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Henrik Johan Ibsen
Ibsen
(/ˈɪbsən/;[1] Norwegian: [ˈhenrik ˈipsn̩]; 20 March 1828 – 23 May 1906) was a major 19th-century Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet. He is often referred to as "the father of realism" and is one of the founders of Modernism in theatre.[2] His major works include Brand, Peer Gynt, An Enemy of the People, Emperor and Galilean, A Doll's House, Hedda Gabler, Ghosts, The Wild Duck, When We Dead Awaken, Pillars of Society, The Lady from the Sea, Rosmersholm, The Master Builder, and John Gabriel Borkman. He is the most frequently performed dramatist in the world after Shakespeare,[3][4] and by the early 20th century A Doll's House became the world's most performed play.[5] Several of his later dramas were considered scandalous to many of his era, when European theatre was expected to model strict morals of family life and propriety. Ibsen's later work examined the realities that lay behind many façades, revealing much that was disquieting to many contemporaries. It utilized a critical eye and free inquiry into the conditions of life and issues of morality. The poetic and cinematic early play Peer Gynt, however, has strong surreal elements.[6] Ibsen
Ibsen
is often ranked as one of the most distinguished playwrights in the European tradition.[7] Richard Hornby describes him as "a profound poetic dramatist—the best since Shakespeare".[8] He is widely regarded as the most important playwright since Shakespeare.[7][9] He influenced other playwrights and novelists such as George Bernard Shaw, Oscar Wilde, Arthur Miller, James Joyce, Eugene O'Neill, and Miroslav Krleža. Ibsen
Ibsen
was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1902, 1903, and 1904.[10] Ibsen
Ibsen
wrote his plays in Danish (the common written language of Denmark
Denmark
and Norway)[11] and they were published by the Danish publisher Gyldendal. Although most of his plays are set in Norway—often in places reminiscent of Skien, the port town where he grew up— Ibsen
Ibsen
lived for 27 years in Italy
Italy
and Germany, and rarely visited Norway
Norway
during his most productive years. Born into a merchant family connected to the patriciate of Skien, Ibsen
Ibsen
shaped his dramas according to his family background. He was the father of Prime Minister Sigurd Ibsen. Ibsen's dramas continue in their influence upon contemporary culture and film.

Contents

1 Early life and family 2 Life and writings 3 Death

3.1 Centenary

4 Legacy 5 Ancestry 6 Descendants 7 Honours 8 Works

8.1 English translations 8.2 Adaptations

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Early life and family[edit]

A silhouette of the Altenburg/ Paus
Paus
family, members of the Skien patriciate, shortly after the Napoleonic Wars. To the right Ibsen's mother Marichen Altenburg, her parents Hedevig Christine née Paus
Paus
and ship-owner Johan Andreas Altenburg
Johan Andreas Altenburg
in the centre, to the left of Hedevig her nephew Henrik Johan Paus, who was not only Marichen Altenburg's cousin, but also the half brother of Knud Ibsen, and who grew up with his uncle and aunt

Ibsen
Ibsen
was born to Knud Ibsen
Knud Ibsen
(1797–1877) and Marichen Altenburg (1799–1869), in a well-to-do merchant family, in the small port town of Skien
Skien
in Telemark
Telemark
county, a city which was noted for shipping timber. As he wrote in an 1882 letter to critic and scholar Georg Brandes, "my parents were members on both sides of the most respected families in Skien", explaining that he was closely related with "just about all the patrician families who then dominated the place and its surroundings", mentioning the families Paus, Plesner, von der Lippe, Cappelen and Blom.[12][13] Ibsen's grandfather, ship captain Henrich Ibsen
Ibsen
(1765–1797), had died at sea in 1797, and Knud Ibsen
Knud Ibsen
was raised on the estate of ship-owner Ole Paus
Paus
(1766–1855), after his mother Johanne, née Plesner (1770–1847), remarried. Knud Ibsen's half-brothers included lawyer and politician Christian Cornelius Paus, banker and ship-owner Christopher Blom Paus, and lawyer Henrik Johan Paus, who grew up with Ibsen's mother in the Altenburg home and after whom Henrik (Johan) Ibsen
Ibsen
was named.

