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The ILOCOS REGION (Ilocano : Rehion/Deppaar ti Ilocos; Pangasinan
Pangasinan
: Sagor na Baybay na Luzon; Filipino : Rehiyon ng Ilocos) is an administrative region of the Philippines, designated as REGION I, occupying the northwestern section of Luzon
Luzon
. It is bordered by the Cordillera Administrative Region to the east, the Cagayan Valley to the northeast and southeast, and the Central Luzon
Luzon
to the south. To the west lies the South China Sea .

The region comprises four provinces : Ilocos Norte , Ilocos Sur , La Union and Pangasinan
Pangasinan
. Its regional center is San Fernando , La Union. The 2000 Census reported that the major languages spoken in the region are Ilocano at 66.36% of the total population at that time, Pangasinan with 27.05%, and Tagalog with 3.21%.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Administrative divisions

* 3 Economy * 4 Demographics * 5 Notable people from the region * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

HISTORY

The region was first inhabited by the aboriginal Negritos , before they were pushed by successive waves of Austronesian immigrants that penetrated the narrow coast. Tingguians in the interior, Ilocanos in the north, and Pangasinans in the south settled the region. Before the administration of Ferdinand Marcos , Pangasinan
Pangasinan
was not a part of the region.

The Spanish arrived in the 16th century and established Christian missions and governmental institutions to control the native population and convert them to Catholicism. Present-day Vigan
Vigan
in Ilocos Sur province became the diocesan seat of Nueva Segovia. Ilocanos in the northern parts were less easily swayed, however, and remained an area filled with deep resentments against Spain. These resentments bubbled to the surface at various points in the Ilocos provinces' history as insurrections, most notably that of Andres Malong and Palaris of Pangasinan, Diego Silang and his wife Gabriela Silang in 1764, and the Basi Revolt in the 19th century. However, it was the Pangasinans in the south who were the last to stand against the Spaniards.

In 1901, the region came under American colonial rule, and in 1941, under Japanese occupation.

During 1945, the combined American and the Philippine Commonwealth troops including with the Ilocano and Pangasinan
Pangasinan
guerillas liberated the Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
from Japanese forces during the Second World War.

Several modern presidents of the Republic of the Philippines
Philippines
hailed from the Region: Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
, Ferdinand Marcos , and Fidel V. Ramos .

Before the creation of the Cordillera Administrative Region , Region 1 included the provinces of Abra , Mountain Province , and Benguet .

GEOGRAPHY

The Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
occupies the narrow plain between the Cordillera Central mountain range and the South China Sea , and the northern portion of the Central Luzon
Luzon
plain, to the north-east of the Zambales Mountains .

Lingayen Gulf
Lingayen Gulf
is the most notable body of water in the region and it contains several islands, including the Hundred Islands National Park . To the north of the region is Luzon
Luzon
Strait .

The Agno River runs through Pangasinan
Pangasinan
from Benguet , flowing into a broad delta at the vicinities of Lingayen and Dagupan
Dagupan
before emptying into the Lingayen Gulf.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Political Map of Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region

The Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
comprises 4 provinces , 1 independent component city , 8 component cities, 116 municipalities , and 3,265 barangays .

PROVINCE CAPITAL POPULATION (2015) AREA DENSITY CITIES MUNI. BGY.

KM2 SQ MI /KM2 /SQ MI

ILOCOS NORTE Laoag 7001118000000000000♠11.8% 593,081 3,467.89 1,338.96 170 440 2 21 557

ILOCOS SUR Vigan
Vigan
7001137000000000000♠13.7% 689,668 2,596.00 1,002.32 270 700 2 32 768

LA UNION San Fernando 7001157000000000000♠15.7% 786,653 1,497.70 578.27 530 1,400 1 19 576

PANGASINAN Lingayen 7001588000000000000♠58.8% 2,956,726 5,451.01 2,104.65 540 1,400 4 44 1,364

TOTAL 5,026,128 13,012.60 5,024.19 390 1,000 9 116 3,265

• Figures for Pangasinan
Pangasinan
include the independent component city of Dagupan
Dagupan
.

