was an adherent of the Ḥurūfī movement, which was founded by Nesîmî's teacher Fażlullāh Astarābādī of Astarābād, who was condemned for heresy and executed in Alinja
Alinja
near Nakhchivan (Azerbaijan).[15] The center of Fażlullāh's influence was Baku(Azerbaijan) and most of his followers came from Shirvan
Shirvan
(Azerbaijan).[16] Nesîmî become one of the most influential advocates of the Ḥurūfī doctrine and the movement's ideas were spread to a large extent through his poetry. While Fażlullāh believed that he himself was the manifestation of God, for Nesîmî, at the center of Creation there was God, who bestowed His Light on man. Through sacrifice and self perfection, man can become one with God.[17] Around 1417, (or possibly 1404)[12][14] as a direct result of his beliefs — which were considered blasphemous by contemporary religious authorities — Nesîmî was seized and, according to most accounts,[12][14] skinned alive in Aleppo. A number of legends later grew up around Nesimi's execution, such as the story that he mocked his executioners with improvised verse and, after the execution, draped his flayed skin around his shoulders and departed.[12] A rare historical account of the event — the Tarih-i Heleb of Akhmad ibn Ibrahim al-Halabi — relates that the court, which was of the Maliki
Maliki
school of religious law, was unwilling to convict Nesîmî of apostasy, and that the order of execution instead came from the secular power of the emir of Aleppo, who was hoping to avoid open rebellion.[18] Nesîmî's tomb in Aleppo
Aleppo
remains an important place of pilgrimage to this day. Poetry[edit] Nesîmî's collected poems, or dîvân, number about 300, and include ghazals, qasidas (“lyrics”), and rubâ'îs (“quatrains”) in Azerbaijani Turkic,[2][3][4] Persian, and Arabic. His Turkic Divan is considered his most important work,[11] contains 250–300 ghazals and more than 150 rubâ'îs. A large body of Bektashi
Bektashi
and Alevi
Alevi
poetry is also attributed to Nesîmî, largely as a result of Hurûfî ideas' influence upon those two groups. Shah Ismail I, the founder of Safavid dynasty in Iran, who himself composed a divan in Azerbaijani Turkic under the pen name of Khatai,[19] praised Nesimi
Nesimi
in his poems[20] According to the Encyclopedia of Islam:[10]

His work consists of two collections of poems, one of which, the rarer, is in Persian and the other in Turkic. The Turkic Dīwān consists of 250-300 ghazels and about 150 quatrains, but the existing mss. differ considerably from the printed edition (Istanbul 1298/1881). No scholarly edition has so far been undertaken, but a study of his vocabulary is given by Jahangir Gahramanov, Nasimi divanynyn leksikasy, Baku
Baku
1970. The Persian Dīwān has been edited by Muhammad
Muhammad
Rizā Mar'ashī, Khurshid-i Darband . Dīwān-i Imād Dīn Nasīmī, Tehran 1370 Sh./1991.

One of Nesîmî's most famous poems is the gazel beginning with the following lines:

منده صغار ايكى جهان من بو جهانه صغمازام گوهر لامکان منم كون و مکانه صغمازام

Məndə sığar iki cahan, mən bu cahâna sığmazam Gövhər-i lâ-məkân mənəm, kövn ü məkâna sığmazam[21] Both worlds can fit within me, but in this world I cannot fit I am the placeless essence, but into existence I cannot fit

The poem serves as an excellent example of Nesîmî's poetic brand of Hurufism
Hurufism
in its mystical form. There is a contrast made between the physical and the spiritual worlds, which are seen to be ultimately united in the human being. As such, the human being is seen to partake of the same spiritual essence as God: the phrase lâ-mekân (لامکان), or "the placeless", in the second line is a Sufi term used for God.[22] The same term, however, can be taken literally as meaning "without a place", and so Nesîmî is also using the term to refer to human physicality.[23] In his poem, Nesîmî stresses that understanding God is ultimately not possible in this world, though it is nonetheless the duty of human beings to strive for such an understanding. Moreover, as the poem's constant play with the ideas of the physical and the spiritual underlines, Nesîmî calls for this search for understanding to be carried out by people within their own selves. This couplet has been described in different pictures, movies, poems, and other pieces of arts.[24] Some of Nesîmî's work is also more specifically Hurûfî in nature, as can be seen in the following quatrain from a long poem:

