Timeline · History · Rulers · Nobility Culture · Language · Proto- Mongols
States Mongol khanates IX-X Khereid Khanate X-1203 Merkit Khanate XI–XII Tatar Khanate IX – XII Naiman Khanate -1204 Khamag Mongol Khanate X-1206 Mongol Empire 1206-1368 Yuan dynasty 1271-1368 Khitan Sultanate 1220s-1306 Chagatai Khanate 1225-1340s Moghulistan 1346-1462 Golden Horde 1240-1502 Ilkhanate 1256-1335 Chobanids 1335-1357 Jalairid Sultanate 1335-1432 Injuids 1335-1357 Northern Yuan dynasty 1368-1691 Timurid Empire 1370–1507 Kara Del 1383-1513 Four Oirat 1399-1634 Arghun dynasty 1479-1599 Mughal Empire 1526–1857 Kalmyk Khanate 1630-1731 Khoshut Khanate 1640s-1717 Dzungar Khanate 1634-1758 Bogd Khaganate 1911-1924 Mongolian People\'s Republic 1924–1992 Mongolia 1992-present
_ Mongolia portal
* v * t * e
PART OF A SERIES ON THE
HISTORY OF IRAN
Kura–Araxes culture 3400–2000
Akkadian Empire 2400–2150
Kassites c. 1500 – c. 1155
Neo-Assyrian Empire 911–609
Median Empire 678–550 BC
(Scythian Kingdom ) 652–625 BC
Neo-Babylonian Empire 626 BC–539 BC
Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC
Kingdom of Armenia 331 BC – 428 AD
Atropatene 320s BC – 3rd century AD
Seleucid Empire 312–63 BC
Frataraka dynasty 3rd-century BC – c. 222 AD
Parthian Empire 247 BC – 224 AD
Suren Kingdom 119 BC – 240 AD
Sasanian Empire 224–651
Zarmihrids 6th century – 785
Qarinvandids 550s – 11th century
Rashidun Caliphate 632-661
Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
Masmughans of Damavand 651–760
Justanids 791 – 11th century
Alid dynasties 864 – 14th century
Tahirid dynasty 821–873
Samanid Empire 819–999
Saffarid dynasty 861–1003
Ghurid dynasty pre-879 – 1141
Sajid dynasty 889–929
Sallarid dynasty 919–1062
Ziyarid dynasty 930–1090
Buyid dynasty 934–1062
Ghaznavid dynasty 977–1186
Nasrid dynasty 1029–1236
Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
Khwarazmian dynasty 1077–1231
Atabegs of Yazd 1141–1319
Kurt dynasty 1244–1396
Ilkhanate Empire 1256–1335
Chobanid dynasty 1335–1357
Muzaffarid dynasty 1335–1393
Jalairid dynasty 1337–1376
Afrasiyab dynasty 1349–1504
Timurid Empire 1370–1507
Karkiya dynasty 1370s–1592
Kara Koyunlu 1406–1468
Aq Qoyunlu 1468–1508
Early modern period
Safavid dynasty 1501–1736
( Hotak dynasty ) 1722–1729
Afsharid dynasty 1736–1796
Talysh Khanate 1747–1826
Zand dynasty 1751–1794
Qajar dynasty 1789–1925
Pahlavi dynasty 1925–1979
Interim Government of Iran 1979–1980
History of the Islamic Republic of Iran 1980–present
* Name * Monarchs * Economic history * Military history * Wars
Timeline Iran portal
* v * t * e
PART OF A SERIES ON THE
HISTORY OF TURKEY
Palaeolithic Anatolia c. 500,000– 10,000 BC
Mesolithic Anatolia c. 11,000– 9,000 BC
Neolithic Anatolia c. 8,000– 5,500 BC
Troy 3000–700 BC
Hattians 2500–2000 BC
Akkadian Empire 2400–2150 BC
Luwians 2300–1400 BC
Assyria 1950–1750 BC
Achaeans (Homer) 1700–1300 BC
Kizzuwatna 1650–1450 BC
Hittites 1680–1220 BC
Arzawa 1500–1320 BC
Mitanni 1500–1300 BC
Hayasa-Azzi 1500–1290 BC
Lycia 1450–350 BC
Assuwa 1300–1250 BC
Diauehi 1200–800 BC
Neo- Hittites 1200–800 BC
Phrygia 1200–700 BC
Caria 1150–547 BC
Tuwanuwa 1000–700 BC
Ionia 1000–545 BC
Urartu 859–595/585 BC
Diauehi 1200–800 BC
Neo- Hittites 1200–800 BC
Phrygia 1200–700 BC
Caria 1150–547 BC