CITY/MUNICIPALITY POPULATION (2015) AREA DENSITY CLASS INCOME CLASS PROVINCE

KM2 SQ MI /KM2 /SQ MI

ADAMS 1,792 159.31 61.51 11 28 Municipality 5th Ilocos Norte

AGNO 28,052 169.75 65.54 170 440 Municipality 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

AGOO 63,692 52.84 20.40 1,200 3,100 Municipality 1st La Union

AGUILAR 41,463 195.07 75.32 210 540 Municipality 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

ALAMINOS CITY 89,708 164.26 63.42 550 1,400 Component City 4th Pangasinan
Pangasinan

ALCALA 43,402 45.71 17.65 950 2,500 Municipality 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

ALILEM 6,695 119.33 46.07 56 150 Municipality 4th Ilocos Sur

ANDA 39,504 74.55 28.78 530 1,400 Municipality 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

ARINGAY 47,458 84.54 32.64 560 1,500 Municipality 2nd La Union

ASINGAN 57,355 66.64 25.73 860 2,200 Municipality 2nd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

BACARRA 32,215 65.32 25.22 490 1,300 Municipality 3rd Ilocos Norte

BACNOTAN 42,078 76.60 29.58 550 1,400 Municipality 1st La Union

BADOC 31,616 76.68 29.61 410 1,100 Municipality 2nd Ilocos Norte

BAGULIN 13,456 107.33 41.44 130 340 Municipality 5th La Union

BALAOAN 39,188 68.70 26.53 570 1,500 Municipality 1st La Union

BALUNGAO 31,106 73.25 28.28 420 1,100 Municipality 4th Pangasinan
Pangasinan

BANAYOYO 7,748 24.63 9.51 310 800 Municipality 4th Ilocos Sur

BANGAR 35,947 37.36 14.42 960 2,500 Municipality 3rd La Union

BANGUI 14,672 112.98 43.62 130 340 Municipality 4th Ilocos Norte

BANI 50,306 179.65 69.36 280 730 Municipality 2nd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

BANNA 19,438 92.73 35.80 210 540 Municipality 4th Ilocos Norte

BANTAY 35,731 76.60 29.58 470 1,200 Municipality 1st Ilocos Sur

BASISTA 32,959 24.00 9.27 1,400 3,600 Municipality 4th Pangasinan
Pangasinan

BATAC CITY 55,201 161.06 62.19 340 880 Component City 5th Ilocos Norte

BAUANG 75,032 73.15 28.24 1,000 2,600 Municipality 1st La Union

BAUTISTA 32,307 46.33 17.89 700 1,800 Municipality 4th Pangasinan
Pangasinan

BAYAMBANG 118,205 143.94 55.58 820 2,100 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

BINALONAN 54,555 47.57 18.37 110 280 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

BINMALEY 83,052 118.50 45.75 700 1,800 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

BOLINAO 82,084 197.22 76.15 420 1,100 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

BUGALLON 67,348 189.64 73.22 360 930 Municipality 2nd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

BURGOS 9,777 128.90 49.77 76 200 Municipality 5th Ilocos Norte

BURGOS 12,224 44.38 17.14 280 730 Municipality 4th Ilocos Sur

BURGOS 8,067 70.80 27.34 110 280 Municipality 5th La Union

BURGOS 21,637 131.32 50.70 160 410 Municipality 4th Pangasinan
Pangasinan

CABA 22,039 46.31 17.88 480 1,200 Municipality 4th La Union

CABUGAO 37,501 95.56 36.90 390 1,000 Municipality 1st Ilocos Sur

CALASIAO 95,154 48.36 18.67 2,000 5,200 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

CANDON CITY 60,623 103.28 39.88 590 1,500 Component City 4th Ilocos Sur

CAOAYAN 19,861 17.42 6.73 1,100 2,800 Municipality 4th Ilocos Sur

CARASI 1,567 82.97 32.03 19 49 Municipality 5th Ilocos Norte

CERVANTES 17,211 234.70 90.62 73 190 Municipality 4th Ilocos Sur

CURRIMAO 12,184 34.08 13.16 360 930 Municipality 4th Ilocos Norte

DAGUPAN CITY 171,271 44.47 17.17 3,900 10,000 Independent Component City 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

