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$4.6 million[1](USA rentals) $15.7 million(net gross)

Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
is a 1968 Metrocolor Cold War
Cold War
era suspense and espionage film directed by John Sturges, starring Rock Hudson, Patrick McGoohan, Ernest Borgnine, and Jim Brown. The screenplay by Alistair MacLean, Douglas Heyes, Harry Julian Fink, and W. R. Burnett is loosely based upon MacLean's 1963 novel of the same name. Both have parallels to real-life events that took place in 1959. The film was photographed in Super Panavision 70 by Daniel L. Fapp, and presented in 70 mm Cinerama
Cinerama
in premiere engagements. The original music score is by Michel Legrand.

Contents

1 Plot summary

1.1 Part One 1.2 Part Two

2 Cast

2.1 Differences from the novel

3 Production 4 Plot origin and cultural impact 5 Reception

5.1 Box office 5.2 Critical response 5.3 Awards

6 Remake 7 References 8 Further reading 9 See also 10 External links

Plot summary[edit] Part One[edit] A satellite reenters the atmosphere and ejects a capsule which parachutes to the Arctic, coordinates 85°N 21°W (approx 320 miles WNW of Nord, Greenland, in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean ice pack). During an ice storm, a figure soon approaches, guided by a homing beacon, while a second person secretly watches from nearby. The scene shifts to Commander James Ferraday (Rock Hudson), captain of the U.S. nuclear attack submarine USS Tigerfish (SSN-509), stationed at Holy Loch, Scotland. He is ordered by Admiral Garvey (Lloyd Nolan) to rescue the personnel of Drift Ice Station Zebra, a British civilian scientific weather station moving with the ice pack. However, the mission is actually a cover for a highly classified assignment. Ferraday welcomes aboard British intelligence agent "Mr. Jones" (Patrick McGoohan) and a Marine platoon. While underway, a SH-2 Sea Sprite helicopter delivers USMC Captain Anders (Jim Brown), who takes command of the Marines, and Boris Vaslov (Ernest Borgnine), an amiable Russian defector and spy, who is a trusted colleague of Jones. Tigerfish makes her way under the ice to Zebra’s last-known position. After several unsuccessful attempts to break through the ice with the conning tower, Ferraday decides to use a torpedo to blast an opening in the thick ice. When a crewman opens the inner torpedo hatch to load the torpedo, sea water rushes in, flooding the compartment - the outer hatch was open to the sea even though the indicators showed it was closed. Torpedo officer Lt. Mills is killed in the flood of water, and the weight from the flooding causes the submarine to nosedive, quickly descending beyond its crush depth. Jones helps to close the tube and stop the inflow of water, but even so, Ferraday and his crew are barely able to save ship. During the investigation of the torpedo tube, Ferraday states this incident should have been impossible because the indicators showed the outer hatch was closed. Jones then describes how someone could intentionally rig the tube to malfunction. Ferraday investigates and finds epoxy glue was used to interfere with the tube's operation, resulting in incorrect readings showing the tube was safe to open. Both Jones and Ferraday conclude that there is a saboteur aboard. Ferraday suspects Vaslov, while Jones suspects Anders, who is the least known member of the rescue team to Jones, Ferraday and Vaslov, and universally disliked for his strict demeanor. Jones demands Ferraday complete the mission regardless of the risk, and Ferraday refuses, unless he knows the purpose of the mission first. At that moment, an area of thin ice is located, and Ferraday surfaces Tigerfish. Part Two[edit] Ferraday, Vaslov, Jones, and the Marine platoon set out for the weather station in zero visibility. They reach Zebra to find several of its buildings burned and the scientists nearly dead from hypothermia. Jones and Vaslov begin questioning the survivors. It becomes obvious that the two spies are looking for something. Ferraday reveals to Jones that he knows more about the mission than he is supposed to, saying "We don't believe in going on a mission totally blindfolded". Jones reveals to Ferraday that an advanced experimental British camera was stolen by the Soviets, along with an enhanced film emulsion developed by the Americans. The Soviets sent it into orbit to photograph the locations of all the American missile silos. However, the camera malfunctioned and continued to record Soviet missile sites as well. A second malfunction forced re-entry in the Arctic, close to Ice Station Zebra. Soon after, undercover Soviet and British agents arrived to recover the film capsule, and the civilian scientists at Zebra were caught in the crossfire between them. As the weather clears, Ferraday sets his crew to search for the capsule. Jones eventually finds a hidden tracking device. He is blind-sided and knocked unconscious by Vaslov, who is in reality a Soviet double-agent and the saboteur they have been looking for. But before Vaslov can make off with his prize, he is confronted by Anders. As the two men fight, a dazed Jones shoots and kills Captain Anders due to Vaslov's manipulation of the scenario. Tigerfish's radar picks up Soviet aircraft heading toward Zebra. Ferraday remains suspicious of Vaslov, but allows him to use the tracker to locate the capsule, buried in the ice. As Ferraday's crew extracts the capsule, Soviet paratroopers land at the scene. Their commander, Colonel Ostrovsky (Alf Kjellin), demands the capsule. Believing that the Americans have already secured the canister, the Soviet commander threatens to activate the self-destruct mechanism with his radio-detonator. Ferraday stalls while Vaslov defuses the booby-trapped capsule and takes out the film. Ferraday hands over the empty container, but the deception is revealed and a brief firefight breaks out. In the confusion, Vaslov makes a break with the film canister. Jones stops Vaslov, mortally wounds him, and retrieves the film. Ferraday orders Jones to hand the film over to the Soviets. However, Ferraday had earlier found a radio-detonator identical to Ostrovsky's. The Russians send the canister aloft by balloon for recovery by an approaching jet fighter. Lieutenant Walker (Tony Bill) makes a desperate attempt to get Ostrovsky's detonator, but fails and is severely injured. Commander Ferraday activates his detonator, destroying the film. Ostrovsky realises the situation is futile and allows Ferraday to send a medic to Walker. With the conflict between the two parties now having effectively ended in stalemate, Ostrovsky concedes that both his and Ferraday's missions are accomplished, at least in part, and leaves, allowing Tigerfish to complete the rescue of the civilians. A dissolving segue shows a teletype machine churning out a news story hailing the success of the "humanitarian" mission as an example of cooperation between the West and the Soviet Union, as Tigerfish sails for home. Cast[edit]