Ibsen's grandmother Hedevig Altenburg, née Paus
Paus
(cf. the character Hedvig in The Wild Duck)

Knud Ibsen's paternal ancestors were ship captains of Danish origin, but he decided to become a merchant, having initial success. His marriage to Marichen Altenburg, a daughter of ship-owner Johan Andreas Altenburg (1763–1824) and Hedevig Christine Paus
Paus
(1763–1848), was a successful match.[14] Theodore Jorgenson points out that "Henrik's ancestry [thus] reached back into the important Telemark
Telemark
family of Paus
Paus
both on the father's and on the mother's side. Hedvig Paus
Paus
must have been well known to the young dramatist, for she lived until 1848."[15] Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
was fascinated by his parents' "strange, almost incestuous marriage," and would treat the subject of incestuous relationships in several plays, notably his masterpiece Rosmersholm.[16] When Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
was around seven years old, however, his father's fortunes took a significant turn for the worse, and the family was eventually forced to sell the major Altenburg building in central Skien
Skien
and move permanently to their small summer house, Venstøp, outside of the city.[17] Henrik's sister Hedvig would write about their mother: "She was a quiet, lovable woman, the soul of the house, everything to her husband and children. She sacrificed herself time and time again. There was no bitterness or reproach in her."[14][18] The Ibsen
Ibsen
family eventually moved to a city house, Snipetorp, owned by Knud Ibsen's half-brother, wealthy banker and ship-owner Christopher Blom Paus.[14] His father's financial ruin would have a strong influence on Ibsen's later work; the characters in his plays often mirror his parents, and his themes often deal with issues of financial difficulty as well as moral conflicts stemming from dark secrets hidden from society. Ibsen would both model and name characters in his plays after his own family. A central theme in Ibsen's plays is the portrayal of suffering women, echoing his mother Marichen Altenburg; Ibsen's sympathy with women would eventually find significant expression with their portrayal in dramas such as A Doll's House
A Doll's House
and Rosmersholm.[14] At fifteen, Ibsen
Ibsen
was forced to leave school. He moved to the small town of Grimstad
Grimstad
to become an apprentice pharmacist and began writing plays. In 1846, when Ibsen
Ibsen
was age 18, a liaison with Else Sophie Jensdatter Birkedalen which produced a son, Hans Jacob Hendrichsen Birkdalen, whose upbringing Ibsen
Ibsen
paid until the boy was fourteen, though Ibsen
Ibsen
never saw Hans Jacob. Ibsen
Ibsen
went to Christiania (later renamed Kristiania and then Oslo) intending to matriculate at the university. He soon rejected the idea (his earlier attempts at entering university were blocked as he did not pass all his entrance exams), preferring to commit himself to writing. His first play, the tragedy Catilina (1850), was published under the pseudonym "Brynjolf Bjarme", when he was only 22, but it was not performed. His first play to be staged, The Burial Mound (1850), received little attention. Still, Ibsen
Ibsen
was determined to be a playwright, although the numerous plays he wrote in the following years remained unsuccessful.[19] Ibsen's main inspiration in the early period, right up to Peer Gynt, was apparently Norwegian author Henrik Wergeland
Henrik Wergeland
and the Norwegian folk tales as collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen
Peter Christen Asbjørnsen
and Jørgen Moe. In Ibsen's youth, Wergeland was the most acclaimed, and by far the most read, Norwegian poet and playwright. Life and writings[edit]