اوزكى مندن نهان ايتمك ديلرسه ڭ ايتمه غل گوزلرم ياشڭ روان ايتمك ديلرسه ڭ ايتمه غل

برك نسرین اوزره مسکين زلفكى سن طاغدوب عاشقى بى خانمان ايتمك ديلرسه ڭ ايتمه غل

Gördüm ol ayı vü bayram eyledim Şol meye bu gözleri câm eyledim

Hecce vardım ezm-i ehrâm eyledim Fâ vü zâd-ı lâm-i Heqq nâm eyledim[21]

Seeing that moon I rejoiced I made of my eyes a cup for its wine I went on Hajj
Hajj
in pilgrim's garb I called Fâ, Zâd, and Lâm by the name "Truth"

In the quatrain's last line, "Fâ", "Zâd", and "Lâm" are the names of the Arabic letters that together spell out the first name of the founder of Hurufism, Fazl-ullah. As such, Nesîmî is praising his shaykh, or spiritual teacher, and in fact comparing him to God, who is also given the name "Truth" (al-Haqq). Moreover, using the Perso-Arabic letters in the poem in such a manner is a direct manifestation of Hurûfî beliefs insofar as the group expounds a vast and complex letter symbolism in which each letter represents an aspect of the human character, and all the letters together can be seen to represent God. Nesîmî is also considered a superb love poet, and his poems express the idea of love on both the personal and the spiritual plane. Many of his gazels, for instance, have a high level of emotiveness, as well as expressing a great mastery of language:

اوزكى مندن نهان ايتمك ديلرسه ڭ ايتمه غل گوزلرم ياشڭ روان ايتمك ديلرسه ڭ ايتمه غل

برك نسرین اوزره مسکين زلفكى سن طاغدوب عاشقى بى خانمان ايتمك ديلرسه ڭ ايتمه غل

Üzünü menden nihân etmek dilersen, etmegil Gözlerim yaşın revân etmek dilersen, etmegil

Berq-i nesrin üzre miskin zülfünü sen dağıdıb Âşiqi bîxânimân etmek dilersen, etmegil[21]

Should you want to veil your face from me, oh please do not! Should you want to make my tears flow, oh please do not!

Should you want to lay your hair of musk atop the rose And leave your lover destitute, oh please do not!

Legacy[edit]

"Nesimi" film by Azerbaijanfilm
Azerbaijanfilm
studio in 1973 was dedicated to the 600th anniversary of the poet's birth

Nesîmî's work represents an important stage in the development of poetry not only in the Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani language
vernacular, but also in the Ottoman Divan poetry tradition. After his death, Nesîmî's work continued to exercise a great influence on many Turkic language
Turkic language
poets, and authors such as Fuzûlî
Fuzûlî
(1483?–1556), Khata'i
Khata'i
(1487–1524), and Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
(1480–1550) can be counted among his followers Nesîmî is venerated in the modern Republic of Azerbaijan, and one of the districts of the capital city, Baku, bears his name. There is also a monument to him in the city, sculpted by T. Mamedov and I. Zeynalov. Furthermore, the Institute of Linguistics at the Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
is named after him, and there was also a 1973 Azerbaijani film, Nasimi
Nasimi
(the Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani language
spelling of his name), made about him. The 600th anniversary of Nesîmî's birthday was celebrated worldwide in 1973 by the decision of UNESCO, and representatives from many countries took part in the celebrations held both in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and in Moscow, Russia.[citation needed] Memory[edit]

The movie dedicated to the poet Nesimi
Nesimi
by Azerbaijanfilm
Azerbaijanfilm
studio. The ballet dedicated to the poet A Tale of Nesimi
Nesimi
by Azerbaijani composer Fikret Amirov

Various places are named in honor of Nasimi:

The Nasimi
Nasimi
Institute of Linguistics is part of the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
National Academy of Sciences. There is a urband district (raion) in Baku. A Baku
Baku
metro station is named Nəsimi. The urban middle school No 2 in Balaken, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
is named for Nasimi
Nasimi
[25] There are Nəsimi streets in Agdjabedi, Khudat
Khudat
and Baku. There are villages named Nasimi
Nasimi
in Bilasuvar and in Sabirabad regions, as well as Nəsimikənd
Nəsimikənd
in the Saatly region of Azerbaijan.