Rock Hudson
Rock Hudson
as Commander James Ferraday, USN Ernest Borgnine
Ernest Borgnine
as Boris Vaslov Patrick McGoohan
Patrick McGoohan
as David Jones of MI6 Jim Brown
Jim Brown
as Captain Leslie Anders, USMC Tony Bill
Tony Bill
as 1st Lieutenant Russell Walker, USMC Lloyd Nolan
Lloyd Nolan
as Admiral Garvey, USN Alf Kjellin
Alf Kjellin
as Colonel Ostrovsky, the Soviet commander Gerald S. O'Loughlin
Gerald S. O'Loughlin
as Lieutenant Commander Bob Raeburn, USN Ted Hartley
Ted Hartley
as Lieutenant Jonathan Hansen, USN Michael Mikler as Lt Courtney Cartwright, USN
USN
(navigator) Ron Masak
Ron Masak
as radioman Paul Zabrinczski, USN Murray Rose
Murray Rose
as torpedoman officer Lt George Mills, USN Jed Allan
Jed Allan
as Peter Costigan USN Lloyd Haynes
Lloyd Haynes
as Webson

Differences from the novel[edit] While based on Alistair MacLean's 1963 Cold War
Cold War
thriller, the film version diverges from its source material. The most obvious changes involved the names of the novel's characters:

The submarine Dolphin became Tigerfish as the real USS Dolphin, launched between the publication of the novel and the making of the film, was a diesel submarine. British spy Dr. Carpenter was renamed David Jones. Commander Swanson was changed to Commander Ferraday.