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He spent the next several years employed at Det norske Theater (Bergen), where he was involved in the production of more than 145 plays as a writer, director, and producer. During this period, he published five new, though largely unremarkable, plays. Despite Ibsen's failure to achieve success as a playwright, he gained a great deal of practical experience at the Norwegian Theater, experience that was to prove valuable when he continued writing. Ibsen
Ibsen
returned to Christiania in 1858 to become the creative director of the Christiania Theatre. He married Suzannah Thoresen
Suzannah Thoresen
on 18 June 1858 and she gave birth to their only child Sigurd on 23 December 1859. The couple lived in very poor financial circumstances and Ibsen became very disenchanted with life in Norway. In 1864, he left Christiania and went to Sorrento
Sorrento
in Italy
Italy
in self-imposed exile. He didn't return to his native land for the next 27 years, and when he returned to it he was a noted, but controversial, playwright. His next play, Brand (1865), brought him the critical acclaim he sought, along with a measure of financial success, as did the following play, Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
(1867), to which Edvard Grieg
Edvard Grieg
famously composed incidental music and songs. Although Ibsen
Ibsen
read excerpts of the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard
Søren Kierkegaard
and traces of the latter's influence are evident in Brand, it was not until after Brand that Ibsen
Ibsen
came to take Kierkegaard seriously. Initially annoyed with his friend Georg Brandes
Georg Brandes
for comparing Brand to Kierkegaard, Ibsen nevertheless read Either/Or
Either/Or
and Fear and Trembling. Ibsen's next play Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
was consciously informed by Kierkegaard.[20][21] With success, Ibsen
Ibsen
became more confident and began to introduce more and more of his own beliefs and judgements into the drama, exploring what he termed the "drama of ideas". His next series of plays are often considered his Golden Age, when he entered the height of his power and influence, becoming the center of dramatic controversy across Europe.[citation needed]

Ibsen
Ibsen
photographed in Dresden
Dresden
c. 1870

Ibsen
Ibsen
moved from Italy
Italy
to Dresden, Germany, in 1868, where he spent years writing the play he regarded as his main work, Emperor and Galilean (1873), dramatizing the life and times of the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate. Although Ibsen
Ibsen
himself always looked back on this play as the cornerstone of his entire works, very few shared his opinion, and his next works would be much more acclaimed. Ibsen
Ibsen
moved to Munich
Munich
in 1875 and began work on his first contemporary realist drama The Pillars of Society, first published and performed in 1877.[22] A Doll's House
A Doll's House
followed in 1879. This play is a scathing criticism of the marital roles accepted by men and women which characterized Ibsen's society. Ghosts followed in 1881, another scathing commentary on the morality of Ibsen's society, in which a widow reveals to her pastor that she had hidden the evils of her marriage for its duration. The pastor had advised her to marry her fiancé despite his philandering, and she did so in the belief that her love would reform him. But his philandering continued right up until his death, and his vices are passed on to their son in the form of syphilis. The mention of venereal disease alone was scandalous, but to show how it could poison a respectable family was considered intolerable.[citation needed] In An Enemy of the People
An Enemy of the People
(1882), Ibsen
Ibsen
went even further. In earlier plays, controversial elements were important and even pivotal components of the action, but they were on the small scale of individual households. In An Enemy, controversy became the primary focus, and the antagonist was the entire community. One primary message of the play is that the individual, who stands alone, is more often "right" than the mass of people, who are portrayed as ignorant and sheeplike. Contemporary society's belief was that the community was a noble institution that could be trusted, a notion Ibsen challenged. In An Enemy of the People, Ibsen
Ibsen
chastised not only the conservatism of society, but also the liberalism of the time. He illustrated how people on both sides of the social spectrum could be equally self-serving. An Enemy of the People
An Enemy of the People
was written as a response to the people who had rejected his previous work, Ghosts. The plot of the play is a veiled look at the way people reacted to the plot of Ghosts. The protagonist is a physician in a vacation spot whose primary draw is a public bath. The doctor discovers that the water is contaminated by the local tannery. He expects to be acclaimed for saving the town from the nightmare of infecting visitors with disease, but instead he is declared an 'enemy of the people' by the locals, who band against him and even throw stones through his windows. The play ends with his complete ostracism. It is obvious to the reader that disaster is in store for the town as well as for the doctor. As audiences by now expected, Ibsen's next play again attacked entrenched beliefs and assumptions; but this time, his attack was not against society's mores, but against overeager reformers and their idealism. Always an iconoclast, Ibsen
Ibsen
was equally willing to tear down the ideologies of any part of the political spectrum, including his own.[citation needed] The Wild Duck
The Wild Duck
(1884) is by many considered Ibsen's finest work, and it is certainly the most complex. It tells the story of Gregers Werle, a young man who returns to his hometown after an extended exile and is reunited with his boyhood friend Hjalmar Ekdal. Over the course of the play, the many secrets that lie behind the Ekdals' apparently happy home are revealed to Gregers, who insists on pursuing the absolute truth, or the "Summons of the Ideal". Among these truths: Gregers' father impregnated his servant Gina, then married her off to Hjalmar to legitimize the child. Another man has been disgraced and imprisoned for a crime the elder Werle committed. Furthermore, while Hjalmar spends his days working on a wholly imaginary "invention", his wife is earning the household income.[citation needed] Ibsen
Ibsen
displays masterful use of irony: despite his dogmatic insistence on truth, Gregers never says what he thinks but only insinuates, and is never understood until the play reaches its climax. Gregers hammers away at Hjalmar through innuendo and coded phrases until he realizes the truth; Gina's daughter, Hedvig, is not his child. Blinded by Gregers' insistence on absolute truth, he disavows the child. Seeing the damage he has wrought, Gregers determines to repair things, and suggests to Hedvig that she sacrifice the wild duck, her wounded pet, to prove her love for Hjalmar. Hedvig, alone among the characters, recognizes that Gregers always speaks in code, and looking for the deeper meaning in the first important statement Gregers makes which does not contain one, kills herself rather than the duck in order to prove her love for him in the ultimate act of self-sacrifice. Only too late do Hjalmar and Gregers realize that the absolute truth of the "ideal" is sometimes too much for the human heart to bear.[citation needed]

