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The ILKHANATE, also spelled IL-KHANATE (Persian : ایلخانان‎, Ilxānān; Mongolian : Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
, ruled by the Mongol
Mongol
HOUSE OF HULAGU. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran
Iran
as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey
Turkey
. The Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
was originally based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan
, son of Tolui
Tolui
and grandson of Genghis Khan. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that today comprise most of Iran
Iran
, Iraq
Iraq
, Armenia
Armenia
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, Georgia , Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
, Turkey
Turkey
, western Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and southwestern Pakistan
Pakistan
. Later Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, would convert to Islam
Islam
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Definition * 2 Early Mongol
Mongol
rule in Persia * 3 First Ilkhan
Ilkhan
* 4 Franco- Mongol
Mongol
alliance * 5 Conversion to Islam
Islam
* 6 Disintegration * 7 Legacy

* 8 Ilkhans

* 8.1 House of Hulagu (1256–1335; Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
Mongol
Mongol
kings) * 8.2 House of Ariq Böke * 8.3 House of Hulagu (1336–1357) * 8.4 House of Hasar

* 9 Family tree (House of Hulagu) * 10 Ilkhan
Ilkhan
as a tribal title in 19th/20th century Iran
Iran
* 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 External links

DEFINITION

According to the historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani , Kublai Khan granted Hulagu (Hülegü) the title of Ilkhan
Ilkhan
after his defeat of Ariq Böke . The term il-Khan means "subordinate khan " and refers to their initial deference to Möngke Khan and his successor Great Khans of the Mongol
Mongol
empire . The title "Ilkhan", borne by the descendants of Hulagu and later other Borjigin
Borjigin
princes in Persia, does not materialize in the sources until after 1260.

EARLY MONGOL RULE IN PERSIA

When Muhammad II of Khwarezm executed a contingent of merchants dispatched by the Mongols, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
declared war on the Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty in 1219. The Mongols
Mongols
overran the empire , occupying the major cities and population centers between 1219 and 1221. Persian Iran
Iran
was ravaged by the Mongol
Mongol
detachment under Jebe and Subedei , who left the area in ruin. Transoxiana also came under Mongol
Mongol
control after the invasion. The undivided area west of the Transoxiana was the inheritance of Genghis Khan's Borjigin
Borjigin
family. Thus, the families of the latter's four sons appointed their officials under the Great Khan's governors, Chin-Temür, Nussal, and Korguz , in that region.

Muhammad's son Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
returned to Iran
Iran
in c. 1224 after his exile in India. The rival Turkic states, which were all that remained of his father's empire, quickly declared their allegiance to Jalal. He repulsed the first Mongol
Mongol
attempt to take Central Persia. However, Jalal ad-Din was overwhelmed and crushed by Chormaqan 's army sent by the Great Khan Ögedei in 1231. During the Mongol
Mongol
expedition, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and the southern Persian dynasties in Fars and Kerman voluntarily submitted to the Mongols
Mongols
and agreed to pay tribute. To the west, Hamadan
Hamadan
and the rest of Persia was secured by Chormaqan. The Mongols
Mongols
invaded Armenia
Armenia
and Georgia in 1234 or 1236, completing the conquest of the Kingdom of Georgia in 1238. They began to attack the western parts of Greater Armenia
Armenia
, which was under the Seljuks
Seljuks
, the following year.

In 1236 Ögedei was commanded to raise up Khorassan and proceeded to populate Herat . The Mongol
Mongol
military governors mostly made camp in the Mughan plain in what is now Azerbaijan. Realizing the danger posed by the Mongols, the rulers of Mosul
Mosul
and Cilician Armenia
Armenia
submitted to the Great Khan. Chormaqan divided the Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
region into three districts based on the Mongol
Mongol
military hierarchy. In Georgia, the population was temporarily divided into eight tumens . By 1237 the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
had subjugated most of Persia (including modern-day Azerbaijan), Armenia, Georgia (excluding Abbasid
Abbasid
Iraq
Iraq
and Ismaili strongholds), as well as all of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Kashmir
Kashmir
. After the battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, the Mongols
Mongols
under Baiju occupied Anatolia
Anatolia
, while the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm
Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm
and the Empire
Empire
of Trebizond became vassals of the Mongols. Güyük Khan abolished decrees issued by the Mongol
Mongol
princes that had ordered the raising of revenue from districts in Persia as well as offering tax exemptions to others in c. 1244.