Doris 1100–560 BC
Aeolis 1000–560 BC
Tuwanuwa 1000–700 BC
Ionia 1000–545 BC
Urartu 859–595/585 BC
Median Empire 678-549 BC
Lydia 685–547 BC
* Classical Anatolia * Classical Thrace
Achaemenid Empire 559–331 BC
Kingdom of Alexander the Great 334–301 BC
Kingdom of Cappadocia 322-130 BC
Antigonids 306–168 BC
Seleucid Empire 305–64 BC
Ptolemaic Kingdom 305–30 BC
Kingdom of Pontus 302–64 BC
Bithynia 297–74 BC
Kingdom of Pergamon 282–129 BC
Galatia 281–64 BC
Parthian Empire 247 BC–224 AD
Armenian Empire 190 BC–428 AD
Roman Republic 133–27 BC
Kingdom of Commagene 163 BC–72 AD
Roman Empire 27 BC–330 AD
Sassanian Empire 224–651 AD
Byzantine Empire (330–1453)
Rashidun Caliphate (637–656)
Great Seljuk State (1037–1194)
Anatolian beyliks (1081-1423)
Sultanate of Rum (1077–1307)
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (1078–1375)
County of Edessa (1098–1150)
Empire of Trebizond (1204–1461)
Empire of Nicaea (1204–1261)
Latin Empire (1204–1261)
Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468)
Ak Koyunlu (1378–1501)
* Periods of Ottoman Empire
Classical Age (1453–1566)
Old Regime (1703–1789)
Decline and modernization (1789–1908)
Defeat and dissolution (1908–1922)
Republic of Turkey
* Periods of Turkey
War of Independence (1919–1922)
Provisional government (1920–1923)
One-party period (1923–1930) (1930–1945)
Multi-party period (1945–present)
* v * t * e
The ILKHANATE, also spelled IL-KHANATE (Persian : ایلخانان, _Ilkhānān_; Mongolian : Хүлэгийн улс, _Hulagu-yn Ulus_), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire , ruled by the Mongol HOUSE OF HULAGU. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey . The Ilkhanate was originally based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan , son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that today comprise most of Iran , Iraq , Armenia , Azerbaijan , Georgia , Turkmenistan , Turkey , western Afghanistan , and southwestern Pakistan . Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, would convert to Islam .
* 8 Ilkhans
According to the historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani , Kublai Khan granted Hulagu (Hülegü) the title of Ilkhan after his defeat of Ariq Böke . The term _il-Khan_ means "subordinate khan " and refers to their initial deference to Möngke Khan and his successor Great Khans of the Mongol empire . The title "Ilkhan", borne by the descendants of Hulagu and later other Borjigin princes in Persia, does not materialize in the sources until after 1260.
EARLY MONGOL RULE IN PERSIA
When Muhammad II of Khwarezm executed a contingent of merchants dispatched by the Mongols, Genghis Khan declared war on the Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty in 1219. The Mongols overran the empire , occupying the major cities and population centers between 1219 and 1221. Persian Iraq was ravaged by the Mongol detachment under Jebe and Subedei , who left the area in ruin. Transoxiana also came under Mongol control after the invasion. The undivided area west of the Transoxiana was the inheritance of Genghis Khan's Borjigin family. Thus, the families of the latter's four sons appointed their officials under the Great Khan's governors, Chin-Temür, Nussal, and Korguz , in that region.
