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Imāmah (Arabic: اٍمامة‎) means "leadership" and is a concept in Twelver
Twelver
theology. The Twelve Imams
The Twelve Imams
are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, in the Twelver
Twelver
branch of Shia
Shia
Islam.[1] According to Twelver
Twelver
theology, the successors to Muhammad
Muhammad
are infallible human beings, who rule justly over the community and maintain and interpret sharia and undertake the esoteric interpretation of the Quran. The words and deeds of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Imams guide the community. For this, the Imams must be free from error and sin and chosen by divine decree—nass—through the Prophet.[2][3] Shi'a
Shi'a
believe that divine wisdom—'Aql—is the source of the souls of the Prophets and Imams and gives them esoteric knowledge—hikmah—and that their suffering is a means by which their devotees may acquire divine grace.[1][4][5] The Imam is not the recipient of divine revelation, but has a close relationship with God, who guides him, allowing the Imam in turn to guide others. The Imamat, or belief in the divine guide, is a fundamental belief in Shia
Shia
Islam and is based on the concept that God would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance.[6] According to the Twelvers, an Imam of the Age is always the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law. Ali
Ali
was the first Imam in this line and in the view of Twelvers the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by the male descendants of Muhammad
Muhammad
through his daughter Fatimah. Each Imam was the son of the previous Imam, with the exception of Husayn ibn Ali, who was the brother of Hasan ibn Ali.[1] The twelfth and final Imam is Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi, who is believed by the Twelvers to be alive and in hiding.[6]

Contents

1 Imamah 2 Necessity

2.1 Theological aspect

2.1.1 The station of Imams 2.1.2 Vicegerent (Khalifat Allah) 2.1.3 Mediator 2.1.4 Wali 2.1.5 Hujjah

2.2 Political aspect

3 Necessary attributes of Imams

3.1 Nass (divine designation) 3.2 Ismah 3.3 Hikmah (wisdom) 3.4 Afdaliyyah (superiority)

4 The necessity of recognizing Imams 5 The necessity of obeying Imams

5.1 Guidance is only through Imams

6 Imamate
Imamate
and revelation (Wahy) 7 Arguments

7.1 Shia
Shia
view of Quran 7.2 By Hadith 7.3 By reason

8 History 9 List of the Twelve Imams 10 See also 11 Notes 12 Footnotes 13 References 14 External links

Imamah[edit] According to al-Mofid and Allamah Hilli, Imamate
Imamate
is a universal authority over the religious and secular matters of the community as the successor of the prophet[7][8] and in Shia
Shia
theology it means the legitimate successor to the Islamic community who are just the family of the prophet (ahl al-Bayt).[9] not because they are the prophet's family, but because they have the prerequisites of religious and political leadership.[10] Allamah Tabatabaei states that Imamate
Imamate
is under investigation from three perspectives: Islamic government, Islamic sciences and spiritual guidance.The Motahhari states that the term Imamate
Imamate
reflects spiritual and sociopolitical leadership.[7] Shia theology, philosophy and mysticism, politics as well as historical progression derives from the doctrine of Imamah.[11] Necessity[edit] Two important functions of Muhammad
Muhammad
were to reveal the divine law to humans and to guide them towards God. Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
believe that with the death of Muhammad, the first function, divine legislation, is completed, but that the second, guiding people and preserving and explaining the divine law, is continued through the Imams.[12] Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir, the fifth Imam, explaining why the Imams are needed, states: "So that the world may remain in righteousness, thus Allah
Allah
withholds chastisement from the world while a Prophet or Imam is upon it, for Allah
Allah
has said ' Allah
Allah
will not chastise them while you are among them' 8:33 and the Prophet had said ' the stars are safety for the people of the heaven and the members of my family are safety for the people of the earth. By members of my family is meant the Imams....Through them Allah
Allah
gives sustenance (Rizq) to His servants and through them His lands prosper and the rain falls from the heaven and the earth gives out its blessings".[13] The prophetic mission must be followed by a keeper of the Quran
Quran
because it contains esoteric depth, superficial contradictions and hidden meaning. The meaning can be manifested not by ordinary knowledge, but by an inspired heir who is the Hujjah of Allah. Divine knowledge is attainable only through divine revelation or inspiration.[14] While the prophet was a "legislative prophet" (nabi al-tashri), the continuation of the "esoteric prophecy" (nubuwah al-batiniyah) is through walayah. The role of the Imam in society is equivalent to the role of the mind in the body.[15] Theological aspect[edit]

Part of a series on Islam Aqidah

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God Prophets Holy books Angels The Last Judgement Predestination

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theological traditions

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Ash'ari1 Maturidi

Sunni
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Murji'ah Traditionalist2

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Principles

Tawhid Adalah Prophecy Imamah Qiyamah

Practices

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Seven pillars of Ismailism4

Walayah Tawhid Salah Zakat Sawm Hajj Jihad

Other Shia
Shia
concepts of Aqidah

Imamate Batin Sixth Pillar of Islam

Other schools of theology

Khawarij5 Ibadi6 Murji'ah

Qadariyah Muʿtazila7 Sufism8

Including: 1Jahmi; 2Karramiyya; 3 Alawites
Alawites
& Qizilbash 4Sevener-Qarmatians, Assassins
Assassins
& Druzes 5Ajardi, Azariqa, Bayhasiyya, Najdat
Najdat
& Sūfrī 6Nūkkārī; 7 Bahshamiyya
Bahshamiyya
& Ikhshîdiyya 8Alevism, Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
& Qalandariyya Islam
Islam
portal