Letter from Ibsen
Ibsen
to his English reviewer and translator Edmund Gosse: "30.8.[18]99. Dear Mr. Edmund Gosse! It was to me a hearty joy to receive your letter. So I will finally personally meet you and your wife. I am at home every day in the morning until 1 o'clock. I am happy and surprised at your excellent Norwegian! Your amicably obliged Henrik Ibsen."

Late in his career, Ibsen
Ibsen
turned to a more introspective drama that had much less to do with denunciations of society's moral values and more to do with the problems of individuals. In such later plays as Hedda Gabler
Hedda Gabler
(1890) and The Master Builder (1892), Ibsen
Ibsen
explored psychological conflicts that transcended a simple rejection of current conventions. Many modern readers, who might regard anti-Victorian didacticism as dated, simplistic or hackneyed, have found these later works to be of absorbing interest for their hard-edged, objective consideration of interpersonal confrontation. Hedda Gabler
Hedda Gabler
is probably Ibsen's most performed play,[citation needed] with the title role regarded as one of the most challenging and rewarding for an actress even in the present day. Hedda Gabler
Hedda Gabler
and A Doll's House
A Doll's House
center on female protagonists whose almost demonic energy proves both attractive and destructive for those around them, and while Hedda has a few similarities with the character of Nora in A Doll's House, many of today's audiences and theatre critics[who?] feel that Hedda's intensity and drive are much more complex and much less comfortably explained than what they view as rather routine feminism on the part of Nora.[citation needed] Ibsen
Ibsen
had completely rewritten the rules of drama with a realism which was to be adopted by Chekhov and others and which we see in the theatre to this day. From Ibsen
Ibsen
forward, challenging assumptions and directly speaking about issues has been considered one of the factors that makes a play art rather than entertainment. His works were brought to an English-speaking audience, largely thanks to the efforts of William Archer and Edmund Gosse. These in turn had a profound influence on the young James Joyce
James Joyce
who venerates him in his early autobiographical novel "Stephen Hero". Ibsen
Ibsen
returned to Norway
Norway
in 1891, but it was in many ways not the Norway
Norway
he had left. Indeed, he had played a major role in the changes that had happened across society. Modernism
Modernism
was on the rise, not only in the theatre, but across public life.[citation needed] Death[edit]