See also[edit]

Poetry portal

Alevism Isma'ili Sufism Nāīmee Hurufiyya Nuktawiyya Murād Mīrzā List of Ismaili imams List of extinct Shia sects

References[edit]

^ Encyclopaedia Iranica. Azeri Turkish

The oldest poet of the Azeri literature known so far (and indubitably of Azeri, not of East Anatolian of Khorasani, origin) is ʿEmād-al-dīn Nasīmī (about 1369-1404, q.v.).

^ a b Baldick, Julian (2000). Mystical Islam: An Introduction to Sufism. I. B. Tauris. p. 103. ISBN 1-86064-631-X.  ^ a b c Burrill, Kathleen R.F. (1972). The Quatrains of Nesimi Fourteenth-Century Turkic Hurufi. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG. ISBN 90-279-2328-0.  ^ a b Lambton, Ann K. S.; Holt, Peter Malcolm; Lewis, Bernard (1970). The Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge University Press. p. 689. ISBN 0-521-29138-0.  ^ Jo-Ann Gross, Muslims in Central Asia: expressions of identity and change, (Duke University Press, 1992), 172.

Andalib also wrote several mathnavis, the most famous of which is about the life of the fourteenth-century Azerbaijani mystic Nesimi.

^ The Celestial Sphere, the Wheel of Fortune, and Fate in the Gazels of Naili and Baki, Walter Feldman, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 28, No. 2 (May, 1996), 197. ^ Walter G. Andrews, Najaat Black, Mehmet Kalpaklı, Ottoman lyric poetry: An Anthology, (University of Washington Press, 2006), 211. ^ Průšek, Jaroslav (1974). Dictionary of Oriental Literatures. Basic Books. p. 138.  ^ Safra, Jacob E. (2003). The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 60. ISBN 0-85229-961-3. The second tradition centred on Azeri, the literary language of the eastern Oğuz in western Persia, Iraq, and eastern Anatolia before the Ottoman conquest.  ^ a b c Babinger, Franz (2008). "Nesīmī, Seyyid ʿImād al-Dīn". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online. Retrieved 01-09 2008.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ a b c d "Seyid Imadeddin Nesimi". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Retrieved 01-09 2008.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ a b c d e Andrews, Walter G.; Black, Najaat; Kalpakli, Mehmet (1997). Ottoman Lyric Poetry: An Anthology. University of Texas Press. pp. 211–212. ISBN 0-292-70472-0.  ^ a b Devellioğlu, Ferit (1993). Osmanlıca-Türkçe ansiklopedik lûgat: eski ve yeni harflerle. Ankara: Aydın Kitabevi. pp. 823–824. ISBN 975-7519-02-2.  ^ a b c Cengiz, Halil Erdoğan (1972). Divan şiiri antolojisi. Milliyet Yayın Ltd. Şti. p. 149.  ^ Mélikoff, Irène (1992). Sur les Traces du Soufisme Turc: Recherches sur l'Islam Populaire en Anatolie. Editions Isis. pp. 163–174. ISBN 975-428-047-9.  ^ Turner, Bryan S. (2003). Islam: Critical Concepts in Sociology. Routledge. p. 284. ISBN 0-415-12347-X.  ^ Kuli-zade, Zümrüd (1970). Хуруфизм и его представители в Азербайджане. Baku: Elm. pp. 151–164.  ^ Safarli, Aliyar (1985). Imadəddin Nəsimi, Seçilmis Əsərləri. Baku: Maarif Publishing House. pp. 1–7.  ^ Minorksy, Vladimir (1942). "The Poetry of Shah Ismail". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 10 (4): 1053. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00090182.  ^ Aslanoğlu, İbrahim (1992). Şah İsmail Hatayî: Divan, Dehnâme, Nasihatnâme ve Anadolu Hatayîleri. Der Yayınları. p. 523.  ^ a b c Safarli, Aliyar G.; Yusifli, Khalil (2005). "İmadeddin Nesimi" (PDF). Azerbaycan Eski Türk Edebiyatı (in Turkish). Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Turkey. Retrieved 01-08 2008.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ The phrase is in some ways redolent of the earlier Sufi Mansur al-Hallaj's statement "ana al-Haqq" (أنا الحق), which means literally "I am the Truth" but also — because al-Haqq is one of the 99 names of God in Islamic tradition — "I am God". ^ This device of employing double, and even completely opposite, meanings for the same word is known as tevriyye (توريه). ^ "ChingizArt: Colors dedicated to Nesimi". Youtube.com. 2010-01-18. Retrieved 2013-05-20.  ^ Федерация гимнастики Азербайджана