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The station of Imams[edit] Before the creation of the world, from His own light, Allah
Allah
derived a light called light of Nubuwwa (prophethood) or exoteric and from that derived another light called Walaya (Imamah) or esoteric. Allah
Allah
said "Here is a Light from my Light, its trunk is the prophecy and its branch is the Imamate; prophecy belongs to Muhammad, my servant and messenger and Imamate
Imamate
belongs to Ali, my proof and my friend. Without them, I would have created none of my creation..." The very names of prophecy and Imamate
Imamate
are derived from the names of Allah.[16] Allah has two kinds of attributes: Essence (Dhat) and Act (Fi'l); attributes of Essence exist in Allah
Allah
Himself, not having its opposites, but attributes of the act, the Most Beautiful Names of Allah, are those which are manifested in His creatures, these creatures of manifestation of these attributes are Imams.Through these creatures, men could know His attributes.This is His plan to make Himself known.[17] By verse 2:124, Shia
Shia
believe that the position of Imamate is higher than prophethood.[18][19] Shia
Shia
believe that Imam is God's Witness for the people, the Gate to God (bāb Allāh) and the Road (sabīl) and the Pillar of His Unity[20] so he should be infallible and chosen by God.[20] Allamah al-Majlisi, a Shia
Shia
scholar of the Safawid era, states: "The Imams are superior to the prophets (except Muhammad) and the entire creation. The Covenant of the Imams was taken from the prophets, the angels and the entire creation. The major prophets called ulul-‘Azm (Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa and ‘Isa ) attained the status of ulul-‘Azm on account of loving the Imams."[21] Muḥammad al-Bāqir narrates that God chose Ibraham first as a worshipper (ʿabd), then a prophet (nabī), then a messenger (rasūl), then a friend (khalīl) and finally as an Imam over the people.[22] The Imams in many passages of Quran
Quran
are referred as the Light of God (Nur), His Witnesses among mankind (Shuhada), His Signs (Ayat), those firm in the knowledge (Rasikhun), the vicegerents of God on earth (Khulafa), the gates through which he is approached (Abwab), the heirs of the knowledge of the prophet.The Imam is endowed with the holy spirit (Ruh al-Kuds).[23] Shi'a
Shi'a
Twelver
Twelver
believes that five Messengers achieved the rank of Leadership:Nuah, Ibrahim, Musa, Isa, Muhammad Vicegerent (Khalifat Allah)[edit] The Imam as vicegerent is the representative of all of God's attributes, whom he manifests. The Imam is God's image and face.[24] It is the highest position for man that is mentioned, (2:30) which causes the angels to prostrate themselves before him (15:30).[25] Khalifah is God's appointee (38:26).[26] As God's best representative and sign, the vicegerent in the best way can contribute to God's goals. So every attribute which God owns by His Essence, the vicegerent also owns by accident. The vicegerent is the epiphany (mazhar)[a] of God's divine names. In fact he is the soul of the universe which can cause ontological changes in it.[27] Mediator[edit] Allamah al-Majlisi states that the Imams are mediators between God and humankind and that through their intercession, man can escape the punishment of the last day. In addition to Muhammad's role as intermediate between God and man, he is also a mediator before God on behalf of his followers. According to Shia
Shia
belief, this idea of a religious mediator includes the Imams.[28] Al-Shaykh al-Saduq has recorded a tradition that the prophet told Ali: "There are three things that I swear to be true. The first is that you and your descendants are mediators for mankind, as they will not be able to know Allah
Allah
except through your introduction. The second is that you are to present to Allah
Allah
those who may enter Paradise, i.e. those who recognize you and those whom you recognize. The third is that you are the absolute mediators, for those who will go to Hell will only be those who do not recognize you and whom you do not recognize." Al-Baqir said, "through us God is known and is worshiped by human kind...whoever calls Allah
Allah
through our mediation is blessed".[29] Without Imam, theophanic form (mazhar) and Face of Allah, no one can know Allah
Allah
because through him, Allah
Allah
manifests himself.[30] Mulla Sadra explains that as the Imam is the perfect man—insan al-Kamel—is a higher-degree creature and the existence of the lower depends upon the higher degree, so the existence of the Imam is necessary.[31] Wali[edit] Main article: Walayah
Walayah
( Twelver
Twelver
doctrine) Shia
Shia
believe that the Divine Truth or the True Religion has two aspects: exoteric (zahir) and esoteric (batin). The exoteric side is revealed by the prophet and his Holy Book to the general people but the esoteric side is the mission of Imams and for the believers by the Esoteric interpretation of the Quran(Ta'wil).[32] As the exoteric speaks of Shariah and esoteric speaks of Haqiqah, it is not a matter of succession but a matter of simultaneity.[33] Haqiqah is based on the spiritual meaning of Quran.[34] The kinship between the prophet and Imams is the sign of their walayah, not the basis for their walayah.[35] According to Shia
Shia
just those are the real faithful that " Allah
Allah
has written faith upon their hearts" (58:22): only if Walayah is obtained the faith is perfect.[36] Shia
Shia
theologians refer to the verse 5:55 as a proof for the Walayah
Walayah
of Imams.[37] According to Motahhari, Walayah
Walayah
has four dimensions: the right of love, loving the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
is obligatory for all Muslims, the authority of Alh al-Bayt in spiritual guidance, the authority of Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
in socio-political guidance and the authority of the universal nature by the grace of Allah.[7] By Shia, in fact, a guardian must protect the religion against any additions or subtractions after the prophet. According to al-Baqir, the prophet has revealed the religion but in every age there must be an Imam who leads to the religion and verse 13:7 refers to Imam.[38] A hadith narrates that "He who knows himself knows his Lord.",[39] but knowing Allah
Allah
without His theophanic form (Mazhar), the Face of Allah, is impossible. Imam is the one who carries the human knowledge of Allah, without him we will be trapped in ta'til or metaphysical idolatry (tashbih)."[40] Numerous Shia hadith narrate: The Quran
Quran
is the silent Imam, the Imam is the speaking Quran; Imam is the Guide by whom Quran
Quran
remains alive. Regarding this matter, Mulla Sadra
Mulla Sadra
believes that the earth can not be without an Imam otherwise, the Quran
Quran
will die.[41] By Shia, Wali is the one who has the most love and devotion to God, so God has bestowed His knowledge upon him.[42] Hujjah[edit] See also: Hujja The Hujja
Hujja
means the proof or God's guarantee to men; as the presence of the Hujja, whether hidden or apparent, is necessary for all times, this presence expresses the metaphysical reality of the Hujja
Hujja
and the inseparability of the prophetology from Imamology.[43] Al-Baqir stated, "...Imam is the Proof of Allah
Allah
to His servants and the earth will not remain without the Proof of Allah
Allah
to His servants".[13] From the Time of Adam, Allah
Allah
has sent Imams to guide the people towards Him who are His Hujjah upon His worshippers.[44] Khomeni described "Proof of Allah" as follows: "A ‘Proof of Allah’ is one whom Allah
Allah
has designated to conduct affairs, all his deeds, actions and sayings constitute a proof for the Muslims. If someone commits an offense, will be made to the ‘proof’ for adducing evidence and formulating the charge. If the ‘proof’ commands you to perform a certain act, to implement the penal provisions of the law in a certain way, or to spend the income derived from booty, zakat and sadaqa in a certain manner and if you fail to obey him in any of these respects, then God Almighty will advance a ‘proof’ against you on the day of Judgment".[45] Political aspect[edit] The Shia
Shia
believe that only the divinely chosen one is the legitimate leader of the community who owns some spiritual gifts. The first of these leaders was Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib and his successors were the descendants of the prophet and the heirs of the charisma of Ali.[46] Imams possess all the attributes, duties, authorities of the prophet except receiving revelation. They are the political and religious guardians over the community.[47] Although Imam has a political role, his Imamah does not depend on this role.[23] According to verse 5:55, because absolute authority belongs to Allah, He can grant this authority to whomever He wishes as Guardians.[48] Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr stated that the political and spiritual dimensions are inseparable.[49] Necessary attributes of Imams[edit] According to Shia
Shia
theology, Imam must display three attributes: divine appointment (nass), wisdom (hikmah), superiority (afdaliyyah). This right to authority is derived from the prophet and Quran
Quran
and thereby Allah.[50] Nass (divine designation)[edit] One of the fundamental principles of Shia
Shia
is that Imam is designated by the prophet and every Imam nominates his successor by divine designation (nass).[51][12][52] The divine designation is a logical necessity because Imam must be infallible and as this is a hidden virtue, known only to Allah. Thus this designation is expressed to the people only by an infallible: the previous Prophet or Imam.[51][53] Al-Baqir stated that the prophet was commanded by Allah, before his death, to grant to Ali
Ali
his knowledge, his faith and the Great Name (al-Ism al-A'zam), as well as the legacy of knowledge and prophethood so that the Divine Heritage would be continued through the prophet's progency. So one of the fundamentals in the principle of Imamate
Imamate
was nass al-Jali (explicit designation) which was hereditary.[54] Shia Muslims believe that Allah
Allah
appointed leaders for those who practice the religion of Allah. When the prophet had taught the people the religion, he would then appoint a leader, in accordance with the orders of Allah, to guide believers towards perfection. Imamate
Imamate