Beyond the name change, the film's submarine has a more traditionally conventional design similar to the first nuclear-powered submarine, the Nautilus, rather than the more streamlined, teardrop-shaped vessel (the contemporaneous Skipjack or Permit designs) described in the novel—simply because the production used the World War II diesel-electric submarine USS Ronquil (SS-396)
USS Ronquil (SS-396)
to represent the fictitious Tigerfish. The Tigerfish hull number 509 has never been used for an actual U.S. Navy submarine, although it would appear again in fiction in the 1971 television movie Assault on the Wayne and the 1989 Mission: Impossible episode "Submarine". Additional characters were added, such as Soviet defector Boris Vaslov, Marine Captain Leslie Anders, 1st Lt Russell Walker, and a United States Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
platoon trained for Arctic
Arctic
warfare. Much of the characterization involving the submarine's crew found in the novel was jettisoned in favor of these new cinematic creations. Unlike the film, the novel describes little overt Soviet interest in recovering the film capsule other than a spy ship disguised as a fishing trawler waiting outside Holy Loch
Holy Loch
when the Tigerfish sets sail. In the novel, there are no Soviets on the ice and no confrontation of any kind on the ice with the Soviets. The novel's fire on board the submarine does not occur in the film, whereas the nearly fatal flooding of the forward torpedo room is common to the film and the novel. The sabotage of the torpedo tubes is committed by a suspected intelligence agent (actually Vaslov) in the film. In the novel, a port maintenance worker is suspected. The film's new climax involves a confrontation between Soviet paratroopers and the American Marines, but concludes on a more ambiguous note than the novel, reflecting the perceived thaw in the Cold War
Cold War
following the Cuban Missile Crisis. Production[edit] The film rights to the 1963 novel were acquired the following year by producer Martin Ransohoff, who hoped to capitalize on the success of the 1961 blockbuster The Guns of Navarone by adapting another Alistair MacLean novel for the silver screen as a follow-up.[3] He expected the film to cost around $5 million.[4] Paddy Chayefsky, who had just written The Americanization of Emily
The Americanization of Emily
for Ransohoff, was hired to write the script. Navarone stars Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
and David Niven
David Niven
were initially attached to this film, with Peck as the sub commander and Niven as the British spy, plus Edmond O'Brien
Edmond O'Brien
and George Segal
George Segal
in the other key roles and John Sturges to direct.[5] Filming was set to begin in April 1965, but scheduling conflicts and U.S. Department of Defense objections over Paddy Chayefsky's screenplay because they felt it showed "an unfair distortion of military life" that would "damage the reputation of the navy and its personnel"[6] delayed the start. A new script was commissioned, but due to scheduling conflicts, the original cast was no longer available when filming began in Spring 1967.[7] Principal photography lasted nineteen weeks, ending in October 1967. Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
was photographed in Super Panavision 70 by Daniel L. Fapp. The nuclear-powered Tigerfish (SSN-509) was portrayed in the movie by the diesel-electric Guppy IIA submarine USS Ronquil (SS-396) when seen on the surface. For submerging and surfacing scenes, the diesel-electric Guppy IA USS Blackfin (SS-322) was used, near Pearl Harbor. The underwater scenes used a model of a Skate class nuclear submarine. Second unit cameraman John M. Stephens developed an innovative underwater camera system that successfully filmed the first continuous dive of a submarine, which became the subject of the documentary featurette The Man Who Makes a Difference. During filming, McGoohan had to be rescued from a flooded chamber by a diver who freed his trapped foot, saving his life.[8] Because his TV series The Prisoner
The Prisoner
was in production during principal photography in Ice Station Zebra, Patrick McGoohan
Patrick McGoohan
had the episode "Do Not Forsake Me Oh My Darling" re-written to have the mind of his character Number Six transferred into the body of another character. Plot origin and cultural impact[edit] The plot has parallels to events reported in news stories from April 1959, concerning a missing experimental Corona satellite capsule (Discoverer II) that inadvertently landed near Spitsbergen, situated in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, on April 13, which was believed to have been recovered by Soviet agents. In 2006, the United States National Reconnaissance Office declassified information stating that "an individual formerly possessing Corona access was the technical adviser to the movie" and admitted "the resemblance of the loss of the Discoverer II capsule, and its probable recovery by the Soviets" on Spitsbergen
Spitsbergen
Island, to the book by Alistair MacLean.[9] The story has parallels with the Central Intelligence Agency's Project COLDFEET, which took place in May–June 1962. In this operation, two American officers parachuted from a CIA-operated B‑17 Flying Fortress to an abandoned Soviet ice station. After searching the station, they were picked up three days later by the B-17 using the Fulton surface-to-air recovery system. The attempted sinking of the US submarine is almost certainly based[10] on the loss of the Royal Navy submarine HMS Thetis in Liverpool Bay in 1939. As in the film the drip cock was blocked on the newly built Thetis (by dockyard-applied fresh paint) which led to the rear cap being opened while the bow cap was already open to the ocean. Water entered at the rate of one ton per second and Thetis sank with the loss of 98 lives. In the movie the drip cock has been blocked with epoxy adhesive. Reclusive billionaire Howard Hughes, who had experience both as a movie producer and a defense contractor for the United States, is said to have watched a private print of Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
150 times on a continuous loop in his private hotel suite during the years prior to his death.[11] In his 2013 autobiography My Way, singer Paul Anka writes that Hughes kept a permanent penthouse at the Desert Inn
Desert Inn
hotel in Las Vegas
Las Vegas
and owned a local TV station. "We knew when Hughes was in town," Anka wrote. "You'd get back to your room, turn on the TV at 2 a.m. and the movie 'Ice Station Zebra' would be playing. At 5 a.m., it would start all over again. It was on almost every night. Hughes loved that movie." The sets and miniature footage from the film were re-used for the 1971 ABC made-for-television movie Assault on the Wayne, starring Leonard Nimoy, Joseph Cotten, Keenan Wynn, William Windom, Sam Elliott, and Dewey Martin, which also featured Zebra cast members Lloyd Haynes
Lloyd Haynes
and Ron Masak.[12] The name Zebra comes from the representation of the letter Z in the Joint Army/Navy phonetic alphabet. In the modern NATO phonetic alphabet later adopted by aviation and navigation, Zulu is being used instead of Zebra. In actuality, there was an Ice Station Alpha (phonetic for the letter "A") established by the US Air Force in 1957 as part of the International Geophysical Year
International Geophysical Year
(IGY.).[13] Footage from Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
(and the model of the Tigerfish) was also re-used in The Six Million Dollar Man
The Six Million Dollar Man
two-part episode "Wine, Women, and War," the 1978 disaster film Gray Lady Down, the 1983 James Bond film Never Say Never Again, and the 1982 Cold War
Cold War
thriller Firefox. Sportscaster Chris Berman, known for his whimsical nicknames for athletes, referred to major league pitcher Bob Sebra as "Ice Station Sebra". In Breaking Bad, Saul Goodman
Saul Goodman
has a holding company called Ice Station Zebra Associates, which he uses to dodge taxes. It is revealed in the spinoff series Better Call Saul
Better Call Saul
that his love interest earlier in life listed this as her favorite movie. In 2018 Jack White
Jack White
released the single Ice Station Zebra. Reception[edit] Box office[edit] Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
was released on October 23, 1968. The film became a major hit, which gave a much-needed boost to Rock Hudson's flagging career.[14] Critical response[edit] Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
received mixed reviews from critics. It currently holds a 40% "Rotten" rating on the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes.[15] Critic Roger Ebert
Roger Ebert
of the Chicago Sun-Times
Chicago Sun-Times
described the film as "so flat and conventional that its three moments of interest are an embarrassment" and called it "a dull, stupid movie", expressing disappointment that the special effects did not, in his opinion, live up to advance claims.[16] Director John Carpenter
John Carpenter
asked, "Why do I love this movie so much?", saying it was a guilty pleasure.[14] Awards[edit] Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
was nominated for two Academy Awards, in the special effects category (2001: A Space Odyssey won instead) and Best Cinematography (won by Romeo and Juliet). Remake[edit] On May 6, 2013, The Hollywood Reporter
The Hollywood Reporter
reported that Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
will undertake a remake of Ice Station Zebra, with Christopher McQuarrie signed to direct and write the screenplay for the film.[17] References [edit]

