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Ibn Saud's Army

Allied Arab clans

British Empire Kuwait

Commanders and leaders

Sultan bin Bajad Faisal al-Dawish Ibn Saud
Ibn Saud
Abdul-Aziz Fawzi al-Qawuqji

Strength

10,000[1] 30,000[1]

Casualties and losses

500 in Battle of Sabilla[1] 450 in Jabal Shammar 200 in Battle of Sabilla[1] 500 in Jabal Shammar

About 100 killed in the raids 700 killed in Sabilla 1,000 killed in Jabal Shammar 250 killed in raid on Awazim tribe 2,000 killed in total[1]

v t e

Unification of Saudi Arabia

Riyadh Dilam Qassim (1903–07) al-Hasa Jarrab Kanzaan al-Khurma (1918–19) Hajla Hurmula Ha'il Kuwait Transjordan (1922–24) Hejaz
Hejaz
(1924–25) Ikhwan
Ikhwan
Revolt

v t e

Ikhwan
Ikhwan
Revolt

Busayya (Iraq) Kuwait Sabillah Jabal Shammar Awazim Hafr al-Batin

The Ikhwan
Ikhwan
Revolt began in 1927, when the tribesmen of the Mutayr and Ajman rebelled against the authority of Ibn Saud
Ibn Saud
and engaged in cross-border raids into parts of Trans-Jordan, Mandatory Iraq
Iraq
and the Emirate of Kuwait.[2] The relationship between the House of Saud
House of Saud
and the Ikhwan
Ikhwan
deteriorated into an open bloody feud in December 1928.[1] The main instigators of the rebellion were defeated in the Battle of Sabilla, on 29 March 1929.[3] Ikhwan
Ikhwan
tribesmen and troops loyal to Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud
Ibn Saud
clashed again in the Jabal Shammar
Jabal Shammar
region in August 1929,[1] and Ikhwan
Ikhwan
tribesmen attacked the Awazim tribe on 5 October 1929. Faisal al-Dawish, the main leader of the rebellion and the Mutair tribe, fled to Kuwait
Kuwait
in October 1929 before being detained by the British and handed over to Ibn Saud.[4] Faisal Al-Dawish
Faisal Al-Dawish
would die in Riyadh
Riyadh
on 3 October 1931 from what appears to have been a heart condition.[4] Government troops had finally suppressed the rebellion on 10 January 1930, when other Ikhwan
Ikhwan
rebel leaders surrendered to the British.[1] In the aftermath, the Ikhwan
Ikhwan
leadership was slain,[5] and the remains were eventually incorporated into regular Saudi units. Sultan bin Bajad, one of the three main Ikhwan
Ikhwan
leaders, was killed in 1931, while al-Dawish died in prison in Riyadh
Riyadh
on 3 October 1931.[1]

Contents

1 Background 2 Undermining the authority of Ibn Saud 3 Open revolt

3.1 Battle of Sabilla 3.2 Battle of Jabal Shammar 3.3 Attack on Awazim tribe 3.4 Final accords

4 Aftermath 5 See also 6 References

Background[edit] Main article: Unification of Saudi Arabia In the beginning of the 20th century Arabia was an arena of tribal wars, which had eventually led to unification under the leadership of Al Saud. The main tool for achieving these conquests was the Ikhwan, the Wahhabist- Bedouin
Bedouin
tribal army led by Sultan bin Bajad al-Otaibi and Faisal al-Dawish.[6][7] From the Saudi core in Nejd, and aided by the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after the First World War, the Ikhwan
Ikhwan
had completed the conquest of the territory that was to become Saudi Arabia by the end of 1925. On 10 January 1926 Abdul-Aziz declared himself King of the Hejaz
Hejaz
and, then, on 27 January 1927 he took the title of King of Nejd
Nejd
(his previous title having been 'Sultan'). Undermining the authority of Ibn Saud[edit] Main article: Ikhwan
Ikhwan
raid on Busayya After the conquest of the Hejaz, some Ikhwan
Ikhwan
leaders wanted to continue the expansion of the Wahhabist
Wahhabist
realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq
Iraq
and Kuwait. The tribesmen had already tried to gain territory in the Kuwait-Najd Border War and raids on Transjordan, but they suffered heavy casualties. Defying Ibn Saud, elements of the Ikhwan, mainly consisting of the Mutair tribe under al-Dawish, launched a raid on southern Iraq
Iraq
on 5 November 1927, clashing with Iraqi troops near Busayya, resulting in some 20 casualties on both sides.[1] Elements of the Ikhwan
Ikhwan
also raided Kuwait in January 1928. On both occasions they looted camels and sheep. Though they raided brutally, they suffered heavy retaliations from the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) and Kuwaitis.[8] In January 1929, an Ikhwan
Ikhwan
raid on the Sheikhdom of Kuwait
Kuwait
resulted in the killing of an American missionary, Dr. Bilkert, who was traveling by car with another American, the philanthropist Charles Crane.[9] With no signs of Ibn Saud
Ibn Saud
mobilizing his forces to rein in the Ikhwan and stop the raids, RAF resources were extended to Kuwait.[9] Open revolt[edit]