In accordance with a complaint by the governor Arghun the Elder ( Arghun agha), Möngke Khan prohibited ortog-merchants and nobles from abusing relay stations and civilians in 1251. He ordered a new census and decreed that each man in the Mongol-ruled Middle East must pay in proportion to his property. Persia was divided between four districts under Arghun. Möngke Khan granted the Kartids authority over Herat, Jam, Pushang (Fushanj), Ghor , Khaysar, Firuz-Kuh, Gharjistan, Farah, Sistan , Kabul, Tirah, and Afghanistan.

FIRST ILKHAN

See also: Timeline of the Ilkhanate

The founder of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
dynasty was Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan
, grandson of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and brother of both Möngke Khan and Kublai Khan. Möngke dispatched Hulagu to establish a firm Toluid control over the Middle East and ordered him return to Mongolia
Mongolia
when his task was accomplished. Taking over from Baiju in 1255 or 1256, Hulagu had been charged with subduing the Muslim
Muslim
kingdoms to the west "as far as the borders of Egypt". This occupation led the Turkmens to move west into Anatolia
Anatolia
to escape from the Mongolian rule. He established his dynasty over the southwestern part of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
that stretched from Transoxiana to Syria
Syria
. He destroyed the Ismaili
Ismaili
Nizari Hashshashins and the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
in 1256 and 1258 respectively. After that he advanced as far as Gaza, briefly conquering Ayyubid Syria
Syria
. Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan
, founder of the Ilkhanate, with his Christian queen Doquz Khatun A Mongol
Mongol
horse archer in the 13th century.

The death of Möngke forced Hulagu to return from the Persian heartland for the preparation of Khurultai (the selection of a new leader). He left a small force behind to continue the Mongol
Mongol
advance, but it was halted in Palestine in 1260 by a major defeat at the battle of Ain Jalut at the hands of the Mamluks of Egypt
Egypt
. Due to geo-political and religious issues and deaths of three Jochid princes in Hulagu's service, Berke declared open war on Hulagu in 1262 and possibly called his troops back to Iran. According to Mamluk historians, Hulagu might have massacred Berke's troops and refused to share his war booty with Berke.

Hulagu's descendants ruled Persia for the next eighty years, tolerating multiple religions, including Shamanism, Buddhism, and Christianity, and ultimately adopting Islam
Islam
as a state religion in 1295. However, despite this conversion, the Ilkhans remained opposed to the Mamluks, who had defeated both Mongol
Mongol
invaders and Crusaders
Crusaders
. The Ilkhans launched several invasions of Syria, but were never able to gain and keep significant ground against the Mamluks , eventually being forced to give up their plans to conquer Syria, along with their stranglehold over their vassals the Sultanate of Rum and the Armenian kingdom in Cilicia . This was in large part due to civil war in the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
and the hostility of the khanates to the north and east. The Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
in Moghulistan
Moghulistan
and the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
threatened the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Transoxiana, preventing expansion westward. Even under Hulagu's reign, the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
was engaged in open warfare in the Caucasus
Caucasus
with the Mongols
Mongols
in the Russian steppes. On the other hand, the China-based Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
was an ally of the Ikhanate and also held nominal suzerainty over the latter (the Emperor being also Great Khan) for many decades.

Hulagu took with him many Chinese scholars and astronomers, and the famous Persian astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusi learned about the mode of the Chinese calculating tables from them. The observatory was built on a hill of Maragheh.

The dragon clothing of Imperial China was used by the Ilkhanids, the Chinese Huangdi (Emperor) title was used by the Ilkhanids due to heavy clout upon the Mongols
Mongols
of the Chinese system of politics. Seals with Chinese characters were created by the Ilkhanids themselves besides the seals they received from the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
which contain references to a Chinese government organization.

FRANCO-MONGOL ALLIANCE

Main article: Franco- Mongol
Mongol
alliance

The courts of Western Europe
Western Europe
made many attempts to form an alliance with the Mongols, primarily with the Ilkhanate, in the 13th and 14th centuries, starting from around the time of the Seventh Crusade
Seventh Crusade
(West Europeans were collectively called Franks by Muslims and Asians in the era of the Crusades). United in their opposition to the Muslims (primarily the Mamluks), the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
and the Europeans were nevertheless unable to satisfactorily combine their forces against their common enemy.

CONVERSION TO ISLAM

The Mongol
Mongol
ruler, Ghazan
Ghazan
, studying the Qur\'an .