v t e

Azerbaijani literature

Epic and legends

Köroğlu Book of Dede Korkut Ashik

Genres

Medieval

Izzeddin Hasanoglu Nasir Bakuvi Kadi Burhan al-Din Darir of Arzurum Jahan Shah
Jahan Shah
Haqiqi Habibi Qasem-e Anvar Khasta Qasim Imadaddin Nasimi Yaqub bin Uzun Hasan Shah Ismail I Hagiri Tabrizi Kishvari Muhammad
Muhammad
Fuzuli Shah Tahmasp I Mahammad Amani Saib Tabrizi Qovsi Tabrizi Roohi Bagdadi Masihi Tarzi Afshar Fatma Khanum Ani

Modern

Molla Panah Vagif Molla Vali Vidadi Mirza Shafi Vazeh Firidun bey Kocharli Khurshidbanu Natavan Abbasgulu Bakikhanov Mirza Fatali Akhundov Gasim bey Zakir Ali bey Huseynzade Seyid Azim Shirvani Hasan bey Zardabi Mirza Alakbar Sabir Seyid Abulgasim Nabati Zeynalabdin Shirvani Heyran Khanim Ali Mojuz Fazil Khan Sheyda Jalil Mammadguluzadeh Nariman Narimanov Jafargulu agha Javanshir Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev Ismayil bey Gutgashynly Sakina Akhundzadeh Hashim bey Vazirov Mehdigulu Khan Vafa Suleyman Sani Akhundov Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli Mammed Said Ordubadi Najaf bey Vazirov Ashig Alasgar Mahammad Hadi Abbas Sahhat Abdulla Shaig Huseyn Javid Jafar Jabbarly Ali Nazmi Mikayil Mushfig Samad Vurgun Aliagha Vahid Mirza Khazar Mir Jalal Pashayev Ahmad Javad Habib Saher

Contemporary

Suleyman Rustam Ali Nazem Ganjali Sabahi Ilyas Afandiyev Rasul Rza Nigar Rafibeyli Mirza Ibrahimov Almas Ildyrym Mirvarid Dilbazi Ismayil Shykhly Manaf Suleymanov Baba Punhan Anar Rzayev Fikrat Goja Bahar Shirvani Nusrat Kasamanli Elchin Afandiyev Khalil Rza Uluturk Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi Mammad Araz Magsud Ibrahimbeyov Rustam Ibragimbekov Chingiz Abdullayev Natig Rasulzadeh Afag Masud Farhad Ebrahimi Akram Aylisli Ramiz Rovshan Naser Manzuri Samad Behrangi Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar Madina Gulgun Samin Baghtcheban Jabbar Baghtcheban Sahand Yadollah Maftun Amini Mehdi Huseyn Isa Mughanna Vagif Samadoghlu Heidar Abbasi Qilman Ilkin Vidadi Babanli Elchin Safarli Hamid Notghi Gholamhossein Bigdeli Rasoul Yunan Hidayet Lala Hasanova Gasham Najafzadeh Ali Akbar Seymur Baycan

