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The Illinois
Illinois
Country (French: Pays des Illinois, lit. "land of the Illinois
Illinois
(plural)", i.e. the Illinois
Illinois
people) — sometimes referred to as Upper Louisiana (French: la Haute-Louisiane; Spanish: Alta Luisiana) — was a vast region of New France
New France
in what is now the Midwestern United States. While these names generally referred to the entire Upper Mississippi River
Upper Mississippi River
watershed, French colonial settlement was concentrated along the Mississippi and Illinois
Illinois
Rivers in what is now the U.S. states of Illinois
Illinois
and Missouri, with outposts in Indiana. Explored in 1673 from Green Bay to the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
by the Canadien
Canadien
expedition of Louis Joliet
Louis Joliet
and Jacques Marquette, the area was claimed by France. It was settled primarily from the Pays d'en Haut in the context of the fur trade. Over time, the fur trade took some French to the far reaches of the Rocky Mountains, especially along the branches of the broad Missouri
Missouri
River valley. The French name, Pays des Illinois, means "Land of the Illinois
Illinois
[plural]" and is a reference to the Illinois
Illinois
Confederation, a group of related Algonquian native peoples. Up until 1717, the Illinois
Illinois
Country was governed by the French province of Canada, but by order of King Louis XV, the Illinois Country was annexed to the French province of Louisiana, with the northeastern administrative border being somewhat vaguely on or near the upper Illinois
Illinois
River.[1] The territory thus became known as "Upper Louisiana." By the mid-18th century, the major settlements included Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Chartres, Saint Philippe, and Prairie du Rocher, all on the east side of the Mississippi in present-day Illinois; and Ste. Genevieve across the river in Missouri, as well as Fort Vincennes in what is now Indiana.[2] As a consequence of the French defeat in the Seven Years' War, the Illinois
Illinois
Country east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
was ceded to the British, and the land west of the river to the Spanish. Following the British occupation of the left bank (when heading downstream) of the Mississippi in 1764, some Canadien
Canadien
settlers remained in the area, while others crossed the river, forming new settlements such as St. Louis. Eventually, the eastern part of the Illinois
Illinois
Country became part of the British Province of Quebec, while the inhabitants chose to side with the Americans during the revolt of the thirteen colonies. Although the lands west of the Mississippi were sold in 1803 to the United States by France—which had reclaimed possession of Luisiana from the Spanish in the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso—French language and culture continued to exist in the area, with the Missouri French dialect still being spoken into the 20th century.[2] Because of the deforestation that resulted from the cutting of much wood for fuel during the 19th-century age of steamboats, the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
became more shallow and broad, with more severe flooding and lateral changes in its channel in the stretch from St. Louis to the confluence with the Ohio River. As a consequence, many architectural and archaeological resources were lost to flooding and destruction of early French colonial villages originally located near the river, including Kaskaskia, St. Philippe, Cahokia, and Ste. Genevieve.[3]

Contents

1 Location and boundaries 2 Exploration and settlement

2.1 Fort St. Louis
St. Louis
du Rocher 2.2 Fort de Chartres 2.3 Agricultural settlement 2.4 Other settlements

3 Illinois
Illinois
Country under American control

3.1 Flooding

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Location and boundaries[edit]

1681 map of the New World: New France
New France
and the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
in the north, with a dark line as the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
to the west and the mouth of the river (and future New Orleans) then terra incognita