^ a b Glenn Lovell, Escape Artist: The Life and Films of John Sturges, University of Wisconsin Press, 2008 p264-269 ^ Thomas, K. (1967, Jul 17). North pole finds a place in the sun for 'ice station'. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/155701551 ^ Scheuer, P. K. (1964, Apr 10). 'Tom jones' steals poll of U.S. critics. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/168563381 ^ Filmways expects sharp rise in fiscal '64 profit. (1964, Apr 22). Wall Street Journal (1923 - Current File) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/132971479 ^ Martin, B. (1965, Aug 06). MOVIE CALL SHEET. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/155269498 ^ Suid, Lawrence H. (2002). Guts and Glory: The Making of the American Military Image in Film. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky. p. 402. ISBN 0-8131-9018-5.  ^ Martin, B. (1967, Jun 20). McLaglen to direct 'mace'. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/155674517 ^ Patrick McGoohan
Patrick McGoohan
- Telegraph ^ " National Reconnaissance Office
National Reconnaissance Office
Review and Redaction Guide, Appendix F" (PDF). 2006. p. 155. Retrieved 2016-07-12.  ^ How HMS Thetis sank off the coast of North Wales in 1939 - Daily Post ^ https://www.wired.com/2015/12/howard-hughess-screening-room/ ^ Assault on the Wayne (TV Movie 1971) - IMDb ^ Camp Commander's Diary - Project Ice Skate - Drifting Station Alpha ^ a b Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
article by Lang Thompson at Turner Classic Movies Access date 2009-09-18. ^ Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
at Rotten Tomatoes ^ Ebert, Roger (April 21, 1969). "Ice Station Zebra". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved September 30, 2015.  ^ " Christopher McQuarrie
Christopher McQuarrie
to Write, Direct Remake of Ice Station Zebra] (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. May 6, 2013. Retrieved December 27, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Lawrence H. Suid. Sailing the Silver Screen: Hollywood and the U.S. Navy (Annapolis, MD, USA, Naval Institute Press, 1996) ISBN 1-55750-787-2