Notes

Azerbaijani is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and one of the official languages of the Republic of Dagestan. It is also widely spoken in Iran, particularly in Iranian Azerbaijan. It is also spoken in some parts of Turkey, Russia
Russia
and Georgia.

v t e

Persian literature

Old

Behistun Inscription Old Persian inscriptions Ganjnameh Inscription of Xerxes the Great in Van Fortress Achaemenid inscription in the Kharg Island

Middle

Ayadgar-i Zariran Counsels of Adurbad-e Mahrspandan Dēnkard Book of Jamasp Book of Arda Viraf Karnamak-i Artaxshir-i Papakan Cube of Zoroaster Dana-i Menog Khrat Shabuhragan
Shabuhragan
of Mani Shahrestanha-ye Eranshahr Bundahishn Menog-i Khrad Jamasp Namag Dadestan-i Denig Anthology of Zadspram Warshtmansr Zand-i Wahman yasn Drakht-i Asurig Shikand-gumanig Vizar

Classical

900s

Rudaki Abu-Mansur Daqiqi Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
(Shahnameh) Abu Shakur Balkhi Abu Tahir Khosrovani Shahid Balkhi Bal'ami Rabia Balkhi Abusaeid Abolkheir
Abusaeid Abolkheir
(967–1049) Avicenna
Avicenna
(980–1037) Unsuri Asjadi Kisai Marvazi Ayyuqi

1000s

Bābā Tāher Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
(1004–1088) Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
(1058–1111) Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
(1006–1088) Asadi Tusi Qatran Tabrizi (1009–1072) Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk
(1018–1092) Masud Sa'd Salman (1046–1121) Moezi Neyshapuri Omar Khayyām (1048–1131) Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani Ahmad Ghazali Hujwiri Manuchehri Ayn-al-Quzat Hamadani (1098–1131) Uthman Mukhtari Abu-al-Faraj Runi Sanai Banu Goshasp Borzu-Nama Afdal al-Din Kashani Abu'l Hasan Mihyar al-Daylami Mu'izzi Mahsati
Mahsati
Ganjavi

1100s

Hakim Iranshah Suzani Samarqandi Hassan Ghaznavi Faramarz Nama Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
(1155–1191) Adib Sabir Falaki Shirvani Am'aq Najm al-Din Razi Attār (1142–c.1220) Khaghani
Khaghani
(1120–1190) Anvari (1126–1189) Faramarz-e Khodadad Nizami Ganjavi
Nizami Ganjavi
(1141–1209) Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) Kamal al-din Esfahani Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
(d.1248)

1200s

Abu Tahir Tarsusi Awhadi Maraghai Shams al-Din Qays Razi Sultan Walad Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī Afdal al-Din Kashani Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi Mahmud Shabistari
Mahmud Shabistari
(1288–1320s) Abu'l Majd Tabrizi Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
(1253–1325) Saadi (Bustan / Golestān) Bahram-e-Pazhdo Pur-Baha Jami Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo Rumi Homam Tabrizi (1238–1314) Nozhat al-Majales Khwaju Kermani Sultan Walad

1300s

Ibn Yamin Shah Ni'matullah Wali Hafez Abu Ali Qalandar Fazlallah Astarabadi Nasimi Emad al-Din Faqih Kermani

1400s

Ubayd Zakani Salman Sawaji Hatefi Jami Kamal Khujandi Ahli Shirzi (1454–1535) Fuzûlî
Fuzûlî
(1483–1556) Ismail I
Ismail I
(1487–1524) Baba Faghani Shirzani

1500s

Faizi (1547–1595) Abu'l-Fazl (1551–1602) Vahshi Bafqi (1523–1583) 'Orfi Shirazi

1600s

Taleb Amoli Saib Tabrizi (1607–1670) Kalim Kashani Hazin Lāhiji (1692–1766) Saba Kashani Bēdil Dehlavi (1642–1720) Naw'i Khabushani

1700s

Neshat Esfahani Abbas Foroughi Bastami (1798–1857)