DASOL 29,110 166.60 64.32 170 440 Municipality 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

DINGRAS 38,562 96.00 37.07 400 1,000 Municipality 2nd Ilocos Norte

DUMALNEG 2,947 88.48 34.16 33 85 Municipality 5th Ilocos Norte

GALIMUYOD 10,748 34.40 13.28 310 800 Municipality 4th Ilocos Sur

GREGORIO DEL PILAR 4,875 41.66 16.09 120 310 Municipality 5th Ilocos Sur

INFANTA 24,584 254.29 98.18 97 250 Municipality 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

LABRADOR 23,201 90.99 35.13 250 650 Municipality 4th Pangasinan
Pangasinan

LAOAC 31,497 40.50 15.64 780 2,000 Municipality 4th Pangasinan
Pangasinan

LAOAG CITY 111,125 116.08 44.82 960 2,500 Component City 3rd Ilocos Norte

LIDLIDDA 4,647 33.84 13.07 140 360 Municipality 5th Ilocos Sur

LINGAYEN 103,278 62.76 24.23 1,600 4,100 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

LUNA 35,802 42.90 16.56 830 2,100 Municipality 3rd La Union

MABINI 24,765 291.01 112.36 85 220 Municipality 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

MAGSINGAL 30,792 84.98 32.81 360 930 Municipality 3rd Ilocos Sur

MALASIQUI 130,275 131.37 50.72 990 2,600 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

MANAOAG 69,497 55.95 21.60 1,200 3,100 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

MANGALDAN 106,331 48.47 18.71 2,200 5,700 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

MANGATAREM 73,241 317.50 122.59 230 600 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

MAPANDAN 37,059 30.00 11.58 1,200 3,100 Municipality 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

MARCOS 17,777 72.77 28.10 240 620 Municipality 4th Ilocos Norte

NAGBUKEL 5,259 43.12 16.65 120 310 Municipality 5th Ilocos Sur

NAGUILIAN 54,221 104.60 40.39 520 1,300 Municipality 1st La Union

NARVACAN 44,006 122.21 47.19 360 930 Municipality 2nd Ilocos Sur

NATIVIDAD 24,299 134.36 51.88 180 470 Municipality 4th Pangasinan
Pangasinan

NUEVA ERA 9,506 515.02 198.85 18 47 Municipality 3rd Ilocos Norte

PAGUDPUD 23,770 194.90 75.25 120 310 Municipality 4th Ilocos Norte

PAOAY 24,866 76.24 29.44 330 850 Municipality 4th Ilocos Norte

PASUQUIN 28,980 210.54 81.29 140 360 Municipality 3rd Ilocos Norte

PIDDIG 21,497 216.20 83.48 99 260 Municipality 3rd Ilocos Norte

PINILI 17,300 89.48 34.55 190 490 Municipality 4th Ilocos Norte

POZORRUBIO 69,555 134.60 51.97 520 1,300 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

PUGO 19,690 62.84 24.26 310 800 Municipality 5th La Union

QUIRINO 8,573 240.10 92.70 36 93 Municipality 4th Ilocos Sur

ROSALES 63,081 66.39 25.63 950 2,500 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

ROSARIO 55,458 73.98 28.56 750 1,900 Municipality 1st La Union

SALCEDO 11,288 103.44 39.94 110 280 Municipality 4th Ilocos Sur

SAN CARLOS CITY 188,571 169.03 65.26 1,100 2,800 Component City 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

SAN EMILIO 7,407 141.44 54.61 52 130 Municipality 4th Ilocos Sur

SAN ESTEBAN 8,349 19.62 7.58 430 1,100 Municipality 5th Ilocos Sur

SAN FABIAN 83,025 81.28 31.38 1,000 2,600 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