Muhammad's son Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu returned to Iran in c. 1224 after his exile in India. The rival Turkic states, which were all that remained of his father's empire, quickly declared their allegiance to Jalal. He repulsed the first Mongol attempt to take Central Persia. However, Jalal ad-Din was overwhelmed and crushed by Chormaqan 's army sent by the Great Khan Ögedei in 1231. During the Mongol expedition, Azerbaijan and the southern Persian dynasties in Fars and Kerman voluntarily submitted to the Mongols and agreed to pay tribute. To the west, Hamadan and the rest of Persia was secured by Chormaqan. The Mongols invaded Armenia and Georgia in 1234 or 1236, completing the conquest of the Kingdom of Georgia in 1238. They began to attack the western parts of Greater Armenia , which was under the Seljuks , the following year.
In 1236 Ögedei was commanded to raise up Khorassan and proceeded to populate Herat . The Mongol military governors mostly made camp in the Mughan plain in what is now Azerbaijan. Realizing the danger posed by the Mongols, the rulers of Mosul and Cilician Armenia submitted to the Great Khan. Chormaqan divided the Transcaucasia region into three districts based on the Mongol military hierarchy. In Georgia, the population was temporarily divided into eight tumens . By 1237 the Mongol Empire had subjugated most of Persia (including modern-day Azerbaijan), Armenia, Georgia (excluding Abbasid Iraq and Ismaili strongholds), as well as all of Afghanistan and Kashmir . After the battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, the Mongols under Baiju occupied Anatolia , while the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm and the Empire of Trebizond became vassals of the Mongols. Güyük Khan abolished decrees issued by the Mongol princes that had ordered the raising of revenue from districts in Persia as well as offering tax exemptions to others in c. 1244.
In accordance with a complaint by the governor Arghun the Elder ( Arghun agha), Möngke Khan prohibited ortog-merchants and nobles from abusing relay stations and civilians in 1251. He ordered a new census and decreed that each man in the Mongol-ruled Middle East must pay in proportion to his property. Persia was divided between four districts under Arghun. Möngke Khan granted the Kartids authority over Herat, Jam, Pushang (Fushanj), Ghor , Khaysar, Firuz-Kuh, Gharjistan, Farah, Sistan , Kabul, Tirah, and Afghanistan.
The founder of the Ilkhanate dynasty was Hulagu Khan , grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of both Möngke Khan and Kublai Khan. Möngke dispatched Hulagu to establish a firm Toluid control over the Middle East and ordered him return to Mongolia when his task was accomplished. Taking over from Baiju in 1255 or 1256, Hulagu had been charged with subduing the Muslim kingdoms to the west "as far as the borders of Egypt". This occupation led the Turkmens to move west into Anatolia to escape from the Mongolian tribes. He established his dynasty over the southwestern part of the Mongol Empire that stretched from Transoxiana to Syria . He destroyed the Ismaili Nizari Hashshashins and the Abbasid Caliphate in 1256 and 1258 respectively. After that he advanced as far as Gaza, briefly conquering Ayyubid Syria . Hulagu Khan , founder of the Ilkhanate, with his Christian queen Doquz Khatun A Mongol horse archer in the 13th century.
The death of Möngke forced Hulagu to return from the Persian heartland for the preparation of Khurultai (the selection of a new leader). He left a small force behind to continue the Mongol advance, but it was halted in Palestine in 1260 by a major defeat at the battle of Ain Jalut at the hands of the Mamluks of Egypt . Due to geo-political and religious issues and deaths of three Jochid princes in Hulagu's service, Berke declared open war on Hulagu in 1262 and possibly called his troops back to Iran. According to Mamluk historians, Hulagu might have massacred Berke's troops and refused to share his war booty with Berke.