1800s

Ghalib
Ghalib
(1797–1869) Mahmud Saba Kashani (1813–1893)

Contemporary

Poetry

Iran

Ahmadreza Ahmadi Mehdi Akhavan-Sales Hormoz Alipour Qeysar Aminpour Aref Qazvini Manouchehr Atashi Mahmoud Mosharraf Azad Tehrani Mohammad-Taqi Bahar Reza Baraheni Simin Behbahani Dehkhoda Hushang Ebtehaj Bijan Elahi Parviz Eslampour Parvin E'tesami Forough Farrokhzad Hossein Monzavi Hushang Irani Iraj Mirza Bijan Jalali Siavash Kasraie Esmail Khoi Shams Langeroodi Mohammad Mokhtari Nosrat Rahmani Yadollah Royaee Tahereh Saffarzadeh Sohrab Sepehri Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar Ahmad Shamlou Manouchehr Sheybani Nima Yooshij Fereydoon Moshiri Rasoul Yunan

Armenia

Edward Haghverdian

Afghanistan

Nadia Anjuman Wasef Bakhtari Raziq Faani Khalilullah Khalili Youssof Kohzad Massoud Nawabi Abdul Ali Mustaghni

Tajikistan

Sadriddin Ayni Farzona Iskandar Khatloni Abolqasem Lahouti Gulrukhsor Safieva Loiq Sher-Ali Payrav Sulaymoni Mirzo Tursunzoda

Uzbekistan

Asad Gulzoda

Pakistan

Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal

Novels

Ali Mohammad Afghani Ghazaleh Alizadeh Bozorg Alavi Reza Amirkhani Mahshid Amirshahi Reza Baraheni Simin Daneshvar Mahmoud Dowlatabadi Reza Ghassemi Houshang Golshiri Aboutorab Khosravi Ahmad Mahmoud Shahriyar Mandanipour Abbas Maroufi Iraj Pezeshkzad

Short stories

Jalal Al-e-Ahmad Shamim Bahar Sadeq Chubak Simin Daneshvar Nader Ebrahimi Ebrahim Golestan Houshang Golshiri Sadegh Hedayat Mohammad-Ali Jamalzadeh Aboutorab Khosravi Mostafa Mastoor Jaafar Modarres-Sadeghi Houshang Moradi Kermani Bijan Najdi Shahrnush Parsipur Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi Bahram Sadeghi Goli Taraqqi

Plays

Reza Abdoh Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh Hamid Amjad Bahram Beyzai Mohammad Charmshir Alireza Koushk Jalali Hadi Marzban Bijan Mofid Hengameh Mofid Abbas Nalbandian Akbar Radi Pari Saberi Mohammad Yaghoubi

Screenplays

Saeed Aghighi Rakhshan Bani-E'temad Bahram Beyzai Hajir Darioush Pouran Derakhshandeh Asghar Farhadi Bahman Farmanara Farrokh Ghaffari Behrouz Gharibpour Bahman Ghobadi Fereydun Gole Ebrahim Golestan Ali Hatami Abolfazl Jalili Ebrahim Hatamikia Abdolreza Kahani Varuzh Karim-Masihi Samuel Khachikian Abbas Kiarostami David Mahmoudieh Majid Majidi Mohsen Makhmalbaf Dariush Mehrjui Reza Mirkarimi Rasoul Mollagholipour Amir Naderi Jafar Panahi Kambuzia Partovi Rasul Sadr Ameli Mohammad Sadri Parviz Shahbazi Sohrab Shahid-Saless

Translators

Amrollah Abjadian Jaleh Amouzgar Najaf Daryabandari Behzad Ghaderi Sohi Mohammad Ghazi Lili Golestan Sadegh Hedayat Saleh Hosseini Ahmad Kamyabi Mask Mohammad Moin Ebrahim Pourdavoud Hamid Samandarian Jalal Sattari Jafar Shahidi Ahmad Shamlou Ahmad Tafazzoli Abbas Zaryab