The boundaries of the Illinois
Illinois
Country were defined in a variety of ways, but the region now known as the American Bottom
American Bottom
was nearly at the center of all descriptions. One of the earliest known geographic features designated as Ilinois was what later became known as Lake Michigan, on a map prepared in 1671 by French Jesuits. Early French missionaries and traders referred to the area southwest and southeast of the lake, including much of the upper Mississippi Valley, by this name. Illinois
Illinois
was also the name given to an area inhabited by the Illiniwek. A map of 1685 labels a large area southwest of the lake les Ilinois; in 1688, the Italian cartographer Vincenzo Coronelli
Vincenzo Coronelli
labeled the region (in Italian) as Illinois
Illinois
country. In 1721, the seventh civil and military district of Louisiana was named Illinois. It included more than half of the present state, as well as the land between the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
and the line of 43 degrees north latitude, and the country between the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
and the Mississippi River. A royal ordinance of 1722—following the transfer of the Illinois Country's governance from Canada to Louisiana—may have featured the broadest definition of the region: all land claimed by France south of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and north of the mouth of the Ohio River, which would include the lower Missouri
Missouri
Valley as well as both banks of the Mississippi.[1] A generation later, trade conflicts between Canada and Louisiana led to a more defined boundary between the French colonies; in 1745, Louisiana governor general Vaudreuil set the northeastern bounds of his domain as the Wabash valley up to the mouth of the Vermilion River (near present-day Danville, Illinois); from there, northwest to le Rocher on the Illinois
Illinois
River, and from there west to the mouth of the Rock River (at present day Rock Island, Illinois).[1] Thus, Vincennes and Peoria were the limit of Louisiana'a reach; the outposts at Ouiatenon
Ouiatenon
(on the upper Wabash near present-day Lafayette, Indiana), Chicago, Fort Miamis
Fort Miamis
(near present-day Fort Wayne, Indiana) and Prairie du Chien
Prairie du Chien
operated as dependencies of Canada.[1] This boundary between Canada and the Illinois
Illinois
Country remained in effect until the Treaty of Paris in 1763, after which France surrendered its remaining territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain. (Although British forces had occupied the "Canadian" posts in the Illinois
Illinois
and Wabash countries in 1761, they did not occupy Vincennes or the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
settlements at Cahokia
Cahokia
and Kaskaskia
Kaskaskia
until 1764, after the ratification of the peace treaty.[4]) As part of a general report on conditions in the newly conquered lands, Gen. Thomas Gage, then commandant at Montreal, explained in 1762 that, although the boundary between Louisiana and Canada wasn't exact, it was understood the upper Mississippi above the mouth of the Illinois
Illinois
was in Canadian trading territory.[5] Distinctions became somewhat clearer after the Treaty of Paris in 1763, when Britain acquired Canada and the land claimed by France east of the Mississippi and Spain acquired Louisiana west of the Mississippi. Many French settlers moved west across the river to escape British control.[2] On the west bank, the Spanish also continued to refer to the western region governed from St. Louis
St. Louis
as the District of Illinois
Illinois
and referred to St. Louis
St. Louis
as the city of Illinois.[1] Exploration and settlement[edit]

Map of western New France, including the Illinois
Illinois
Country, by Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688

Further information: List of commandants of the Illinois
Illinois
Country The first French explorations of the Illinois
Illinois
Country were in the first half of the 17th century, led by explorers and missionaries based in Canada. Étienne Brûlé
Étienne Brûlé
explored the upper Illinois
Illinois
country in 1615 but did not document his experiences. Joseph de La Roche Daillon reached an oil spring at the northeasternmost fringe of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
basin during his 1627 missionary journey. In 1669–70, Father Jacques Marquette, a missionary in French Canada, was at a mission station on Lake Superior, when he met native traders from the Illinois
Illinois
Confederation. He learned about the great river that ran through their country to the south and west. In 1673–74, with a commission from the Canadian government, Marquette and Louis Jolliet explored the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
territory from Green Bay to the Arkansas River, including the Illinois River
Illinois River
valley. In 1675, Marquette returned to found a Jesuit mission at the Grand Village of the Illinois. Over the next decades missions, trade posts, and forts were established in the region.[6][7] By 1714, the principal European, non-native inhabitants were Canadien
Canadien
fur traders, missionaries and soldiers, dealing with Native Americans, particularly the group known as the Kaskaskia. The main French settlements were established at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Sainte Genevieve. By 1752, the population had risen to 2,573.[8] Fort St. Louis
St. Louis
du Rocher[edit] Further information: Starved Rock State Park French explorers led by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
built Fort St. Louis
St. Louis
on a large butte by the Illinois River
Illinois River
in the winter of 1682.[9] Called La Rocher, the butte provided an advantageous position for the fort above the river.[9] A wooden palisade was the only form of defenses that La Salle used in securing the site. Inside the fort were a few wooden houses and native shelters. The French intended St. Louis to be the first of several forts to defend against English incursions and keep their settlements confined to the East Coast. Accompanying the French to the region were allied members of several native tribes from eastern areas, who integrated with the Kaskaskia: the Miami, Shawnee, and Mahican. The tribes established a new settlement at the base of the butte known as Hotel Plaza. After La Salle's five-year monopoly ended New France
New France
governor Joseph-Antoine de La Barre wished to put Fort Saint Louis along with Fort Frontenac under his jurisdiction.[10] By orders of the governor, traders and his officer were escorted to Illinois.[10] On August 11, 1683, LaSalle's armorer, Pierre Prudhomme, obtained approximately one and three-quarters of a mile of the north portage shore.[10] During the earliest of the French and Indian Wars, the French used the fort as a refuge against attacks by Iroquois, who were allied with the British. The Iroquois
Iroquois
forced the settlers, then commanded by Henri de Tonti, to abandon the fort in 1691. De Tonti reorganized the settlers at Fort Pimitoui in modern-day Peoria.