See also[edit]

Film portal

List of American films of 1968

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ice Station Zebra

Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
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Ice Station Zebra
on IMDb Ice Station Zebra
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Ice Station Zebra
at AllMovie Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
at the TCM Movie Database Movie review at AlistairMacLean.com

v t e

Films directed by John Sturges

The Man Who Dared (1946) Shadowed
Shadowed
(1946) Alias Mr. Twilight (1946) For the Love of Rusty
For the Love of Rusty
(1947) Keeper of the Bees (1947) Thunderbolt (1947) The Sign of the Ram
The Sign of the Ram
(1948) Best Man Wins
Best Man Wins
(1948) The Walking Hills
The Walking Hills
(1949) The Capture (1950) Mystery Street
Mystery Street
(1950) Right Cross
Right Cross
(1950) The Magnificent Yankee (1950) Kind Lady (1951) The People Against O'Hara (1951) It's a Big Country
It's a Big Country
(1951) The Girl in White
The Girl in White
(1952) Jeopardy (1953) Fast Company (1953) Escape from Fort Bravo
Escape from Fort Bravo
(1953) Bad Day at Black Rock
Bad Day at Black Rock
(1955) Underwater! (1955) The Scarlet Coat
The Scarlet Coat
(1955) Backlash (1956) Gunfight at the O.K. Corral (1957) The Law and Jake Wade
The Law and Jake Wade
(1958) The Old Man and the Sea (1958) Last Train from Gun Hill
Last Train from Gun Hill
(1959) Never So Few
Never So Few
(1959) The Magnificent Seven
The Magnificent Seven
(1960) By Love Possessed (1961) Sergeants 3
Sergeants 3
(1962) A Girl Named Tamiko
A Girl Named Tamiko
(1962) The Great Escape (1963) The Satan Bug
The Satan Bug
(1965) The Hallelujah Trail (1965) Hour of the Gun
Hour of the Gun
(1967) Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
(1968) Marooned (1969) Joe Kidd
Joe Kidd
(1972) Chino (1973) McQ
McQ
(1974) The Eagle Has Landed (1976)