is a universal authority and this right is derived from (niyabah) the prophet.[55] Allamah Majlesi stated that from the time of Adam, every prophet had a successor.[56] Imam like the prophet had a perfect authority over the Muslim community including matters of religion and government.[57][58] As the prophet is the representative of Allah, his successor is also a representative of Allah. If he is to represent Allah, he must be appointed by Allah.[59] Imam can not be distinguished except by designation.[60] Following verse 2:124 of Quran, Shia
Shia
believe that Imamah is something that is given by Allah and must be appointed by Him. The earth never can be without a true Imam.[61][62] The relation between Imams is spiritual, carrying the Muhammadan Light from one Imam to the other.[63] The Shia
Shia
idea that the succession should continue in the descendants of the prophet originates from the Quran
Quran
as verse 4:54.[64] Ismah[edit] Main article: Ismah Shia
Shia
believe that Ismah
Ismah
is a logical prerequisite of Imamah as Allah has made their obedience necessary and the verse 33:33 proves Ismah
Ismah
of the fourteen infallible. Ismah
Ismah
in addition to sinlessness means infallibility, without error.[65] Imam by virtue of Nass based on Hikmah (wisdom) and Nur (light) becomes Ma'sum (Infallible).[66] Hikmah (wisdom)[edit] The Imam has a perfect knowledge about religion and mankind.[67] The Imams are the most knowledgeable in religious law and the rewards and punishments of the next world. They understand the literal meaning and the internal meaning (Ta'wil) of the Quran.[68] Some Hadiths state the link between Allah
Allah
and the Imams is a pillar descending from the heaven.[69] The sources of the knowledge of Imam are the transmission from the previous Imam, inherited knowledge, acquired through angels and acquired from books whose contents are known only to the Imams.[70] According to some Hadiths, Imams possess several special books including Al-Jafr (The Divination), Al-Sahifa (The Book), Al-Jamia
Al-Jamia
(The Compilation), Book of Fatimah
Fatimah
and a codex of Quran
Quran
and its commentary (Mus'haf of Ali) written by Ali.[71] He has the knowledge of the Greatest Name of Allah.[72] As Imams are the manifestation of the attributes of act (fi'l) of Allah, their Knowledge is equivalent to the Knowledge of Allah.[17] Imams have all the revealed books of the prophets.[73] As Sayyid Haydar Amuli
Sayyid Haydar Amuli
states: "All the Imams are one and the same Light (nur), one and the same Essence (haqiqah), exemplified in twelve persons."[74] The hereditary character of nass embodied in itself a kind of exclusive Hikmah for its recipient which was traced back to Ali
Ali
of whom the prophet told "I am the city of knowledge and Ali
Ali
is its gate".[75] Ibn Babaway states that "the title Amir al-Momenin reserved for Imam indicates that he is the storehouse (mirror) of knowledge (mira't al-ilm) from whom people derived knowledge but he did not derive knowledge from anyone else."[76] Only Imam has knowledge of Unseen (Ilm al-Qayb) and fully understands Quran
Quran
and worldly matters, a knowledge that he received from Allah
Allah
through Muhammad. Only Quran
Quran
and Imam can truly manifest the Divine Truth.[77] Afdaliyyah (superiority)[edit] As the Imam is infallible (masum), he is the best of his age, otherwise, Allah
Allah
would choose another.[65] Ontologically the fourteen infallibles are superior to prophets, since they are created from a nobler matter.[78] In Quran, with respect to kingship (Imamate) and wisdom (hikmah, book), the heirs of the prophets are their descendants and kin.[9] Al-Baqir states that Imamate
Imamate
is among the progeny of Imams as indicated in verse 33:6 which its interpretation refers to the descendants of Husayn ibn Ali.[79] He added that the light that is mentioned in verse 64:8 refers to Imams who are the light of Allah, this spiritual light which passes from the prophet to Imams is the symbol of eternal knowledge (hikmah). Referring to the light, he stated," the first beings that Allah
Allah
created were Mohammad and his family, the rightly guided ones and the guides, they were the phantoms of light before Allah".[80] Personal qualities are known only through Quran
Quran
or hadith.[81] Although Imamate
Imamate
is not hereditary, Shia
Shia
believe that Imamate
Imamate
are among the progeny of Muhammad.[82] The necessity of recognizing Imams[edit] According to Ja'far al-Sadiq: " We are the ones to whom Allah
Allah
has made obedience obligatory. The people will not prosper unless they recognize us and the people will not be excused if they are ignorant of us. He who has recognised us is a believer (Momin) and he who has denied us is an unbeliever (Kafir)"...[72] Al-Riza remarks that "....whoever tends not to be separated from Allah, he love the household of Mohammad ...and follow his Imam, whoever does this is under the mercy of Allah..."[83] Kulaini, Na'mani attributed a tradition to al-Baqir that those who worship Allah
Allah
without recognizing his righteous Imam are not accepted.[83] The necessity of obeying Imams[edit] If the Imamate
Imamate
of Imams is not affirmed, one can not enter into heaven.[15] Al-Baqir states that according to verse 42:23, the believers must both obey and love the Imams.[84] Shia
Shia
believe that Imamah is inseparable from Wilayah,[b] which involves loving ahl al-Bayt (Imams), obeying them in their commands and prohibitions, recognising their rights and believing in their Imamat and that this is one of the five principles (usul) of Shia.[85] According to al-Khu'i: "the wilayat and imamate in the meaning of succession (khilafat) is an essential part (dharuriy) of Shi'ism; anyone who rejects this dimension of the wilayat would not be considered as a Shia".[7] Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir Majlisi states: "All the Imamis agree that the spiritual validity of deeds and Allah's approval of them are conditioned by faith (Imam); this point is as integral a part of faith as is love for the Twelve Imams
Twelve Imams
and their imamate."[86] Sajjad, the fourth Imam, states that the religion is attained only through submission and whoever submits to the Imams is guided and blissful. Obeying the Imams is obligatory because Allah
Allah
has thus commanded.[87] Guidance is only through Imams[edit] According to Tabatabaei (21:73, 32:24) the word guidance is used side by side by the word Imamah and is followed by "our command", a kind of guidance with a divine command that conveys humankind to the final truth, not just showing the way.[88] According to Mesbahyazdi, while Allah
Allah
is the Creator, all praise is due to Him and He is the only ontological (takwini) and legislative (tashri'e) Lord. So everyone who wishes to be a servant and a monotheist should accept His legislative laws and accept the executer of His laws, because this is His Will (Iradah).[89] A mutawatir hadith narrates that loving the prophet's family (Ahl al-Bayt) is the sign of faith and enmity towards them is the sign of hypocrisy.[90] According to Mottahari, everyone who does not accept walayah, he is in enmity with walayah which causes his deeds to be worthless (6:88, 18:105, 14:18,3:117, 25:23), because he is not humble before the Truth which is the basis of a pure deed.[91] Many hadith introduce Imam as the Guide because there is no knowledge of Allah
Allah
accessible to man without the knowledge of Imam.[92] Through hadiths, in order to reach to Allah, man must pass the Path (Sirat) who are the Imams.[93] Imamate
Imamate
and revelation (Wahy)[edit] As Muhammad
Muhammad
was the last person to receive revelation, the Imams receive divine inspiration (elham) and, as such, are in contact with the holy source of knowledge.[94] A hadith narrates that "Imam hears the voice of the Angel, but does not have his vision, either in sleep or in waking".[18][19] Imams get Revelation but not like the prophets. They are called Muhaddatht and are spoken to by angels via sounds through their ears and are supported by the Holy Spirit. They receive additional information on the Night of Power Laylat al-Qadr. They make Spiritual Ascension to the Divine Throne on Friday to add their knowledge.[95] Regarding this matter, Shaykh al-Muzaffar explains: "We maintain that the powers of the Imams to receive inspiration have reached the highest degree of excellence and we say that it is a Divinely given power. By this means the Imam is able to understand information about anything, anywhere and at anytime and he understands by means of this Divinely-given power at once, without recourse to methodological reasoning or guidance from a teacher. When he desires to know about some matter, it is reflected in his pure mind as if in a polished mirror. It is clear from the histories of their lives that like the Prophet, the Imams were not trained or taught by anyone at all, not even in reading and writing, from their childhoods to the maturing of their minds. No author or teacher was seen to instruct one of them, but they were incomparable masters of knowledge so that they never asked about any problem without being able to answer it immediately and they never said that they did not know. They never required time to consider a question before replying."[7] Arguments[edit] Shia
Shia
view of Quran[edit] Shias claim the verse of Light (24:35) is attributed to The Fourteen Infallible.[74] According to Shia
Shia
sources on the nature and basis of Imamate, H al-Baqir emphasizes that verse 5:55 refers to Ali.[96] According to al-Baqir's interpretation of verse 35:32, Imams are "Then we caused to inherit the Book those We have chosen of Our servants".[97] Shias mind verse 4:59, which signifies a perfect love and obedience to divine guides.[98] Other Shia
Shia
sources claim that Imams are expressed in Quran
Quran
as: "the Supreme Sign" (al-Ayat al-Kobra) (79:20), "the August Symbol" (al-Mathal al-a'la) (16:60), "the Most Solid Handle" (al-Urwat al-Wuthqa) (2:256), (31:22).[17] According to al-Baqir Imams are the Light of Allah
Allah
(64:8, 57:28).[99] These verses (28:68, 2:30, 38:26, 2:124, 21:73) state that Imamate
Imamate
is a divine appointment and a fallible person can not be an Imam.[100] Madelung, regarding the blood ties which is found in Quran, states the superiority of Ali
Ali
for his succession.[101] Regarding verse 2:124, Tabatabaei states that Imamah is a divine status, Imam must be Ma'sum (infallible), the earth can not be without an Imam, Imam have the complete knowledge which is related to this world and the next of the people, Imam excels all people in all virtues.[102] However it is argued by many scholars that the 12 Shia
Shia
Imams have not been mentioned in the Quran
Quran
and the Shia doctrine of Imamah is based heavily on interpretation based on weak hadiths. By Hadith[edit]