French Map of North America 1700 (Covens and Mortier ed. 1708) -- "PAYS DES ILINOIS", near center

French troops commanded by Pierre De Liette occupied Fort St. Louis from 1714 to 1718; De Liette's jurisdiction over the region ended when the territory was transferred from Canada to Louisiana. Fur trappers and traders used the fort periodically in the early 18th century until it became too dilapidated. No surface remains of the fort are found at the site today. The region was periodically occupied by a variety of native tribes who were forced westward by the expansion of European settlements. These included the Potawatomi, Ottawa, and Ojibwe. On April 20, 1769, an Illinois Confederation warrior assassinated Chief Pontiac
Chief Pontiac
while he was on a diplomatic mission in Cahokia. According to local legend, the Ottawa, along with their allies the Potawatomi, attacked a band of Illini along the Illinois
Illinois
River. The tribe climbed to the butte to seek refuge from the attack. The Ottawa and Potawatomi
Potawatomi
continued the siege until the Illini tribe starved to death. After hearing the story, Europeans referred to the butte as Starved Rock. Fort de Chartres[edit] Further information: List of commandants of the Illinois
Illinois
Country

Reconstructed curtain and gatehouse of Fort de Chartres

On January 1, 1718, a trade monopoly was granted to John Law and his Company of the West (which was to become the Company of the Indies in 1719). Hoping to make a fortune mining precious metals in the area, the company with a military contingent sent from New Orleans
New Orleans
built a fort to protect its interests. Construction began on the first Fort de Chartres (in present-day Illinois) in 1718 and was completed in 1720. The original fort was located on the east bank of the Mississippi River, downriver (south) from Cahokia
Cahokia
and upriver of Kaskaskia. The nearby settlement of Prairie du Rocher, Illinois, was founded by French-Canadian
French-Canadian
colonists in 1722, a few miles inland from the fort. The fort was to be the seat of government for the Illinois
Illinois
Country and help to control the aggressive Fox Indians. The fort was named after Louis, duc de Chartres, son of the regent of France. Because of frequent flooding, another fort was built further inland in 1725. By 1731, the Company of the Indies had gone defunct and turned Louisiana and its government back to the king. The garrison at the fort was removed to Kaskaskia, Illinois
Illinois
in 1747, about 18 miles to the south. A new stone fort was planned near the old fort and was described as "nearly complete" in 1754, although construction continued until 1760. The new stone fort was headquarters for the French Illinois
Illinois
Country for less than 20 years, as it was turned over to the British in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris at the end of the French and Indian War. The British Crown declared almost all the land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
from Florida to Newfoundland a Native American territory called the Indian Reserve following the Royal Proclamation of 1763. The government ordered settlers to leave or get a special license to remain. This and the desire to live in a Catholic
Catholic
territory caused many of the Canadiens
Canadiens
to cross the Mississippi to live in St. Louis
St. Louis
or Ste. Genevieve. The British soon relaxed its policy and later extended the Province of Quebec
Quebec
to the region. The British took control of Fort de Chartres
Fort de Chartres
on October 10, 1765 and renamed it Fort Cavendish. The British softened the initial expulsion order and offered the Canadien
Canadien
inhabitants the same rights and privileges enjoyed under French rule. In September 1768, the British established a Court of Justice, the first court of common law in the Mississippi Valley (the French law system is called civil law). After severe flooding in 1772, the British saw little value in maintaining the fort and abandoned it. They moved the military garrison to the fort at Kaskaskia
Kaskaskia
and renamed it Fort Gage. Chartres' ruined but intact magazine is considered the oldest surviving European structure in Illinois
Illinois
and was reconstructed in the 20th century, with much of the rest of the Fort.