Essayists

Aydin Aghdashloo Mohammad Ebrahim Bastani Parizi Ehsan Yarshater

Contemporary Persian and Classical Persian are the same language, but writers since 1900 are classified as contemporary. At one time, Persian was a common cultural language of much of the non-Arabic Islamic world. Today it is the official language of Iran, Tajikistan and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.

v t e

Turkish literature

Folk

Aşık Mahzuni Şerif Âşık Veysel Şatıroğlu Dadaloğlu Erzurumlu Emrah Gevheri Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli Karacaoğlan Kaygusuz Abdal Nasreddin Neşet Ertaş Pir Sultan Abdal Seyrani Yunus Emre

Medieval and Ottoman

Sultan Veled Imadaddin Nasimi Fuzûlî Bâkî Mihri Hatun Sehi Bey İsa Necati Tadjizade Dja'fer Çelebi Prizrenli Suzi Çelebi Mesihi Yahya bey Dukagjini Nef'i Nedîm Şeyh Gâlib Evliya Çelebi Katip Çelebi K̲h̲ayālī Mehmed Bey Ahdi of Baghdad Latifî Riyazi Yirmisekiz Mehmed Çelebi Fitnat Hanım Ali Çelebi Aşık Çelebi Kınalızâde Hasan Çelebi Ziya Pasha Şemsettin Sami Namık Kemal Zafer Hanım Ahmed Midhat Efendi Tevfik Fikret Cenâb Şehâbeddîn Ömer Seyfettin Mehmet Emin Yurdakul Ali Canip Yöntem Mirza Habib Esfahani Muallim Naci Fatma Aliye Topuz

Republican era

Halit Ziya Uşaklıgil Ahmet Haşim Halide Edib Adıvar Reşat Nuri Güntekin Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu Mehmet Fuat Köprülü Cevat Şakir Kabaağaçlı Ercüment Ekrem Talu Nurullah Ataç Orhan Kemal Peyami Safa Murathan Mungan Orhan Hançerlioğlu Samim Kocagöz Semiha Ayverdi Tarık Buğra Yaşar Kemal Fakir Baykurt Bilge Karasu Oğuz Atay Tomris Uyar Ahmet Altan Orhan Pamuk Elif Şafak Memduh Şevket Esendal Kenan Hulusi Koray Sait Faik Abasıyanık Kemal Tahir Haldun Taner Aziz Nesin Nezihe Araz Suut Kemal Yetkin Sabahattin Ali Kemal Bilbaşar Cemil Meriç Ruşen Eşref Ünaydın Nurullah Ataç Behçet Necatigil Necati Cumalı Ayfer Tunç Yekta Kopan Ahmet Kutsi Tecer Şevket Süreyya Aydemir Mehmet Emin Yurdakul Ziya Gökalp Hüseyin Nihal Atsız Orhan Şaik Gökyay Orhan Veli Kanık Oktay Rıfat Horozcu Melih Cevdet Anday Nazım Hikmet Rıfat Ilgaz Cemal Süreya İlhan Berk Turgut Uyar Edip Cansever Ece Ayhan Çağlar Sezai Karakoç Tevfik Akdağ Ülkü Tamer Neyzen Tevfik Yahya Kemal Beyatlı Abdülhak Şinasi Hisar Orhan Seyfi Orhon Enis Behiç Koryürek Halit Fahri Ozansoy Yusuf Ziya Ortaç Muammer Lütfi Bakşi Necip Fazıl Kısakürek Vasfi Mahir Kocayürek Sabri Esat Siyavuşgil Cevdet Kudret Yaşar Nabi Nayır Ahmet Muhip Dıranas Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı Ziya Osman Saba Faik Baysal Salah Birsel Özdemir Asaf N. Abbas Sayar Can Yücel Attilâ İlhan Güven Turan İsmet Özel Cem Uzungüneş Mehmet Altun Mehmet Erte Küçük İskender Faruk Nafiz Çamlıbel Fazıl Hüsnü Dağlarca Yusuf Atılgan Murat Gülsoy Ayşe Kulin Yılmaz Onay

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 45732466 LCCN: n85113065 ISNI: 0000 0001 2130 7771 GND: 120895595 SUDOC: 148258

.