SAN FERNANDO CITY 121,812 102.72 39.66 1,200 3,100 Component City 3rd La Union

SAN GABRIEL 18,172 129.87 50.14 140 360 Municipality 4th La Union

SAN ILDEFONSO 7,787 11.35 4.38 690 1,800 Municipality 5th Ilocos Sur

SAN JACINTO 40,848 44.18 17.06 920 2,400 Municipality 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

SAN JUAN 26,411 64.37 24.85 410 1,100 Municipality 3rd Ilocos Sur

SAN JUAN 37,188 57.12 22.05 650 1,700 Municipality 2nd La Union

SAN MANUEL 52,939 129.18 49.88 410 1,100 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

SAN NICOLAS 36,736 40.18 15.51 910 2,400 Municipality 2nd Ilocos Norte

SAN NICOLAS 35,574 210.20 81.16 170 440 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

SAN QUINTIN 32,945 115.90 44.75 280 730 Municipality 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

SAN VICENTE 12,758 12.60 4.86 1,000 2,600 Municipality 5th Ilocos Sur

SANTA 15,340 109.10 42.12 140 360 Municipality 4th Ilocos Sur

SANTA BARBARA 82,012 61.37 23.70 1,300 3,400 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

SANTA CATALINA 13,945 9.68 3.74 1,400 3,600 Municipality 5th Ilocos Sur

SANTA CRUZ 39,868 88.78 34.28 450 1,200 Municipality 1st Ilocos Sur

SANTA LUCIA 25,402 49.72 19.20 510 1,300 Municipality 3rd Ilocos Sur

SANTA MARIA 30,321 63.31 24.44 480 1,200 Municipality 3rd Ilocos Sur

SANTA MARIA 33,038 69.50 26.83 480 1,200 Municipality 4th Pangasinan
Pangasinan

SANTIAGO 18,759 46.36 17.90 400 1,000 Municipality 4th Ilocos Sur

SANTO DOMINGO 27,975 55.49 21.42 500 1,300 Municipality 3rd Ilocos Sur

SANTO TOMAS 39,092 64.00 24.71 610 1,600 Municipality 4th La Union

SANTO TOMAS 15,022 12.99 5.02 1,200 3,100 Municipality 5th Pangasinan
Pangasinan

SANTOL 12,476 93.70 36.18 130 340 Municipality 4th La Union

SARRAT 25,212 57.39 22.16 440 1,100 Municipality 1st Ilocos Norte

SIGAY 2,737 81.55 31.49 34 88 Municipality 5th Ilocos Sur

SINAIT 25,640 65.56 25.31 390 1,000 Municipality 3rd Ilocos Sur

SISON 47,518 81.88 31.61 580 1,500 Municipality 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

SOLSONA 24,121 166.23 64.18 150 390 Municipality 3rd Ilocos Norte

SUAL 34,149 130.16 50.26 260 670 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

SUDIPEN 17,056 97.59 37.68 170 440 Municipality 4th La Union

SUGPON 4,585 57.11 22.05 80 210 Municipality 5th Ilocos Sur

SUYO 11,446 124.00 47.88 92 240 Municipality 4th Ilocos Sur

TAGUDIN 39,277 151.19 58.37 260 670 Municipality 2nd Ilocos Sur

TAYUG 43,149 51.24 19.78 840 2,200 Municipality 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

TUBAO 28,729 50.75 19.59 570 1,500 Municipality 4th La Union

UMINGAN 73,252 258.43 99.78 280 730 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

URBIZTONDO 50,170 81.80 31.58 610 1,600 Municipality 3rd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

URDANETA CITY 132,940 100.26 38.71 1,300 3,400 Component City 2nd Pangasinan
Pangasinan

VIGAN CITY 53,879 25.12 9.70 2,100 5,400 Component City 4th Ilocos Sur

VILLASIS 62,333 75.83 29.28 820 2,100 Municipality 1st Pangasinan
Pangasinan

VINTAR 32,220 614.35 237.20 52 130 Municipality 5th Ilocos Norte

ECONOMY

Although the economy in the southern portion of the region, esp. Pangasinan
Pangasinan
, is anchored on agro-industrial and service industry, the economy in the northern portion of the region is anchored in the agricultural sector. The economy in Pangasinan
Pangasinan
is driven by agro-industrial businesses , such as milkfish (bangus) cultivation and processing, livestock raising, fish paste processing (bagoong), and others. Income in the Ilocos provinces or northern portion mostly come from cultivating rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, and fruits; raising livestock such as pigs, chicken, goats, and carabaos (water buffalos).