Hulagu's descendants ruled Persia for the next eighty years, tolerating multiple religions, including Shamanism, Buddhism, and Christianity, and ultimately adopting Islam as a state religion in 1295. However, despite this conversion, the Ilkhans remained opposed to the Mamluks, who had defeated both Mongol invaders and Crusaders . The Ilkhans launched several invasions of Syria, but were never able to gain and keep significant ground against the Mamluks , eventually being forced to give up their plans to conquer Syria, along with their stranglehold over their vassals the Sultanate of Rum and the Armenian kingdom in Cilicia . This was in large part due to civil war in the Mongol Empire and the hostility of the khanates to the north and east. The Chagatai Khanate in Moghulistan and the Golden Horde threatened the Ilkhanate in the Caucasus and Transoxiana, preventing expansion westward. Even under Hulagu's reign, the Ilkhanate was engaged in open warfare in the Caucasus with the Mongols in the Russian steppes. On the other hand, the China-based Yuan Dynasty was an ally of the Ikhanate and also held nominal suzerainty over the latter (the Emperor being also Great Khan) for many decades.
Hulagu took with him many Chinese scholars and astronomers, and the famous Persian astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusi learned about the mode of the Chinese calculating tables from them. The observatory was built on a hill of Maragheh.
The dragon clothing of Imperial China was used by the Ilkhanids, the Chinese Huangdi (Emperor) title was used by the Ilkhanids due to heavy clout upon the Mongols of the Chinese system of politics. Seals with Chinese characters were created by the Ilkhanids themselves besides the seals they received from the Yuan dynasty which contain references to a Chinese government organization.
Main article: Franco- Mongol alliance
The courts of Western Europe made many attempts to form an alliance with the Mongols, primarily with the Ilkhanate, in the 13th and 14th centuries, starting from around the time of the Seventh Crusade (West Europeans were collectively called Franks by Muslims and Asians in the era of the Crusades). United in their opposition to the Muslims (primarily the Mamluks), the Ilkhanate and the Europeans were nevertheless unable to satisfactorily combine their forces against their common enemy.
CONVERSION TO ISLAM
In the period after Hulagu, the Ilkhans increasingly adopted Tibetan Buddhism . Christian powers were encouraged by what appeared to be an inclination towards Nestorian Christianity by Ilkhanate rulers, but this was probably nothing more than the Mongols' traditional even-handedness towards competing religions. The Ilkhans were thus markedly out of step with the Muslims they ruled. Ghazan , shortly before he overthrew Baydu , converted to Islam , and his official favoring of Islam as a state religion coincided with a marked attempt to bring the regime closer to the non- Mongol majority of the regions they ruled. Christian and Jewish subjects lost their equal status with Muslims and again had to pay the protection tax, jizya. Buddhists had the starker choice of conversion or expulsion.
In foreign relations, the Ilkhanate's conversion to Islam had little to no effect on its hostility towards other Muslim states, and Ghazan continued to fight the Mamluks for control of Syria. The Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar , the only major victory by the Mongols over the Mamluks, ended the latter's control over Syria, though this lasted only a few months. For the most part, Ghazan's policies continued under his brother Öljeitü despite suggestions that he might begin to favor the Shi\'a brand of Islam after he came under the influence of Shi'a theologians Al-Hilli and Maitham Al Bahrani . Öljeitü succeeded in conquering Gilan on the Caspian coast, and his tomb in Soltaniyeh remains the best known monument of Ilkhanid rule in Persia.
In the 1330s, outbreaks of the Black Death ravaged the Ilkhanate empire. The last il-khan Abu Sa'id and his sons were killed by the plague.
In 1330, the annexation of Abkhazia resulted in the reunification of the Kingdom of Georgia. However, tribute received by the Il-Khans from Georgia sank by about three-quarters between 1336 and 1350 because of wars and famines. Also Anatolian Beyliks were freed from Ilkhanate suzerenaity.
After Abu Sa\'id 's death in 1335, the Ilkhanate began to disintegrate rapidly and split up into several rival successor states, most prominently the Jalayirids . Hasar 's descendant Togha Temür , who was the last of the obscure Ilkhan pretenders, was assassinated by Sarbadars in 1353. Timur later carved a state from the Jalayirids, ostensibly to restore the old khanate. Historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani wrote a universal history of the khans around 1315 that provides much material about them. In 1357, the Golden Horde conquered the Chobanid-held Tabriz for a year, putting an end to the last hope for the return of the Ilkhanate. After the demise of the Ilkhanate, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia lost Mongol protection against the Mamluks and was destroyed by them in 1375.