v t e

Works by Alistair MacLean

Novels

HMS Ulysses (1955) The Guns of Navarone (1957) South by Java Head
South by Java Head
(1957) The Last Frontier (1959) Night Without End
Night Without End
(1959) Fear Is the Key
Fear Is the Key
(1961) The Dark Crusader (1961) The Golden Rendezvous
The Golden Rendezvous
(1962) The Satan Bug
The Satan Bug
(1962) Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
(1963) When Eight Bells Toll
When Eight Bells Toll
(1966) Where Eagles Dare
Where Eagles Dare
(1967) Force 10 from Navarone
Force 10 from Navarone
(1968) Puppet on a Chain
Puppet on a Chain
(1969) Caravan to Vaccarès (1970) Bear Island (1971) The Way to Dusty Death (1973) Breakheart Pass (1974) Circus (1975) The Golden Gate (1976) Seawitch
Seawitch
(1977) Goodbye California
Goodbye California
(1978) Athabasca (1980) River of Death
River of Death
(1981) Partisans (1982) Floodgate (1983) San Andreas (1984) Santorini (1986)

Adaptations

The Guns of Navarone (1961) The Secret Ways
The Secret Ways
(1961) The Satan Bug
The Satan Bug
(1965) Ice Station Zebra
Ice Station Zebra
(1968) Where Eagles Dare
Where Eagles Dare
(1968) When Eight Bells Toll
When Eight Bells Toll
(1971) Puppet on a Chain
Puppet on a Chain
(1971) Fear Is the Key
Fear Is the Key
(1972) Caravan to Vaccarès (1974) Breakheart Pass (1976) Golden Rendezvous
Golden Rendezvous
(1977) Force 10 from Navarone
Force 10 from Navarone
(1978) Bear Island (1979) The Hostage Tower (1980) (TV) River of Death
River of Death
(1989) Death Train
Death Train
(1993) (TV) Night Watch (1995) (TV) The Way to Dusty Death (1995) (TV) Air Force One Is Down (2013) (TV)

v t e

Cinerama

Films

Three-panel

This Is Cinerama (1952) Cinerama
Cinerama
Holiday (1955) Seven Wonders of the World (1956) Search for Paradise (1957) South Seas Adventure (1958) Windjammer (1958) The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm (1962) Holiday in Spain (1962) How the West Was Won (1962) The Best of Cinerama (1963) Cinerama's Russian Adventure (1966)

70 mm

It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963) Circus World (1964) Mediterranean Holiday (1964) The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965) The Hallelujah Trail (1965) Battle of the Bulge (1965) Khartoum (1966) Grand Prix (1966) Custer of the West (1967) 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) Ice Station Zebra (1968) Krakatoa, East of Java (1969) Song of Norway (1970) The Great Waltz (1972)

Fisheye

To the Moon and Beyond (1964)

Venues

Present: Cinerama
Cinerama
Dome Pictureville Cinema Seattle Cinerama Former: Indian Hills Theater

People

Merian C. Cooper Hazard E. Reeves Lowell Thomas Mike Todd

Related

Cinemiracle Cinerama
Cinerama
Adventure Cinerama
Cinerama
Releasing Corporation Kinopanorama Multi-image Polyvision Super Panavision 70 Ultra Panavision 70 Todd-AO process Wall

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