In the period after Hulagu, the Ilkhans increasingly adopted Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
. Christian powers were encouraged by what appeared to be an inclination towards Nestorian Christianity by Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
rulers, but this was probably nothing more than the Mongols' traditional even-handedness towards competing religions. The Ilkhans were thus markedly out of step with the Muslims they ruled. Ghazan
Ghazan
, shortly before he overthrew Baydu
Baydu
, converted to Islam
Islam
under influence of Nawrūz , and his official favoring of Islam
Islam
as a state religion coincided with a marked attempt to bring the regime closer to the non- Mongol
Mongol
majority of the regions they ruled. Christian and Jewish subjects lost their equal status with Muslims and again had to pay the jizya protection tax. Ghazan
Ghazan
gave Buddhists the starker choice of conversion or expulsion and ordered their temples to be destroyed; though he later relaxed this severity slightly.

In foreign relations, the Ilkhanate's conversion to Islam
Islam
had little to no effect on its hostility towards other Muslim
Muslim
states, and Ghazan continued to fight the Mamluks for control of Syria. The Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar , the only major victory by the Mongols
Mongols
over the Mamluks, ended the latter's control over Syria, though this lasted only a few months. For the most part, Ghazan's policies continued under his brother Öljeitü despite suggestions that he might begin to favor the Shi\'a brand of Islam
Islam
after he came under the influence of Shi'a theologians Al-Hilli and Maitham Al Bahrani . Öljeitü succeeded in conquering Gilan
Gilan
on the Caspian coast, and his tomb in Soltaniyeh remains the best known monument of Ilkhanid rule in Persia.

The conversion of Mongols
Mongols
was initially a fairly superficial affair. The process of establishment of Islam
Islam
did not happen suddenly. Öljeitü's historian Qāshāni records that Qutlugh-Shah after losing patience with a dispute between Hanafis and Shafi\'is , expressed his view that Islam
Islam
should be abandoned and Mongols
Mongols
should return to the ways of Genghis Khan. Qāshani also stated that Öljeitü had in fact reverted for a brief period. As Muslims, Mongols
Mongols
showed a marked preference for Sufism
Sufism
with masters like Safi-ad-din Ardabili often treated with respect and favour.

DISINTEGRATION

In the 1330s, outbreaks of the Black Death
Black Death
ravaged the Ilkhanate empire. The last il-khan Abu Sa'id and his sons were killed by the plague.

In 1330, the annexation of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
resulted in the reunification of the Kingdom of Georgia. However, tribute received by the Il-Khans from Georgia sank by about three-quarters between 1336 and 1350 because of wars and famines. Also Anatolian Beyliks were freed from Ilkhanate suzerenaity.

After Abu Sa\'id 's death in 1335, the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
began to disintegrate rapidly and split up into several rival successor states, most prominently the Jalayirids . Hasar 's descendant Togha Temür , who was the last of the obscure Ilkhan
Ilkhan
pretenders, was assassinated by Sarbadars in 1353. Timur later carved a state from the Jalayirids, ostensibly to restore the old khanate. Historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani wrote a universal history of the khans around 1315 that provides much material about them. In 1357, the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
conquered the Chobanid-held Tabriz
Tabriz
for a year, putting an end to the last hope for the return of the Ilkhanate. After the demise of the Ilkhanate, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia lost Mongol
Mongol
protection against the Mamluks and was destroyed by them in 1375.

LEGACY

Southwest Asia in 1345, ten years after the death of Abu Sa'id. The Jalayirids, Chobanids, Muzaffarids, Injuids, Sarbadars, and Kartids took the Ilkhanate's place as the major powers in Iran.

The emergence of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
had an important historical impact in the Middle Eastern region. The establishment of the unified Mongol Empire
Empire
had significantly eased trade and commerce across Asia. The communications between the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
and the Yuan Dynasty headquartered in China encouraged this development.

The Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
also helped to pave the way for the later Persian Safavid
Safavid
dynastic state, and ultimately the modern country of Iran. Hulagu's conquests had also opened Iran
Iran
to Chinese influence from the east. This, combined with patronage from his successors, would develop Iran's distinctive excellence in architecture. Under the Ilkhans, Iranian historians also moved from writing in Arabic to writing in their native Persian tongue.

The rudiments of double-entry accounting were practiced in the Ilkhanate; merdiban was then adopted by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. These developments were independent from the accounting practices used in Europe. This accounting system was adopted primarily as the result of socio-economic necessities created by the agricultural and fiscal reforms of Ghazan
Ghazan
Khan in 1295-1304.