A narration attributed to Ali al-Ridha
Ali al-Ridha
reports:

" ... Allah
Allah
did not cause His Prophet to leave this world before completing for him the religion...The issue of Imamat (leadership) is part of the completion of the religion..."Do they realize the value and the status of the Imamat (leadership) of the ’Umma (the nation) to justify their selection? Imamat (leadership) in fact, is far sublime in values, greatest in position, highest in status, the most exclusive issue in all aspects, the most profound and deep for the intellect of the people to reach and grasp it in their opinions, or to appoint an Imam through their selection. Imamat (leadership) is that particular distinction which Allah, has distinguished Ibrahim, the very close friend (al-Khalil), after Prophethood(2;124). This close friendship is the third stage (in the progression of spiritual degrees)... Allah
Allah
bestowed him more honors in establishing Imamat (leadership) in purified and clean persons of his offspring. "We granted him Isaac and Jacob as a gift and helped both of them to become righteous people (21:72)..."So the Imamat (leadership) remained in his offspring inheriting it from each other, generation after generation until Allah
Allah
made Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
to inherit...So the Imamat belonged to him particularly, and he then, entrusted Imam Ali, with it by the command of Allah, as He had made it obligatory. It then came to be in his (Ali's) purified and clean of sins offspring, to whom Allah
Allah
has given knowledge and faith...Imamat (leadership) will remain in the sons of Imam Ali
Ali
exclusively, till the Day of Judgment and there will no prophet after Muhammad. Wherefrom then have these ignorant people received the right to select Imams? " Imamat (leadership) is, certainly, the position of the prophets, and the inheritance of the successors. Imamat (leadership) indeed, is the representation (khilafa) of Allah
Allah
and the deputy of the Messenger, and the office of Amir al-mu'minin and the inheritance of Imam al-Hasan and al-Husayn. "Imamat (leadership) is, in fact, the reins of the religion, the social system of the Muslims. It is best for the world, and honor for the believers. Imamat (Islamic leadership) is Islam's maturing root, and its towering branch. Through the Imam prayers are complete, Zakat, (charity) is paid, fasting, is maintained, Hajj
Hajj
is performed and Jihad, proper defense is exercised, the wealth of the nation (fay') and charity (sadaqat) are increased, the laws are enforced and the frontiers are protected and defended. "The Imam declares as lawful what Allah
Allah
has done so and prohibits what Allah
Allah
has prohibited...The Imam is as crystal-clear water to thirst, an indicator of true guidance and the protector against destruction. The Imam is as fire of a lighthouse that provides warmth and guidance for those who seek heat protection against fatalities. Whoever would depart him would perish...The Imam is as a comforting friend, a very kind father, a real brother, a tender-hearted mother of a small child, a refuge for people in disastrous conditions. The Imam is Allah's trustee over His creatures, His authority over His servants, His representative in His lands, the preacher of His cause and the defender of His sanctuary."The Imam is clean of sins, free of faults, possesses special knowledge and is distinguished in forbearance. The Imam maintains law and order in religion... The Imam is the peerless person of his time, no-one can reach even near his rank in virtue and no scholar is comparable to him... in fact, his virtues are all from bestowed up on him by the source of all virtue, the Generous One. Who is he that can know all about the Imam, or can select him?... The Imam is a scholar that is not ignorant of any thing... the mine of holiness purity, of worship and restraint from sins and Knowledge and worship. He (enjoys) the blessings of the exclusive prayers of the Messenger of Allah
Allah
and of being of the progeny of the Holy Lady, al-Batul. There is no doubt about their genealogical purity... Allah
Allah
grants success and support to the prophets and the Imams through His treasured knowledge and command in a way that is granted to no one else...When Allah chooses a person for the affairs of His servants, He opens his heart for the task, places in it the fountains of wisdom and inspires him with knowledge... He is infallible, Divinely supported, successful and guarded... Allah
Allah
has granted him this exclusively so that he would serve as the Divine authority over His servant, as a witness over them and this is the grace of Allah
Allah
that He grant to whoever He wills and Allah’s grace is the greatest. Can one among the people have such things so they would choose him as the Imam or can their selected person have such distinctions to be preferred over the others? ...May Allah
Allah
grant blessings up on Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and his family and may He grant them peace, a great deal of peace."[c][103] Imamology

In Ghadir Khum, when Ali
Ali
was appointed Imamate, verse 5:3 was revealed, which expresses that the religion had become perfect because of the appointment of Ali
Ali
to Imamate.[104] and obedience to him had become obligatory upon Muslims.[105] Hadith
Hadith
of Two Weighty Things reflects the proximity of the Imams to the Quran.[106] Addressing Hussain, the prophet said:" you are Imam, the son of the Imam, the brother of the Imam, nine of your lineal descendants will be pious Imams, the ninth of them being their Qa'im.[107] The Shia
Shia
scholar ' Allamah Kashif al-Ghita said about the Imamah: "Imamah is a divine station, just like Nubuwwah. Just as Allah
Allah
chooses whomsoever He wants to for Nubuwwah
Nubuwwah
and Risalah … similarly, for Imamah, too, He selects whomsoever He wishes."[108] By reason[edit] Al-Baqir states that while people need a guide for their journey to a strange place, their journey to heaven is stranger and more in need of a guide.[109] Al-Mufid states that an Imam is necessary for defining the exact laws that are obligatory upon the Muslims.[110] Many verses in Quran
Quran
are ambiguous, revelation of Quran
Quran
without further explanation is unlikely from Allah.[15] While Imamate
Imamate
brings the people nearer to obedience and away from disobedience, it is Grace (Lutf) that is incumbent of Allah.[111] Regarding rejecting the Imamah-doctrine, al-Hilli, a 14th century Shi'a
Shi'a
Twelver
Twelver
Islamic scholar, writes: "Imamah is a universal grace (lutf ‘amm) while Nubuwwah
Nubuwwah
(prophethood) is a special grace (lutf khass), it is possible that a specific period in time can be void of a living Nabi while the same is not true for the Imam. To reject universal grace is worse than to reject any special grace.[112] The prophet founded an eternal Shari'ah for all the times and this eternal religion could not continue without a leader.[113] History[edit] Main article: The Twelve Imams In the period of Minor Occultation, theologians like Ibn Qube Razi, Newbakhtis, al-Shaykh al-Mufid, Seyyed Morteza and al-Shaykh al-Tusi rebuild the theological school of Imamiyah.[114] In the second and third century of Hijra, a Ma'sum (infallible) and divinely chosen leader of the religion was more focused than the political role of the Imams by the theologians.[115] Although Imamiyah believed that most of the works on the early Islamic centuries argue that Shi'ism began as a political movement rather than a religious group.[46] However this does not mean that religious sentiments were absent in the first century.[116] Dakake believes that the doctrine of Imamate
Imamate
was established in the time of Ja'far al-Sadiq, while Kohlberg states that the Twelver Shi'ism dates back not much before the beginning of the "Major_Occultation".[117] Muhammad
Muhammad
is reported to have said that the Islamic leadership is in Koreish (i.e., his tribe) and that 12 “Imams” shall succeed him. Sunni
Sunni
and Shiite
Shiite
sects differ as to whom Muhammad
Muhammad
was referring. Muhammad
Muhammad
stated (authenticated by Sunnis and Shiites), that “Whoever does not know the Imam of his Lifetime ( Hadith
Hadith
of the Current Imam: i.e., recognizes same) has died the death of Ignorance”.[85][118] The idea of a prophet appointing a successor is found in the Old Testament where Joshua son of Nun is declared Moses’ successor or manager of his affairs after his death.