Thomas Hutchins
Thomas Hutchins
map of settlements in the Illinois
Illinois
Country in 1778

Agricultural settlement[edit] According to historian, Carl J. Ekberg, the French settlement pattern in Illinois
Illinois
Country was generally unique in 17th- and 18th-century French North America. These were unlike other such French settlements, which primarily had been organized in separated homesteads along a river with long rectangular plots stretching back from the river (ribbon plots). The Illinois
Illinois
Country French, although they marked long-ribbon plots, did not reside on them. Instead, settlers resided together in farming villages, more like the farming villages of northern France, and practiced communal agriculture.[11] After the port of New Orleans, along the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
to the south, was founded in 1718, more African slaves were imported to the Illinois
Illinois
Country for use as agricultural and mining laborers. By the mid-eighteenth century, slaves accounted for as much as a third of the population.[12] Other settlements[edit]

In 1675, Jacques Marquette
Jacques Marquette
founded the mission of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin at the Grand Village of the Illinois, near present Utica, Illinois, which was destroyed by Iroquois
Iroquois
in 1680.[6][7]

Fort Pimiteoui
Fort Pimiteoui
(Old Peoria) circa 1702

Peoria was at first the southernmost part of New France, then the northernmost part of the French Colony of Louisiana, and finally the westernmost part of the newly formed United States. Fort Crevecoeur was first founded in 1680. Another fort, often called Fort Pimiteoui, and later Old Fort Peoria, was established in 1691.[13] French interests dominated at Peoria for well over a hundred years, from the time the first French explorers came up the Illinois River
Illinois River
in 1673 until the first United States settlers began to move into the area around 1815. A small French presence persisted for a time on the east bank of the river, but was gone by about 1846. Today, only faint echoes of French Peoria survive in the street plan of downtown Peoria, and in the name of an occasional street, school, or hotel meeting room: Joliet, Marquette, LaSalle. The Mission of the Guardian Angel
Mission of the Guardian Angel
was established near the Chicago portage between 1696-1700.