*

Ilkhanate, Lampas with phoenix , silk and gold, Iran
Iran
or Iraq
Iraq
, 14th century. *

Ilkhanate, Lampas textile, silk and gold; second half of 14th century. *

1305 letter of the Ilkhan
Ilkhan
Mongol
Mongol
Öljaitü
Öljaitü
(official square red stamp of the Ilkhanate). *

Seal of Ghazan
Ghazan

ILKHANS

HOUSE OF HULAGU (1256–1335; ILKHANATE MONGOL KINGS)

* Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan
(1256–1265) * Abaqa Khan (1265–1282) * Ahmad Tegüder (1282–1284) * Arghun (1284–1291) * Gaykhatu (1291–1295) * Baydu
Baydu
(1295) * Mahmud Ghazan
Ghazan
(1295–1304) * Muhammad Khodabandeh (Oljeitu or Öljaitü) (1304–1316) * Abu Sa\'id Bahadur (1316–1335)

After the Ilkhanate, the regional states established during the disintegration of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
raised their own candidates as claimants.

HOUSE OF ARIQ BöKE

* Arpa Ke\'ün (1335–1336)

HOUSE OF HULAGU (1336–1357)

* Musa (1336–1337) (puppet of 'Ali Padshah of Baghdad) * Muhammad (1336–1338) ( Jalayirid puppet) * Sati Beg (1338–1339) (Chobanid puppet) * Sulayman (1339–1343) (Chobanid puppet, recognized by the Sarbadars 1341–1343) * Jahan Temür (1339–1340) ( Jalayirid puppet) * Anushirwan (1343–1356) (Chobanid puppet) * Ghazan
Ghazan
II (1356–1357) (known only from coinage)

HOUSE OF HASAR

Claimants from eastern Persia (Khurasan):

* Togha Temür (c. 1338–1353) (recognized by the Kartids 1338–1349; by the Jalayirids 1338–1339, 1340–1344; by the Sarbadars 1338–1341, 1344, 1353) * Luqman (1353–1388) (son of Togha Temür and the protege of Timur )

FAMILY TREE (HOUSE OF HULAGU)

* v * t * e

Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
family tree

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Temüjin

Börte Ujin (b. 1162–d. 1230)

Tolui
Tolui
(b. 1193–d. 1232) Sorghaghtani Beki (b. 1198–d. 1252)

1 HULAGU KHAN (b. 1217–d. 1265) Ilkhan
Ilkhan
1256–1265 Doquz Khatun (d. 1265)

3 TEKUDER (b. 1233–d. 1284) Ilkhan
Ilkhan
1282–1284

2 ABAQA KHAN (b. 1234–d. 1282) Ilkhan
Ilkhan
1262–1282

Taraqai

Mengu Timur

4 ARGHUN (b. 1258–d. 1292) Ilkhan
Ilkhan
1284–1291

5 GAYKHATU (d. 1295) Ilkhan
Ilkhan
1291–1295 6 BAYDU (d. 1295) Ilkhan
Ilkhan
1295 Ambarji

7 GHAZAN (b. 1272–d. 1304) Ilkhan
Ilkhan
1295–1304 8 ÖLJAITü (b. 1280–d. 1316) Ilkhan
Ilkhan
1304–1316 Alafireng

Ali

Timur

15 SATI KHATUN (c. 1300–1345) Ilkhan
Ilkhan
1338–1339 9 ABU SA\\'ID (b. 1305–d. 1335) Ilkhan
Ilkhan
1316–1335 14 JAHAN TEMüR Ilkhan
Ilkhan
1339–1340 10 MUSA (d. 1336) Ilkhan
Ilkhan
1336–1337 Yul Qotloq

12 MUHAMMAD (d. 1338) Ilkhan
Ilkhan
1336–1338

NOTES:

ILKHAN AS A TRIBAL TITLE IN 19TH/20TH CENTURY IRAN

The title Ilkhan
Ilkhan
resurfaced among the Qashqai nomads of Southern Iran in the 19th century. Jan Mohammad Khan started using it from 1818/19 and this was continued by all the following Qashqai leaders. The last Ilkhan
Ilkhan
was Naser Khan , who in 1954 was pushed into exile after his support of Mossadeq
Mossadeq
. When he returned during the Islamic Revolution in 1979, he could not regain his previous position and died in 1984 as the last Ilkhan
Ilkhan
of the Qashqai.