Before conception, the preceding the Imam is sent through a heavenly syrup which he drinks. The Imam is born pure and circumcised. (93:5) The Imam's mother experiences light and noises before the birth of the Imam.

Shias believe that just as Moses
Moses
appointed Aaron as his successor on Bani-Israel, ( Hadith
Hadith
of position), in accordance with God’s order, Muhammad, the final prophet, appointed Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib to be the leader of the believers. The Shi'a
Shi'a
Twelver
Twelver
denomination of Islam
Islam
consider it to be the highest level of responsibility given by God to a human. List of the Twelve Imams[edit]

Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib Hasan ibn Ali Husayn ibn Ali Ali
Ali
ibn Husayn Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Jafar al-Sadiq Musa al-Kadhim Ali
Ali
al-Rida Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Taqi Ali
Ali
al-Hadi Hasan al-Askari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi

See also[edit]

Hadith
Hadith
of Mubahela Hadith
Hadith
of position Hadith
Hadith
of The Cloak - Hadith
Hadith
Al Kisa Hadith
Hadith
of the pond of Khumm Hadith
Hadith
of the Twelve Successors Islamic leadership Theology of Twelvers

Notes[edit]

^ like a mirror in which the image appears without being incarnate in it ^ wilayan with kasr of waw means authority but with fatha means love, devotion ^ 1ـ أَبُو مُحَمَّدٍ الْقَاسِمُ بْنُ الْعَلاءِ رَحِمَهُ الله رَفَعَهُ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ كُنَّا مَعَ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِمَرْوَ فَاجْتَمَعْنَا فِي الْجَامِعِ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ فِي بَدْءِ مَقْدَمِنَا فَأَدَارُوا أَمْرَ الامَامَةِ وَذَكَرُوا كَثْرَةَ اخْتِلافِ النَّاسِ فِيهَا فَدَخَلْتُ عَلَى سَيِّدِي (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَأَعْلَمْتُهُ خَوْضَ النَّاسِ فِيهِ فَتَبَسَّمَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) ثُمَّ قَالَ يَا عَبْدَ الْعَزِيزِ جَهِلَ الْقَوْمُ وَخُدِعُوا عَنْ آرَائِهِمْ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمْ يَقْبِضْ نَبِيَّهُ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) حَتَّى أَكْمَلَ لَهُ الدِّينَ وَأَنْزَلَ عَلَيْهِ الْقُرْآنَ فِيهِ تِبْيَانُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ بَيَّنَ فِيهِ الْحَلالَ وَالْحَرَامَ وَالْحُدُودَ وَالاحْكَامَ وَجَمِيعَ مَا يَحْتَاجُ إِلَيْهِ النَّاسُ كَمَلاً فَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ما فَرَّطْنا فِي الْكِتابِ مِنْ شَيْءٍ وَأَنْزَلَ فِي حَجَّةِ الْوَدَاعِ وَهِيَ آخِرُ عُمُرِهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الاسْلامَ دِيناً وَأَمْرُ الامَامَةِ مِنْ تَمَامِ الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يَمْضِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) حَتَّى بَيَّنَ لامَّتِهِ مَعَالِمَ دِينِهِمْ وَأَوْضَحَ لَهُمْ سَبِيلَهُمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ عَلَى قَصْدِ سَبِيلِ الْحَقِّ وَأَقَامَ لَهُمْ عَلِيّاً (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَلَماً وَإِمَاماً وَمَا تَرَكَ لَهُمْ شَيْئاً يَحْتَاجُ إِلَيْهِ الامَّةُ إِلا بَيَّنَهُ فَمَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمْ يُكْمِلْ دِينَهُ فَقَدْ رَدَّ كِتَابَ الله وَمَنْ رَدَّ كِتَابَ الله فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ بِهِ هَلْ يَعْرِفُونَ قَدْرَ الامَامَةِ وَمَحَلَّهَا مِنَ الامَّةِ فَيَجُوزَ فِيهَا اخْتِيَارُهُمْ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ أَجَلُّ قَدْراً وَأَعْظَمُ شَأْناً وَأَعْلَى مَكَاناً وَأَمْنَعُ جَانِباً وَأَبْعَدُ غَوْراً مِنْ أَنْ يَبْلُغَهَا النَّاسُ بِعُقُولِهِمْ أَوْ يَنَالُوهَا بِآرَائِهِمْ أَوْ يُقِيمُوا إِمَاماً بِاخْتِيَارِهِمْ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ خَصَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْخَلِيلَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بَعْدَ النُّبُوَّةِ وَالْخُلَّةِ مَرْتَبَةً ثَالِثَةً وَفَضِيلَةً شَرَّفَهُ بِهَا وَأَشَادَ بِهَا ذِكْرَهُ فَقَالَ إِنِّي جاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِماماً فَقَالَ الْخَلِيلُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) سُرُوراً بِهَا وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِي قَالَ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى لا يَنالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ فَأَبْطَلَتْ هَذِهِ الايَةُ إِمَامَةَ كُلِّ ظَالِمٍ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَصَارَتْ فِي الصَّفْوَةِ ثُمَّ أَكْرَمَهُ الله تَعَالَى بِأَنْ جَعَلَهَا فِي ذُرِّيَّتِهِ أَهْلِ الصَّفْوَةِ وَالطَّهَارَةِ فَقَالَ وَوَهَبْنا لَهُ إِسْحاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ نافِلَةً وَكُلاً جَعَلْنا صالِحِينَ. وَجَعَلْناهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنا وَأَوْحَيْنا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْراتِ وَإِقامَ الصَّلاةِ وَإِيتاءَ الزَّكاةِ وَكانُوا لَنا عابِدِينَ فَلَمْ تَزَلْ فِي ذُرِّيَّتِهِ يَرِثُهَا بَعْضٌ عَنْ بَعْضٍ قَرْناً فَقَرْناً حَتَّى وَرَّثَهَا الله تَعَالَى النَّبِيَّ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَقَالَ جَلَّ وَتَعَالَى إِنَّ أَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِإِبْراهِيمَ لَلَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ وَهذَا النَّبِيُّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالله وَلِيُّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَكَانَتْ لَهُ خَاصَّةً