Southwest Asia in 1345, ten years after the death of Abu Sa'id. The Jalayirids, Chobanids, Muzaffarids, Injuids, Sarbadars, and Kartids took the Ilkhanate's place as the major powers in Iran.
The emergence of the Ilkhanate had an important historical impact in the Middle Eastern region. The establishment of the unified Mongol Empire had significantly eased trade and commerce across Asia. The communications between the Ilkhanate and the Yuan Dynasty headquartered in China encouraged this development.
The Ilkhanate also helped to pave the way for the later Persian Safavid dynastic state, and ultimately the modern country of Iran. Hulagu's conquests had also opened Iran to Chinese influence from the east. This, combined with patronage from his successors, would develop Iran's distinctive excellence in architecture. Under the Ilkhans, Iranian historians also moved from writing in Arabic to writing in their native Persian tongue.
The rudiments of double-entry accounting were practiced in the Ilkhanate; merdiban was then adopted by the Ottoman Empire . These developments were independent from the accounting practices used in Europe. This accounting system was adopted primarily as the result of socio-economic necessities created by the agricultural and fiscal reforms of Ghazan Khan in 1295-1304.
Ilkhanate, Lampas textile, silk and gold; second half of 14th century. *
Seal of Ghazan
HOUSE OF HULAGU (1256–1335; ILKHANATE MONGOL KINGS)
* Hulagu Khan (1256–1265) * Abaqa Khan (1265–1282) * Ahmad Tegüder (1282–1284) * Arghun (1284–1291) * Gaykhatu (1291–1295) * Baydu (1295) * Mahmud Ghazan (1295–1304) * Muhammad Khodabandeh (Oljeitu or Öljaitü) (1304–1316) * Abu Sa\'id Bahadur (1316–1335)
After the Ilkhanate, the regional states established during the disintegration of the Ilkhanate raised their own candidates as claimants.
HOUSE OF ARIQ BöKE
* Arpa Ke\'ün (1335–1336)
HOUSE OF HULAGU (1336–1357)
* Musa (1336–1337) (puppet of 'Ali Padshah of Baghdad) * Muhammad (1336–1338) ( Jalayirid puppet) * Sati Beg (1338–1339) (Chobanid puppet) * Sulayman (1339–1343) (Chobanid puppet, recognized by the Sarbadars 1341–1343) * Jahan Temür (1339–1340) ( Jalayirid puppet) * Anushirwan (1343–1356) (Chobanid puppet) * Ghazan II (1356–1357) (known only from coinage)
HOUSE OF HASAR
_Claimants from eastern Persia (Khurasan):_
* Togha Temür (c. 1338–1353) (recognized by the Kartids 1338–1349; by the Jalayirids 1338–1339, 1340–1344; by the Sarbadars 1338–1341, 1344, 1353) * Luqman (1353–1388) (son of Togha Temür and the protege of Timur )
FAMILY TREE (HOUSE OF HULAGU)
* v * t * e
Ilkhanate family tree
_ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (April 2015)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_
Börte Ujin (_b_. 1162–_d_. 1230)
3 TEKUDER (_b_. 1233–_d_. 1284) Ilkhan 1282–1284
2 ABAQA KHAN (_b_. 1234–_d_. 1282) Ilkhan 1262–1282
4 ARGHUN (_b_. 1258–_d_. 1292) Ilkhan 1284–1291
12 MUHAMMAD (_d_. 1338) Ilkhan 1336–1338
ILKHAN AS A TRIBAL TITLE IN 19TH/20TH CENTURY IRAN
The title Ilkhan resurfaced among the Qashqai nomads of Southern Iran in the 19th century. Jan Mohammad Khan started using it from 1818/19 and this was continued by all the following Qashqai leaders. The last Ilkhan was Naser Khan , who in 1954 was pushed into exile after his support of Mossadeq . When he returned during the Islamic Revolution in 1979, he could not regain his previous position and died in 1984 as the last Ilkhan of the Qashqai.