SEE ALSO

* Division of the Mongol Empire
Division of the Mongol Empire
* List of Mongol states * List of medieval Mongol tribes and clans
List of medieval Mongol tribes and clans
* Full list of Iranian Kingdoms * Sarbadars , the famous political movement of the Ilkhanid era of Persia. * Hazaras

NOTES

* ^ A B Rahiminejad, Sadegh: IRAN: Tarikh (2006). Languages of the Persian * ^ Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly 41 (3): 475–504. * ^ Peter Jackson The Mongols
Mongols
and the West, p.127 * ^ Jeremiah Curtin The Mongols: A history, p.184 * ^ Timothy May Chormaqan, p.47 * ^ Grigor of Akanc The history of the nation of archers, (tr. R.P.Blake) 303 * ^ Kalistriat Salia History of the Georgian Nation, p.210 * ^ Thomas T. Allsen Culture and Conquest in Mongol
Mongol
Eurasia, p.84 * ^ George Finlay The history of Greece from its conquest by the Crusaders
Crusaders
to its conquest by the Ottomans, p.384 * ^ C. P. Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia
Mongolia
and the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, see:Monqe Khan * ^ M. Th. Houtsma E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 1, p.729 * ^ Ehsan Yar-Shater Encyclopædia Iranica, p.209 * ^ P.Jackson Dissolution of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, pp.222 * ^ Christopher P. Atwood Ibid * ^ Michael Prawdin , Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
and its legacy, p.302 * ^ H. H. Howorth History of the Mongols, vol.IV, p.138 * ^ Central Asiatic Journal. O. Harrassowitz. 2008. p. 46. * ^ "Despite numerous envoys and the obvious logic of an alliance against mutual enemies, the papacy and the Crusaders
Crusaders
never achieved the often-proposed alliance against Islam". Atwood, Encyclopedia of Mongolia
Mongolia
and the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, p. 583, " Western Europe
Western Europe
and the Mongol Empire" * ^ David Morgan . Medieval Persia 1040–1797. p. 64. * ^ David Morgan . Medieval Persia 1040–1797. p. 72. * ^ Ali Al Oraibi, "Rationalism in the school of Bahrain: a historical perspective", in Shīʻite Heritage: Essays on Classical and Modern Traditions by Lynda Clarke, Global Academic Publishing 2001 p336 * ^ David Morgan . Medieval Persia 1040–1797. p. 73. * ^ Continuity and Change in Medieval Persia By Ann K. S. Lambton * ^ D. M. Lang, Georgia in the Reign of Giorgi the Brilliant (1314-1346). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 17, No. 1 (1955), pp. 74-91 * ^ Gregory G.Guzman - Were the barbarians a negative or positive factor in ancient and medieval history?, The historian 50 (1988), 568-70 * ^ Thomas T.Allsen - Culture and conquest in Mongol
Mongol
Eurasia, 211 * ^ Francis Robinson, The Mughal Emperors and the Islamic Dynasties of India, Iran
Iran
and Central Asia, Pages 19 and 36 * ^ Cigdem Solas, ACCOUNTING SYSTEM PRACTICED IN THE NEAR EAST DURING THE PERIOD 1220-1350, based ON THE BOOK RISALE-I FELEKIYYE, The Accounting Historians Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1 (June 1994), pp. 117-135 * ^ Pierre Oberling, Qashqai tribal confederacy I History, in Encyclopedia Iranica (2003)

REFERENCES

* Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Mongolia
Mongolia
and the Mongol
Mongol
Empire. Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-4671-9 . * C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, New York, 1996. * Kadoi, Yuka. (2009) Islamic Chinoiserie: The Art of Mongol
Mongol
Iran, Edinburgh Studies in Islamic Art, Edinburgh. ISBN 9780748635825 . * R. Amitai-Preiss: Mongols
Mongols
and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War 1260–1281. Cambridge, 1995.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ILKHANATE .

* Ilkhanids Dynasty Mongolian dynasty * Encyclopedia Iranica. Contains more information on the Ilkhanate. * Searchable database for Ilkhanid coins

* v * t * e

Iran
Iran
topics

HISTORY

Prehistory
Prehistory

ANCIENT

3400–550 BCE

* Kura-Araxes culture (3400–2000 BC) * Proto-Elamite civilization (3200–2800 BC) * Elamite dynasties (2800–550 BC) * Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
(c.2334 BC–c.2154 BC) *

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