فَقَلَّدَهَا (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) عَلِيّاً (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِأَمْرِ الله تَعَالَى عَلَى رَسْمِ مَا فَرَضَ الله فَصَارَتْ فِي ذُرِّيَّتِهِ الاصْفِيَاءِ الَّذِينَ آتَاهُمُ الله الْعِلْمَ وَالايمَانَ بِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى وَقالَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ وَالايمانَ لَقَدْ لَبِثْتُمْ فِي كِتابِ الله إِلى يَوْمِ الْبَعْثِ فَهِيَ فِي وُلْدِ علي (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) خَاصَّةً إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ إِذْ لا نَبِيَّ بَعْدَ مُحَمَّدٍ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَمِنْ أَيْنَ يَخْتَارُ هَؤُلاءِ الْجُهَّالُ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ هِيَ مَنْزِلَةُ الانْبِيَاءِ وَإِرْثُ الاوْصِيَاءِ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ خِلافَةُ الله وَخِلافَةُ الرَّسُولِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَمَقَامُ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَمِيرَاثُ الْحَسَنِ وَالْحُسَيْنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّ الامَامَةَ زِمَامُ الدِّينِ وَنِظَامُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَصَلاحُ الدُّنْيَا وَعِزُّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِنَّ الامَامَةَ أُسُّ الاسْلامِ النَّامِي وَفَرْعُهُ السَّامِي بِالامَامِ تَمَامُ الصَّلاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَالصِّيَامِ وَالْحَجِّ وَالْجِهَادِ وَتَوْفِيرُ الْفَيْءِ وَالصَّدَقَاتِ وَإِمْضَاءُ الْحُدُودِ وَالاحْكَامِ وَمَنْعُ الثُّغُورِ وَالاطْرَافِ الامَامُ يُحِلُّ حَلالَ الله وَيُحَرِّمُ حَرَامَ الله وَيُقِيمُ حُدُودَ الله وَيَذُبُّ عَنْ دِينِ الله وَيَدْعُو إِلَى سَبِيلِ رَبِّهِ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَالْحُجَّةِ الْبَالِغَةِ الامَامُ كَالشَّمْسِ الطَّالِعَةِ الْمُجَلِّلَةِ بِنُورِهَا لِلْعَالَمِ وَهِيَ فِي الافُقِ بِحَيْثُ لا تَنَالُهَا الايْدِي وَالابْصَارُ الامَامُ الْبَدْرُ الْمُنِيرُ وَالسِّرَاجُ الزَّاهِرُ وَالنُّورُ السَّاطِعُ وَالنَّجْمُ الْهَادِي فِي غَيَاهِبِ الدُّجَى وَأَجْوَازِ الْبُلْدَانِ وَالْقِفَارِ وَلُجَجِ الْبِحَارِ الامَامُ الْمَاءُ الْعَذْبُ عَلَى الظَّمَإِ وَالدَّالُّ عَلَى الْهُدَى وَالْمُنْجِي مِنَ الرَّدَى الامَامُ النَّارُ عَلَى الْيَفَاعِ الْحَارُّ لِمَنِ اصْطَلَى بِهِ وَالدَّلِيلُ فِي الْمَهَالِكِ مَنْ فَارَقَهُ فَهَالِكٌ الامَامُ السَّحَابُ الْمَاطِرُ وَالْغَيْثُ الْهَاطِلُ وَالشَّمْسُ الْمُضِيئَةُ وَالسَّمَاءُ الظَّلِيلَةُ وَالارْضُ الْبَسِيطَةُ وَالْعَيْنُ الْغَزِيرَةُ وَالْغَدِيرُ وَالرَّوْضَةُ الامَامُ الانِيسُ الرَّفِيقُ وَالْوَالِدُ الشَّفِيقُ وَالاخُ الشَّقِيقُ وَالامُّ الْبَرَّةُ بِالْوَلَدِ الصَّغِيرِ وَمَفْزَعُ الْعِبَادِ فِي الدَّاهِيَةِ النَآدِ الامَامُ أَمِينُ الله فِي خَلْقِهِ وَحُجَّتُهُ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ وَخَلِيفَتُهُ فِي بِلادِهِ وَالدَّاعِي إِلَى الله وَالذَّابُّ عَنْ حُرَمِ الله الامَامُ الْمُطَهَّرُ مِنَ الذُّنُوبِ وَالْمُبَرَّأُ عَنِ الْعُيُوبِ الْمَخْصُوصُ بِالْعِلْمِ الْمَوْسُومُ بِالْحِلْمِ نِظَامُ الدِّينِ وَعِزُّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَغَيْظُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَبَوَارُ الْكَافِرِينَ. الامَامُ وَاحِدُ دَهْرِهِ لا يُدَانِيهِ أَحَدٌ وَلا يُعَادِلُهُ عَالِمٌ وَلا يُوجَدُ مِنْهُ بَدَلٌ وَلا لَهُ مِثْلٌ وَلا نَظِيرٌ مَخْصُوصٌ بِالْفَضْلِ كُلِّهِ مِنْ غَيْرِ طَلَبٍ مِنْهُ لَهُ وَلا اكْتِسَابٍ بَلِ اخْتِصَاصٌ مِنَ الْمُفْضِلِ الْوَهَّابِ فَمَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَبْلُغُ مَعْرِفَةَ الامَامِ أَوْ يُمْكِنُهُ اخْتِيَارُهُ هَيْهَاتَ هَيْهَاتَ ضَلَّتِ الْعُقُولُ وَتَاهَتِ الْحُلُومُ وَحَارَتِ الالْبَابُ وَخَسَأَتِ الْعُيُونُ وَتَصَاغَرَتِ الْعُظَمَاءُ وَتَحَيَّرَتِ الْحُكَمَاءُ وَتَقَاصَرَتِ الْحُلَمَاءُ وَحَصِرَتِ الْخُطَبَاءُ وَجَهِلَتِ الالِبَّاءُ وَكَلَّتِ الشُّعَرَاءُ وَعَجَزَتِ الادَبَاءُ وَعَيِيَتِ الْبُلَغَاءُ عَنْ وَصْفِ شَأْنٍ مِنْ شَأْنِهِ أَوْ فَضِيلَةٍ مِنْ فَضَائِلِهِ وَأَقَرَّتْ بِالْعَجْزِ وَالتَّقْصِيرِ وَكَيْفَ يُوصَفُ بِكُلِّهِ أَوْ يُنْعَتُ بِكُنْهِهِ أَوْ يُفْهَمُ شَيْءٌ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ أَوْ يُوجَدُ مَنْ يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ وَيُغْنِي غِنَاهُ لا كَيْفَ وَأَنَّى وَهُوَ بِحَيْثُ النَّجْمِ مِنْ يَدِ الْمُتَنَاوِلِينَ وَوَصْفِ الْوَاصِفِينَ فَأَيْنَ الاخْتِيَارُ مِنْ هَذَا وَأَيْنَ الْعُقُولُ عَنْ هَذَا وَأَيْنَ يُوجَدُ مِثْلُ هَذَا أَ تَظُنُّونَ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ يُوجَدُ فِي غَيْرِ آلِ الرَّسُولِ مُحَمَّدٍ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) كَذَبَتْهُمْ وَالله أَنْفُسُهُمْ وَمَنَّتْهُمُ الابَاطِيلَ فَارْتَقَوْا مُرْتَقاً صَعْباً دَحْضاً تَزِلُّ عَنْهُ إِلَى الْحَضِيضِ أَقْدَامُهُمْ رَامُوا إِقَامَةَ الامَامِ بِعُقُولٍ حَائِرَةٍ بَائِرَةٍ نَاقِصَةٍ وَآرَاءٍ مُضِلَّةٍ فَلَمْ يَزْدَادُوا مِنْهُ إِلا بُعْداً قَاتَلَهُمُ الله أَنَّى يُؤْفَكُونَ وَلَقَدْ رَامُوا صَعْباً وَقَالُوا إِفْكاً وَضَلُّوا ضَلالاً بَعِيداً وَوَقَعُوا فِي الْحَيْرَةِ إِذْ تَرَكُوا الامَامَ عَنْ بَصِيرَةٍ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَصَدَّهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ وَكَانُوا مُسْتَبْصِرِينَ رَغِبُوا عَنِ اخْتِيَارِ الله وَاخْتِيَارِ رَسُولِ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ إِلَى اخْتِيَارِهِمْ وَالْقُرْآنُ يُنَادِيهِمْ وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ ما يَشاءُ وَيَخْتارُ ما كانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ سُبْحانَ الله وَتَعالى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَما كانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذا قَضَى الله وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْراً أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ الايَةَ وَقَالَ ما لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ أَمْ لَكُمْ كِتابٌ فِيهِ تَدْرُسُونَ إِنَّ لَكُمْ فِيهِ لَما تَخَيَّرُونَ أَمْ لَكُمْ أَيْمانٌ عَلَيْنا بالِغَةٌ إِلى يَوْمِ الْقِيامَةِ إِنَّ لَكُمْ لَما تَحْكُمُونَ سَلْهُمْ أَيُّهُمْ بِذلِكَ زَعِيمٌ أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكاءُ فَلْيَأْتُوا بِشُرَكائِهِمْ إِنْ كانُوا صادِقِينَ وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَ فَلا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلى قُلُوبٍ أَقْفالُها أَمْ طُبِعَ الله عَلى قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لا يَفْقَهُونَ أَمْ قالُوا سَمِعْنا وَهُمْ لا يَسْمَعُونَ إِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَابِّ عِنْدَ الله الصُّمُّ الْبُكْمُ الَّذِينَ لا يَعْقِلُونَ وَلَوْ عَلِمَ الله فِيهِمْ خَيْراً لاسْمَعَهُمْ وَلَوْ أَسْمَعَهُمْ لَتَوَلَّوْا وَهُمْ مُعْرِضُونَ أَمْ قالُوا سَمِعْنا وَعَصَيْنا بَلْ هُوَ فَضْلُ الله يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشاءُ وَالله ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ فَكَيْفَ لَهُمْ بِاخْتِيَارِ الامَامِ وَالامَامُ عَالِمٌ لا يَجْهَلُ وَرَاعٍ لا يَنْكُلُ مَعْدِنُ الْقُدْسِ وَالطَّهَارَةِ وَالنُّسُكِ وَالزَّهَادَةِ وَالْعِلْمِ وَالْعِبَادَةِ مَخْصُوصٌ بِدَعْوَةِ الرَّسُولِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَنَسْلِ الْمُطَهَّرَةِ الْبَتُولِ لا مَغْمَزَ فِيهِ فِي نَسَبٍ وَلا يُدَانِيهِ ذُو حَسَبٍ فِي الْبَيْتِ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ وَالذِّرْوَةِ مِنْ هَاشِمٍ وَالْعِتْرَةِ مِنَ الرَّسُولِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَالرِّضَا مِنَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ شَرَفُ الاشْرَافِ وَالْفَرْعُ مِنْ عَبْدِ مَنَافٍ نَامِي الْعِلْمِ كَامِلُ الْحِلْمِ مُضْطَلِعٌ بِالامَامَةِ عَالِمٌ بِالسِّيَاسَةِ مَفْرُوضُ الطَّاعَةِ قَائِمٌ بِأَمْرِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ نَاصِحٌ لِعِبَادِ الله حَافِظٌ لِدِينِ الله إِنَّ الانْبِيَاءَ وَالائِمَّةَ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يُوَفِّقُهُمُ الله وَيُؤْتِيهِمْ مِنْ مَخْزُونِ عِلْمِهِ وَحِكَمِهِ مَا لا يُؤْتِيهِ غَيْرَهُمْ فَيَكُونُ عِلْمُهُمْ فَوْقَ عِلْمِ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فِي قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى أَ فَمَنْ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْحَقِّ أَحَقُّ أَنْ يُتَّبَعَ أَمَّنْ لا يَهِدِّي إِلا أَنْ يُهْدى فَما لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ وَقَوْلِهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى وَمَنْ يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِيَ خَيْراً كَثِيراً وَقَوْلِهِ فِي طَالُوتَ إِنَّ الله اصْطَفاهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ وَالله يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَنْ يَشاءُ وَالله واسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ وَقَالَ لِنَبِيِّهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَنْزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ ما لَمْ تَكُنْ تَعْلَمُ وَكانَ فَضْلُ الله عَلَيْكَ عَظِيماً وَقَالَ فِي الائِمَّةِ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِ نَبِيِّهِ وَعِتْرَتِهِ وَذُرِّيَّتِهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلى ما آتاهُمُ الله مِنْ فَضْلِهِ فَقَدْ آتَيْنا آلَ إِبْراهِيمَ الْكِتابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَآتَيْناهُمْ مُلْكاً عَظِيماً فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ آمَنَ بِهِ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ صَدَّ عَنْهُ وَكَفى بِجَهَنَّمَ سَعِيراً وَإِنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا اخْتَارَهُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لامُورِ عِبَادِهِ شَرَحَ صَدْرَهُ لِذَلِكَ وَأَوْدَعَ قَلْبَهُ يَنَابِيعَ الْحِكْمَةِ وَأَلْهَمَهُ الْعِلْمَ إِلْهَاماً فَلَمْ يَعْيَ بَعْدَهُ بِجَوَابٍ وَلا يُحَيَّرُ فِيهِ عَنِ الصَّوَابِ. فَهُوَ مَعْصُومٌ مُؤَيَّدٌ مُوَفَّقٌ مُسَدَّدٌ قَدْ أَمِنَ مِنَ الْخَطَايَا وَالزَّلَلِ وَالْعِثَارِ يَخُصُّهُ الله بِذَلِكَ لِيَكُونَ حُجَّتَهُ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ وَشَاهِدَهُ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ وَذلِكَ فَضْلُ الله يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشاءُ وَالله ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ فَهَلْ يَقْدِرُونَ عَلَى مِثْلِ هَذَا فَيَخْتَارُونَهُ أَوْ يَكُونُ مُخْتَارُهُمْ بِهَذِهِ الصِّفَةِ فَيُقَدِّمُونَهُ تَعَدَّوْا وَبَيْتِ الله الْحَقَّ وَنَبَذُوا كِتَابَ الله وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لا يَعْلَمُونَ وَفِي كِتَابِ الله الْهُدَى وَالشِّفَاءُ فَنَبَذُوهُ وَاتَّبَعُوا أَهْوَاءَهُمْ فَذَمَّهُمُ الله وَمَقَّتَهُمْ وَأَتْعَسَهُمْ فَقَالَ جَلَّ وَتَعَالَى وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّنِ اتَّبَعَ هَواهُ بِغَيْرِ هُدىً مِنَ الله إِنَّ الله لا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ وَقَالَ فَتَعْساً لَهُمْ وَأَضَلَّ أَعْمالَهُمْ وَقَالَ كَبُرَ مَقْتاً عِنْدَ الله وَعِنْدَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كَذلِكَ يَطْبَعُ الله عَلى كُلِّ قَلْبِ مُتَكَبِّرٍ جَبَّارٍ وَصَلَّى الله عَلَى النَّبِيِّ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ تَسْلِيماً كَثِيراً.