* Division of the Mongol Empire * List of Mongol states * List of medieval Mongol tribes and clans * Full list of Iranian Kingdoms * Sarbadars , the famous political movement of the Ilkhanid era of Persia. * Hazaras
* ^ _A_ _B_ Rahiminejad, Sadegh: IRAN: Tarikh (2006). _Languages of the Persian _ * ^ Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly 41 (3): 475–504. * ^ Peter Jackson _The Mongols and the West_, p.127 * ^ Jeremiah Curtin _The Mongols: A history_, p.184 * ^ Timothy May _Chormaqan_, p.47 * ^ Grigor of Akanc _The history of the nation of archers_, (tr. R.P.Blake) 303 * ^ Kalistriat Salia _History of the Georgian Nation_, p.210 * ^ Thomas T. Allsen _Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia_, p.84 * ^ George Finlay _The history of Greece from its conquest by the Crusaders to its conquest by the Ottomans_, p.384 * ^ C. P. Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, see:Monqe Khan * ^ M. Th. Houtsma _E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936_, Volume 1, p.729 * ^ Ehsan Yar-Shater _Encyclopædia Iranica_, p.209 * ^ P.Jackson _Dissolution of the Mongol Empire_, pp.222 * ^ Christopher P. Atwood _Ibid_ * ^ Michael Prawdin , _ Mongol Empire and its legacy_, p.302 * ^ H. H. Howorth _History of the Mongols_, vol.IV, p.138 * ^ _Central Asiatic Journal_. O. Harrassowitz. 2008. p. 46. * ^ "Despite numerous envoys and the obvious logic of an alliance against mutual enemies, the papacy and the Crusaders never achieved the often-proposed alliance against Islam". Atwood, _Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire_, p. 583, " Western Europe and the Mongol Empire" * ^ Medieval Persia 1040–1797, David Morgan p64 * ^ _Medieval Persia 1040–1797_, David Morgan p.72 * ^ Ali Al Oraibi, "Rationalism in the school of Bahrain: a historical perspective", in _Shīʻite Heritage: Essays on Classical and Modern Traditions_ by Lynda Clarke, Global Academic Publishing 2001 p336 * ^ Continuity and Change in Medieval Persia By Ann K. S. Lambton * ^ D. M. Lang, Georgia in the Reign of Giorgi the Brilliant (1314-1346). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 17, No. 1 (1955), pp. 74-91 * ^ Gregory G.Guzman - Were the barbarians a negative or positive factor in ancient and medieval history?, The historian 50 (1988), 568-70 * ^ Thomas T.Allsen - Culture and conquest in Mongol Eurasia, 211 * ^ Francis Robinson, The Mughal Emperors and the Islamic Dynasties of India, Iran and Central Asia, Pages 19 and 36 * ^ Cigdem Solas, ACCOUNTING SYSTEM PRACTICED IN THE NEAR EAST DURING THE PERIOD 1220-1350, based ON THE BOOK RISALE-I FELEKIYYE, _The Accounting Historians Journal_, Vol. 21, No. 1 (June 1994), pp. 117-135 * ^ Pierre Oberling, Qashqai tribal confederacy I History, in Encyclopedia Iranica (2003)
* Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). _The Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire_. Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-4671-9 . * C.E. Bosworth, _The New Islamic Dynasties_, New York, 1996. * Kadoi, Yuka. (2009) _Islamic Chinoiserie: The Art of Mongol Iran_, Edinburgh Studies in Islamic Art, Edinburgh. ISBN 9780748635825 . * R. Amitai-Preiss: _ Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War 1260–1281_. Cambridge, 1995.
_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to ILKHANATE _.
* Ilkhanids Dynasty Mongolian dynasty * Encyclopedia Iranica. Contains more information on the Ilkhanate. * Searchable database for Ilkhanid coins
* v * t * e