Abdul-Aziz, however, refused to agree to the wild Ikhwani raids. Although the Ikhwan
Ikhwan
had been taught that all non-Wahabbis were infidels, Abdul-Aziz was well aware that the few parts of central Arabia not part of his realm had treaties with London. He himself had just won British recognition as an independent ruler only a year earlier, and recognized the danger of a direct conflict with the British. The Ikhwan
Ikhwan
therefore openly revolted in December 1928. Battle of Sabilla[edit] The largest confrontation of the parties occurred in 30–31 March 1929, in the Battle of Sabilla, where the Ikhwan
Ikhwan
leadership were killed.[5] The Battle of Sabilla was the last major battle of camel raiders, thus having an historic importance. It had become a scene of carnage for the technologically mediocre Ikhwan
Ikhwan
against the cavalry and machine-guns of Ibn Saud's army. In the aftermath of the battle some 500 Ikhwan
Ikhwan
tribesmen died, whereas Ibn Saud's losses were about 200.[1] Battle of Jabal Shammar[edit] Main article: Battle of Jabal Shammar
Jabal Shammar
(1929) Ikhwan-affiliated tribesmen and loyal Saudi troops clashed again in the Jabal Shammar
Jabal Shammar
region in August 1929, resulting in the deaths of some 1,000 men.[1] Attack on Awazim tribe[edit] Despite their losses, the remnant of the Ikhwan
Ikhwan
tribesmen went on with their rebellion by attacking the Awazim tribe in Arabia on 5 October 1929, resulting in the deaths of some 250 individuals. Final accords[edit] Faisal Al-Dawish
Faisal Al-Dawish
fled to Kuwait
Kuwait
in October 1929, and government troops finally suppressed the rebellion on 10 January 1930, when Ikhwan
Ikhwan
rebel leaders surrendered to the British.[1] Aftermath[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia In the aftermath, the Ikhwan
Ikhwan
leadership was slain,[5] and the remains were eventually incorporated into regular Saudi units. Sultan bin Bajad, one of the main Ikhwan
Ikhwan
leaders, was killed in 1931,[citation needed] whereas Faisal al-Dawish died in prison in Riyadh
Riyadh
on 3 October 1931.[1] In September 1932, the two kingdoms of Hejaz
Hejaz
and Nejd
Nejd
were united as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.[1] See also[edit]

Grand Mosque Seizure Adwan Rebellion Kura Rebellion Iraqi Shia revolts 1935–1936

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o University of Central Arkansas, Middle East/North Africa/Persian Gulf Region[permanent dead link] ^ Harold,Dickson. [ Kuwait
Kuwait
and her Neighbors], "George Allen & Unwin Ltd", 1956. pg 300-302 ^ "Battle of Sibilla (Arabian history) - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. 1929-03-29. Retrieved 2013-10-29.  ^ a b Dickson ^ a b c 'Arabian Sands' by Wilfred Thesiger, 1991, pps 248-249 ^ King Abdul Aziz Information Resource Archived 13 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine. retrieved 19 January 2011 ^ 'Arabian Sands' by Wilfred Thesiger, 1991 ^ Peter W. Wilson, Douglas Graham. Saudi Arabia: the coming storm . M.E.Sharpe, 1994: p.45 ^ a b Leatherdale, Clive. Britain and Saudi Arabia, 1925-1939: the Impe

.