Footnotes[edit]

^ a b c Britannica 2007. ^ Nasr 1979, p. 10. ^ Momen 1985, p. 173. ^ Nasr 1979, p. 15. ^ Corbin 1993, pp. 45–51. ^ a b Martin 2004. ^ a b c d e Rizvi 2000. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1985, p. 21. ^ a b Lalani 2000, p. 20. ^ Vaezi 2004, p. 56. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 2. ^ a b Momen 1985, p. 147. ^ a b Momen 1985, p. 148. ^ Corbin 1993, p. 46. ^ a b c Momen 1985, p. 159. ^ Amir Moezzi 1994, p. 30. ^ a b c Amir Moezzi 1994, p. 45. ^ a b Donaldson 1984, p. 306. ^ a b Kardan 2014. ^ a b Nasr 2008, p. 318. ^ Majlisi, pp. 267–318–88. ^ Lalani 2010, p. 33. ^ a b Madelung 2015. ^ Nasr 2008, p. 424,425. ^ Javadi Amoli 2008, p. 92. ^ Askari 1998, p. 71. ^ Javadi Amoli 2008, p. 93. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 103. ^ Donaldson 1984, p. 344,345. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 170. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 179. ^ Amir Moezzi 1994, p. 29. ^ Corbin 1993, p. 27. ^ Corbin 1993, p. 38. ^ Corbin 1993, p. 61. ^ Corbin 1993, p. 63. ^ Vaezi 2004, p. 58. ^ Donaldson 1984, p. 308,309. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 168. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 170,171. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 177,178. ^ Nasr 2008, p. 316. ^ Corbin 1993, p. 40. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 83. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1985, pp. 55. ^ a b Dakake 2007, p. 3. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1985, pp. 56. ^ Vaezi 2004, pp. 58,59. ^ Mavani 2013, p. 11. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 4. ^ a b Donaldson 1984, p. 314. ^ Momen 1985, p. 153. ^ Momen 1985, pp. 154,155. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 77. ^ Mashita 2013. ^ Donaldson 1984, p. 316. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, pp. 105,106. ^ Donaldson 1984, p. 317. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1988, p. 7. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 101. ^ Ayoub 1984, p. 156,157. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 98. ^ Nasr 1994, p. 159. ^ Nasr 2008, p. 312. ^ a b Momen 1985, p. 155. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 82. ^ Momen 1985, p. 156. ^ Martin 2004, p. 625. ^ Momen 1985, p. 149. ^ Arjomand 1988, p. 26. ^ Amir Moezzi 1994, p. 73,74. ^ a b Momen 1985, p. 150. ^ Amir Moezzi 1994, p. 73. ^ a b Corbin 1993, p. 48. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 78. ^ Afsaruddin 2015. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 5. ^ Amir Moezzi 1994, p. 71. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 68. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 80. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1988, p. 21. ^ Pakatchi, Ansari & Naji 1988, p. 140. ^ a b Donaldson 1984, p. 353. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 66. ^ a b Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 96. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 169. ^ al-Qarashi 2014, p. 86,87. ^ Tabatabaei 2008, p. 78,79. ^ Mesbahyazdi 2014. ^ Sobhani 2001, p. 114. ^ Motahhari 2003, p. 43. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 177. ^ Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, p. 184. ^ Dabashi 1989, p. 116. ^ Mavani 2013, p. 52,53. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 58. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 65. ^ Manavi 2013, p. 11. ^ Lalani 2000, p. 67,68. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1985, pp. 43–46. ^ Mavani 2013, p. 33. ^ Tabatabaei 1973, p. 83. ^ Rafia'a & Derayati 2003, pp. 590–599. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1988, p. 27. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1988, p. 38. ^ Rizvi 2014. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1988, p. 26,27. ^ Asl ash- Shi'a
Shi'a
wa Usuluha p.58 by Allamah Muhammad
Muhammad
Hussayn Kashif al-Ghita (Mu'ssasat al-A'lami, Beirut) ^ Lalani 2000, p. 75. ^ McDermott 1978, p. 385. ^ Akhtar Rizvi 1988, p. 12. ^ al-Alfayn pp.3 by Ibn Mutahhar al-Hilli (al-Maktabah al-Haydariyyah, Najaf, 3rd ed. 1388) ^ Sobhani 2015. ^ Pakatchi, Ansari & Naji 1988, p. 137. ^ Pakatchi, Ansari & Naji 1988, p. 138. ^ Dakake 2007, p. 4. ^ Dakake 2007, p. 2. ^ Corbin 1993, p. 49.

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External links[edit]

Shi'ite Doctorine by MOHAMMAD ALI AMIR-MOEZZI an article in Encyclopædia Iranica Imamah in the Qur'an Hujjat by Maria Dakake an article in Encyclopædia Iranica A brief introduction of Twelve Imams A Brief History Of The Lives Of The Twelve Imams
The Twelve Imams
a chapter of Shi'a Islam
Islam
(book) by Allameh Tabatabaei The Twelve Imams
The Twelve Imams
Taken From "A Shi'ite Anthology" By Allameh Tabatabaei A Short History of the Lives of The Twelve Imams The Shi'a
Shi'a
concept of Imamate Imamat vs. Prophethood (Part II)

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Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni
Sunni
books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia
Shia
Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia
Shia
sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

v t e

Islam
Islam
topics

Outline of Islam

Beliefs

God in Islam Tawhid Muhammad

In Islam

Prophets of Islam Angels Revelation Predestination Judgement Day

Five Pillars

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

History Leaders

Timeline of Muslim history Conquests Golden Age Historiography Sahaba Ahl al-Bayt Shi'a
Shi'a
Imams Caliphates

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Córdoba Fatimid Almohad Sokoto Ottoman

Religious texts

Quran Sunnah Hadith Tafsir Seerah

Denominations

Sunni Shia Ibadi Nation of Islam Ahmadiyya Quranism Non-denominational

Life Culture

Animals Art Calendar Children Clothing Holidays Mosques Madrasas Moral teachings Music Philosophy Political aspects Qurbani Science

medieval

Social welfare Women LGBT Islam
Islam
by country

Law Jurisprudence

Economics

Banking Economic history Sukuk Takaful Murabaha Riba

Hygiene

Ghusl Miswak Najis Tayammum Toilet Wudu

Marriage Sex

Marriage contract Mahr Mahram Masturbation Nikah Nikah Mut‘ah Zina

Other aspects

Cleanliness Criminal Dhabiĥa Dhimmi Divorce Diet Ethics Etiquette Gambling Gender segregation Honorifics Hudud Inheritance Jizya Leadership Ma malakat aymanukum Military

POWs

Slavery Sources of law Theological

baligh kalam

 Islamic studies

Arts

Arabesque Architecture Calligraphy Carpets Gardens Geometric patterns Music Pottery

Medieval science

Alchemy and chemistry Astronomy Cosmology Geography and cartography Mathematics Medicine Ophthalmology Physics

Philosophy

Early Contemporary Eschatology Theological

Other areas

Astrology Creationism (evolution) Feminism Inventions Liberalism and progressivism Literature

poetry

Psychology Shu'ubiyya Conversion to mosques

Other religions

Christianity

Mormonism Protestantism

Hinduism Jainism Judaism Sikhism

Related topics

Apostasy Criticism of Islam Cultural Muslim Islamism

Criticism Post-Islamism Qutbism Salafi movement

Islamophobia

Incidents

Islamic terrorism Islamic view of miracles Domestic violence Nursing Persecution of Muslims Quran
Quran
and miracles Symbolism

Islam
Islam
portal Category

v t e

Shia
Shia
Imams

Twelver

Ali Hasan ibn Ali Husayn Ibn Ali Ali
Ali
ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Ja'far al-Sadiq Musa al-Kadhim Ali
Ali
al-Ridha Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Jawad Ali
Ali
al-Hadi Hasan al-Askari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi

Tayyibi

Ali
Ali
("Asās" or "Wāsih" of Nabi Muhammad)

Hasan Husayn al-Sajjad al-Baqir Jafar al-Sādiq Ismā'il Muhammad Abadullāh (Wāfi Ahmad) Ahmad (Tāqi Muhammad) Husayn (Rādhi Abdullāh) Abdullah al-Mahdi Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Qā'im Ismāʿīl al-Mansur Ma'ādd al-Mu'izz Nizār al-Aziz Mansur al-Hākim Ali
Ali
az-Zāhir Ma'ādd al-Mustansir Ahmad al-Mustāʿli Mansur al-Amir Abu'l-Qāsim at-Tāyyib

Nizari

Ali Husayn ibn Ali Ali
Ali
ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Ja'far al-Sadiq Isma'il ibn Jafar Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isma'il Ahmad al-Wafi Muhammad
Muhammad
at-Taqi Abdullah ar-Radi Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah al-Mansur Billah Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah Al-Aziz Billah Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah Ali
Ali
az-Zahir al-Mustansir Billah Nizar al-Hādī al-Mutadī al-Qāhir Hassan II Nur al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
II Jalaluddin Hasan ‘Alā’ ad-Dīn Muḥammad III Rukn al-Din Khurshah Shamsu-d-Dīn Muḥammad Qāsim Shāh Islām Shāh Muḥammad ibn Islām Shāh al-Mustanṣir billāh II ʿAbdu s-Salām Shāh Gharīb Mīrzā Abū Dharr ʻAlī Murād Mīrzā Dhū-l-Fiqār ʻAlī Nūru d-Dīn ʻAlī Khalīlullāh II ʻAlī Nizār II as-Sayyid ʻAlī Ḥasan ʻAlī Qāsim ʻAlī Abū-l-Hasan ʻAlī Shāh Khalīlullāh III Aga Khan I Aga Khan II Aga Khan III

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