French Church of the Holy Family in Cahokia

Cahokia, established in 1696 by French missionaries from Quebec, was one of the earliest permanent settlements in the region. It became one of the most populous of the northern towns. In 1787, it was made the seat of St. Clair County in the Northwest Territory. In 1801, William Henry Harrison, then governor of Indiana
Indiana
Territory, enlarged St. Clair County to administer a vast area extending to the Canada–US border. By 1814, the county had been reduced to almost the size of the present St. Clair County, Illinois. The county seat was shifted from Cahokia to Belleville. On April 20, 1769, the great Indian leader Chief Pontiac was murdered in Cahokia
Cahokia
by a chief of the Peoria. Kaskaskia, established in 1703, was at first a tiny mission station. It later flourished to become capital of the Illinois
Illinois
Territory, 1809–1818, and the first capital of the state of Illinois, 1818-1820. The French built a fort here in 1721, which was destroyed in 1763 by the British. (The fort was situated above what was then the lower course of the Kaskaskia
Kaskaskia
River, but became the new channel of the Mississippi in 1881.) During the American Revolutionary War, General George Rogers Clark
George Rogers Clark
took possession of the village in 1778. The residents rang the church bell in celebration, and it became known as the "liberty bell". (It had been sent in 1741 by King Louis XV.) Flooding and a lateral shift of the river channel in 1881 cut off the old settlement from the mainland of Illinois
Illinois
and destroyed some of the village and its archaeology. Much of the village cemetery was transferred to the higher ground of Fort Kaskaskia
Kaskaskia
State Park across the river. Today visitors can reach the remnants of Kaskaskia
Kaskaskia
only by a bridge and road from the Missouri
Missouri
side. In the Great Flood of 1993, the Mississippi submerged all but a few rooftops and the steeple of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
of the Immaculate Conception, built in 1843 and moved brick by brick to the new location on Kaskaskia
Kaskaskia
Island about 1893. In 1720, Philip Francois Renault, the Director of Mining Operations for the Company of the West, arrived with about 200 laborers and mechanics and 500 African slaves from Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
to work the mines. However, the mines yielded only unprofitable coal and lead, providing insufficient revenues for the Company of the West to survive. In 1723, Renault, with his workers and slaves, established the village St. Philippe (on the Bottoms down from the present-day unincorporated community of Renault, Illinois
Illinois
in Monroe County, Illinois.) It was about 3 miles north of Fort de Chartres. This is the first record of African slaves in the region. Some of the French farmers also used slaves for labor, but most families held only a few, if any. The village quickly produced an agricultural surplus, with its goods sold to lower Louisiana, as well as to settlements less successful than those in the Illinois
Illinois
Country, such as Arkansas Post. The original Ste. Genevieve was established around 1750 along the western banks of the Mississippi River. The village consisted of mostly farmers and merchants of French-Canadian
French-Canadian
descent from the settlements on the east side. Despite flooding, the town remained in that location until the great flood of 1785 destroyed much property. The villagers decided to move the entire village to higher ground about two miles north and half a mile back from the river floodplain. The city has retained the most buildings of French Colonial architecture in the US. The French established Fort Orleans
Fort Orleans
in 1723 along the Missouri
Missouri
River near Brunswick, Missouri. Fort Vincennes, on the Wabash River, later known as St. Vincennes and eventually Vincennes, Indiana, was established in 1732. The British renamed it Fort Sackville
Fort Sackville
after their capture in the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years' War.) George Rogers Clark
George Rogers Clark
renamed it Fort Patrick Henry, for the Governor of Virginia, when he took it in the American Revolution. Although part of the original expansive Illinois
Illinois
Country, as part of the Northwest Territory, it became the seat of a separate county. The French built Fort de L'Ascension (later, de Massiac) on the Ohio River in 1757 near the present Metropolis, Illinois. St. Louis
St. Louis
was founded in 1764 by French fur traders. In 1765, it was made the capital of Upper Louisiana; and after 1767, control of the region west of the Mississippi was given to the Spanish. In 1780, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native Americans, during the American Revolutionary War.[14]

Illinois
Illinois
Country under American control[edit]

Map of British America's Province of Quebec
Quebec
and the Illinois
Illinois
Country (center-left) under the Quebec
Quebec
Act of 1774.

During the Revolutionary War, General George Rogers Clark
George Rogers Clark
took possession of the part of the Illinois
Illinois
Country east of the Mississippi for Virginia. In November 1778, the Virginia
Virginia
legislature created the county of Illinois, comprising all of the lands lying west of the Ohio River to which Virginia
Virginia
had any claim, with Kaskaskia
Kaskaskia
as the county seat. Captain John Todd was named as governor. However, this government was limited to the former Canadien
Canadien
settlements and was rather ineffective. For their assistance to General Clark in the war, settled Canadien
Canadien
and Indian residents of Illinois
Illinois
Country were given full citizenship. Under the Northwest Ordinance
Northwest Ordinance
and many subsequent treaties and acts of Congress, the Canadien
Canadien
and Indian residents of Vincennes and Kaskaskia were granted specific exemptions, as they had declared themselves citizens of Virginia. The term Illinois
Illinois
Country was sometimes used in legislation to refer to these settlements. Much of the Illinois
Illinois
Country region became an organized territory of the United States with the establishment of the Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory
in 1787. In 1803, the old Illinois
Illinois
Country area west of the Mississippi was gained by the U.S. in the Louisiana Purchase. Flooding[edit] During the 19th century, steamboat travel flourished on the Mississippi River, which grew the economy of St. Louis
St. Louis
and other towns, but simultaneously led to deforestation along the river. Adverse environmental effects resulted, including more severe flooding as the river became broader and more shallow, lateral changes in the channel, instability of banks, and loss of towns due to flooding or channel changes. Much of archeological importance was lost in the flooding and destruction of French colonial towns such as Kaskaskia, St. Philippe, Cahokia, Illinois, and old Ste. Genevieve, Missouri. See also[edit]