The distribution of the economic activity in the region may be seen from the collection of tax revenue of the national government. The bulk of the collections come from Pangasinan, which posted 61% of the total.

The service and light manufacturing industries are concentrated in the cities. Dagupan
Dagupan
is mostly driven by its local entrepreneurs, which have started to expand its network up to the national level. San Fernando in La Union also has an international shipping port and the upgraded and soon to be developed San Fernando International Airport. While Laoag in Ilocos Norte has an international airport.

The tourism industry, driven by local airlines and land transportation firms in the area like Farinas Transit Company and Partas , focuses on the coastal beaches and on eco-tourism. There are fine sands stretching along Bauang, La Union and the rest of the region.

The region is also rich in crafts, with renowned blanket-weaving and pottery. The Ilocanos' burnay pottery is well known for its dark colored clay.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Population census of Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region

YEAR POP. ±% P.A.

1990 3,550,642 —

2000 4,200,478 +1.69%

2010 4,748,372 +1.23%

2015 5,026,128 +1.09%

Source: National Statistics Office

The Ilocos provinces are the historical homeland of the Ilocanos . In the 2000 Census, the Ilocanos comprised 66% of the region, Pangasinan people 27%, and the Tagalogs 3%.

Pangasinan
Pangasinan
is the historical homeland of the Pangasinans . The population of Pangasinan
Pangasinan
comprises approximately 60% of the total population of the region. The Ilocanos started migrating to Pangasinan in the 19th century. Pangasinan
Pangasinan
was formerly a province of Region III (Central Luzon
Luzon
) before President Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 1, 1972, incorporating it into Region I. Minority groups include the Tingguian and Isneg communities that inhabit the foothills of the Cordillera mountains.

The population is predominantly Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
with strong adherents of Protestantism such as the Aglipayan denomination further north of the country. There are also adherents to other religions, such as Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo
, Mormons
Mormons
, and the like. There is also an undercurrent of traditional animistic beliefs especially in rural areas. The small mercantile Chinese and Indian communities are primarily Buddhists , Taoists , and Hindus .

NOTABLE PEOPLE FROM THE REGION

* José Burgos , one of the Gomburza martyrs during the Spanish Occupation * Ferdinand Marcos , tenth President of the Philippines * Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
, sixth President of the Philippines * Fidel V. Ramos , twelfth President of the Philippines * Artemio Ricarte , Filipino general during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War * Diego Silang , male revolutionary leader during the Spanish Occupation * Gabriela Silang , female revolutionary leader during the Spanish Occupation

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SEE ALSO

* Metro Dagupan
Dagupan
* Amburayan

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C Census of Population (2015). "Region I (Ilocos Region)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA . Retrieved 20 June 2016. * ^ A B "Ilocos Region: To Reach Five Millionth Mark in Nine Years (Results from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing, NSO); Table 8. Language/Dialect Generally Spoken in the Households: Ilocos Region, 2000". National Statistics Office. 31 January 2003. Archived from the original on 28 April 2003. Retrieved 29 March 2016. * ^ Presidential Decree No. 1, 1972 * ^ Culture and History by Nick Joaquin * ^ "List of Regions". National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on 27 October 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2011. * ^ "PSGC Interactive; List of Provinces". Philippine Statistics Authority . Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2016. * ^ "PSGC Interactive; List of Cities". Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2016. * ^ National Statistical Coordination Board * ^ "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines
Philippines
and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 28, 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013. * ^ Rosario Mendoza Cortes, Pangasinan, 1801-1900: Th