IKEBANA (生け花, "arranging flowers") is the
Kadō is counted as one of the three classical Japanese arts of refinement, along with kōdō for incense appreciation and chadō for tea and the tea ceremony.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Schools * 2.2 Evolution of styles * 2.3 20th century styles
* 3 Theory * 4 Spiritual aspects * 5 Culture * 6 International organizations * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links
"Ikebana" is from the Japanese ikeru (生ける, "keep alive, arrange flowers, living") and hana (花, "flower"). Possible translations include "giving life to flowers" and "arranging flowers".
A drawing of mitsu-gusoku , from the Senden-shō (15-18th century) Illustration from the Kaō irai no Kadensho, believed to be the oldest extant manuscript of ikebana teaching, dating from a time shortly after that of Ikenobō Senkei. It shows various arranging styles of tatehana (ogibana) wide-mouth (right) and upright styles
Recent historical research now indicates that the practice of
tatebana ("standing flowers"), derived from a combination of belief
Hundreds of schools and styles have developed throughout the centuries. Amongst the most notable are:
Ikenobō , which goes back to the
EVOLUTION OF STYLES
Patterns and styles evolved, and by the late 15th century arrangements were common enough to be appreciated by ordinary people and not only by the imperial family and its retainers.
Styles of ikebana changed in the late 15th century and transformed into an art form with fixed instructions. Books were written about it, "Sedensho" being the oldest one, covering the years 1443 to 1536. ikebana became a major part of traditional festivals, and exhibitions were occasionally held.
The first styles were characterized by a tall, upright central stem accompanied by two shorter stems. During the Momoyama period , 1560–1600, splendid castles were constructed. Noblemen and royal retainers made large decorative rikka floral arrangements that were considered the most appropriate decoration for castles.
The RIKKA (standing flowers) style was developed as a Buddhist expression of the beauty of landscapes in nature. Key to this style are nine branches that represent elements of nature:
When the tea ceremony emerged, another style was introduced for tea ceremony rooms called chabana . This style is the opposite of the Momoyama style and emphasizes rustic simplicity. The simplicity of chabana in turn helped create the nageirebana or “thrown-in” style.
NAGEIREBANA is a non-structured design which led to the development of the seika or shoka style. It is characterized by a tight bundle of stems that form a triangular three-branched asymmetrical arrangement that was considered classic. It is also known in the shortform nageire.
SEIKA or SHōKA style consists of only three main parts, known in some schools as ten (heaven), chi (earth), and jin (human). It is a simple style that is designed to show the beauty and uniqueness of the plant itself. Formalization of the nageire style for use in the Japanese alcove resulted in the formal shoka style.
JIYūKA is a free creative design. It is not confined to flowers; every material can be used.
20TH CENTURY STYLES
In the 20th century, with the advent of modernism , the three schools of ikebana partially gave way to what is commonly known in Japan as FREE STYLE.
* Moribana upright style is considered the most basic structure in ikebana. Moribana literally means “piled-up flowers” that are arranged in a shallow vase or suiban, compote vessel, or basket. Flowers are secured on kenzan or needlepoint holders, also known as metal frogs. * Moribana slanting style is a reversed arranging style that can be used depending on the placement of the display or shapes of the branches. Branches that look beautiful when slanted are mostly chosen for this arrangement. This style gives a softer impression than the upright style. * Nageire upright style is arranged in a narrow-mouthed, tall container without using kenzan or needlepoint holders. Nageire literally means "thrown in". This is a simple arrangement that can contain just one flower and does not use frogs to hold the flower(s). * Nageire slanted style presents a gentle touch and flexibility. It is ideal for beginners. * Nageire cascading style arrangements have the main stem hanging lower than the rim of the vase. A flexible material will create beautiful lines balancing with flowers.
More than simply putting flowers in a container, ikebana is a disciplined art form in which nature and humanity are brought together. Contrary to the idea of a particolored or multicolored arrangement of blossoms, ikebana often emphasizes other areas of the plant, such as its stems and leaves, and puts emphasis on shape , line , and form . Though ikebana is an expression of creativity, certain rules govern its form. The artist's intention behind each arrangement is shown through a piece's color combinations, natural shapes, graceful lines, and the implied meaning of the arrangement.
Another common but not exclusive aspect present in ikebana is its employment of minimalism . Some arrangements may consist of only a minimal number of blooms interspersed among stalks and leaves. The structure of some Japanese flower arrangements is based on a scalene triangle delineated by three main points, usually twigs, considered in some schools to symbolize heaven , earth , and man , or sun , moon , and earth . Use of these terms is limited to certain schools and is not customary in more traditional schools. A notable exception is the traditional rikka form, which follows other precepts. The container can be a key element of the composition, and various styles of pottery may be used in their construction. In some schools the container is only regarded as a vessel to hold water and should be subordinate to the arrangement.
The spiritual aspect of ikebana is considered very important to its
practitioners. Some practitioners feel silence is needed while making
ikebana while others feel this is not necessary. It is a time to
appreciate things in nature that people often overlook because of
their busy lives. One becomes more patient and tolerant of
differences, not only in nature, but also in general.
The oldest international organization,
Noted Japanese persons who practiced it as Junichi Kakizaki , Mokichi Okada , and Yuki Tsuji . Tsuji was at a March 2015 TEDx in Shimizu, Shizuoka where he elaborated on the relationship of ikebana to beauty.
The Hollywood actress Marcia Gay Harden is a practitioner and started when she was living in Japan as a child. She has published a book about it with her works.
Nageire from the Banmi Shofu-ryū school *
This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )
* ^ The Modern Reader's Japanese-English Character Dictionary,
Charles E. Tuttle Company, ISBN 0-8048-0408-7
* ^ "tatebana –
* Ember, M., & Ember, C. r. (2001). Countries and their Cultures. New York Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved July 30, 2008, from NetLibrary (UMUC Database) . * Fairchild, C. (2006). "Keiko's Ikebana: A Contemporary Approach to the Traditional Japanese Art of Flower Arranging." Library Journal, 131(1), 111–113. Retrieved July 30, 2008 from Academic Search Premiere (UMUC Database) (AN 21303368). * Leaman, O. (2001). Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy. London: New York Taylor ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v
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