Historic regions of the United States Missouri
Missouri
French, a dialect of the French language
French language
spoken by 1,000 people in remnants of Old France in Missouri New France Ohio Country

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e Ekberg, Carl (2000). French Roots in the Illinois
Illinois
Country: The Mississippi Frontier in Colonial Times. Urbana and Chicago, Ill.: University of Illinois
Illinois
Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 9780252069246. Retrieved 29 November 2014.  ^ a b c Carrière, J. -M. (1939). "Creole Dialect of Missouri". American Speech. Duke University Press. 14 (2): 109–119. doi:10.2307/451217. JSTOR 451217.  ^ Norris, F. Terry (1997). "Where Did the Villages Go? Steamboats, Deforestation, and Archaeological Loss in the Mississippi Valley". In Hurley, Andrew. Common Fields: An Environmental History of St. Louis. Missouri
Missouri
History Museum. pp. 73–89. ISBN 978-1-883982-15-7.  ^ Hamelle, W.H. (1915). A Standard History of White County, Indiana. Chicago
Chicago
and New York: Lewis Publishing Co. p. 12. Retrieved 29 November 2014.  ^ Shortt, Adam; Doughty, Arthur G., eds. (1907). Documents Relating to the Constitutional History of Canada, 1759-1791. Ottawa: Public Archives Canada. p. 72. Retrieved 29 November 2014.  ^ a b Native Americans-Historic:The Illinois-Society, The French Illinois
Illinois
State Museum ^ a b Jacques Marquette
Jacques Marquette
1673 Virtual Museum of New France
New France
Canadian Museum of History ^ Guy Frégault, Le Grand Marquis: Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil et la Louisiane (Montreal, 1952), pp. 129–130 ^ a b "The Illinois
Illinois
Archaeology
Archaeology
- Starved Rock Site". Museum Link - Illinois
Illinois
State Museum. 2000. Retrieved June 15, 2011.  ^ a b c Skinner, Claiborne A. (2008). The Upper Country: French Enterprise in the Colonial Great Lakes. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8837-3.  ^ Ekberg (2000), p. 28-32 ^ Ekberg (2000), p. 2-3 ^ The First European Settlement in Illinois ^ Usgennet.org Archived February 23, 2001, at the Wayback Machine. Attack On St. Louis: May 26, 1780.

References[edit]

French Peoria in the Illinois
Illinois
Country, 1673-1846 Library of Congress exhibit Louisiana Digital Libraries Plan for Fort Orleans

Bibliography[edit]

Alvord, Clarence W. and Sutton, Robert M., The Illinois
Illinois
Country, 1673–1818, ISBN 0-252-01337-9 Belting, Natalia Maree, Kaskaskia
Kaskaskia
under the French Regime by ISBN 0-8093-2536-5 Brackenridge, Henri Marie, Recollections of Persons and Places in the West (Google Books) Ekberg, Carl J., Stealing Indian Women: Native Slavery
Slavery
in the Illinois Country, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois
Illinois
Press, 2007. Ekberg, Carl J., Francois Vallé and His World: Upper Louisiana Before Lewis and Clark, Columbia, MO: University of Missouri
Missouri
Press, 2002. Ekberg, Carl J., French Roots in the Illinois
Illinois
Country: The Mississippi Frontier in Colonial Times, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois
Illinois
Press, 2000, ISBN 0-252-06924-2 Ekberg, Carl J., Colonial Ste. Genevieve: An Adventure on the Mississippi Frontier, Tucson, AZ: Patrice Press, 1996, ISBN 1-880397-14-5

External links[edit]

Lenville J. Stelle, Inoca Ethnohistory Project: Eye Witness Descriptions of the Contact Generation, 1667 - 1700 Foundation for Restoration of Ste. Genevieve, Inc. Guibourd Historic House & Mecker Research Library Ste. Genevieve County Historical and Genealogical Resources Felix Vallé State Historic Site Missouri
Missouri
Department of Natural Resources

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Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic
Catholic
Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida & other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

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