Ibsen, late in his career

On 23 May 1906, Ibsen
Ibsen
died in his home at Arbins gade 1 in Kristiania (now Oslo)[23] after a series of strokes in March 1900. When, on 22 May, his nurse assured a visitor that he was a little better, Ibsen spluttered his last words "On the contrary" ("Tvertimod!"). He died the following day at 2:30 p.m.[24] Ibsen
Ibsen
was buried in Vår Frelsers gravlund
Vår Frelsers gravlund
("The Graveyard of Our Savior") in central Oslo. Centenary[edit] The 100th anniversary of Ibsen's death in 2006 was commemorated with an " Ibsen
Ibsen
year" in Norway
Norway
and other countries.[25][26][27] This year the homebuilding company Selvaag also opened Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
Sculpture Park in Oslo, Norway, in Henrik Ibsen's honour, making it possible to follow the dramatic play Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
scene by scene. Will Eno's adaptation of Ibsen's Peer Gynt, titled Gnit, had its world premiere at the 37th Humana Festival of New American Plays in March 2013.[28] On 23 May 2006, The Ibsen
Ibsen
Museum in Oslo
Oslo
reopened to the public the house where Ibsen
Ibsen
had spent his last eleven years, completely restored with the original interior, colors, and decor.[29] Legacy[edit] On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Ibsen's death in 2006, the Norwegian government organised the Ibsen
Ibsen
Year, which included celebrations around the world. The NRK
NRK
produced a miniseries on Ibsen's childhood and youth in 2006, An Immortal Man. Several prizes are awarded in the name of Henrik Ibsen, among them the International Ibsen
Ibsen
Award, the Norwegian Ibsen
Ibsen
Award and the Ibsen
Ibsen
Centennial Commemoration Award. Every year, since 2008, the annual " Delhi
Delhi
Ibsen
Ibsen
Festival", is held in Delhi, India, organized by the Dramatic Art and Design Academy (DADA) in collaboration with The Royal Norwegian Embassy in India. It features plays by Ibsen, performed by artists from various parts of the world in varied languages and styles.[30][31] The Ibsen
Ibsen
Society of America (ISA) was founded in 1978 at the close of the Ibsen
Ibsen
Sesquicentennial Symposium held in New York City to mark the 150th anniversary of Henrik Ibsen’s birth. Distinguished Ibsen translator and critic Rolf Fjelde, Professor of Literature at Pratt Institute and the chief organizer of the Symposium, was elected Founding President. In December, 1979, the ISA was certified as a non-profit corporation under the laws of the State of New York. Its purpose is to foster through lectures, readings, performances, conferences, and publications an understanding of Ibsen’s works as they are interpreted as texts and produced on stage and in film and other media. An annual newsletter Ibsen
Ibsen
News and Comment is distributed to all members.[32] Ancestry[edit]

Monogram
Monogram
of Henrik Ibsen

Ibsen's ancestry has been a much studied subject, due to his perceived foreignness[33] and due to the influence of his biography and family on his plays. Ibsen
Ibsen
often made references to his family in his plays, sometimes by name, or by modelling characters after them. The oldest documented member of the Ibsen
Ibsen
family was ship's captain Rasmus Ibsen
Ibsen
(1632–1703) from Stege, Denmark. His son, ship's captain Peder Ibsen
Ibsen
became a burgher of Bergen
Bergen
in Norway
Norway
in 1726.[34] Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
had Danish, German, Norwegian and some distant Scottish ancestry. Most of his ancestors belonged to the merchant class of original Danish and German extraction, and many of his ancestors were ship's captains. Ibsen's biographer Henrik Jæger
Henrik Jæger
famously wrote in 1888 that Ibsen
Ibsen
did not have a drop of Norwegian blood in his veins, stating that "the ancestral Ibsen
Ibsen
was a Dane". This, however, is not completely accurate; notably through his grandmother Hedevig Paus, Ibsen
Ibsen
was descended from one of the very few families of the patrician class of original Norwegian extraction, known since the 15th century. Ibsen's ancestors had mostly lived in Norway
Norway
for several generations, even though many had foreign ancestry.[35][36] The name Ibsen
Ibsen
is originally a patronymic, meaning "son of Ib" (Ib is a Danish variant of Jacob). The patronymic became "frozen", i.e. it became a permanent family name, in the 17th century. The phenomenon of patronymics becoming frozen started in the 17th century in bourgeois families in Denmark, and the practice was only widely adopted in Norway
Norway
from around 1900.

Ancestors of Henrik Ibsen

16. Peder Rasmussen Ibsen
Ibsen
(d. 1765), ship's captain and merchant in Bergen

8. Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
(1726–1765), merchant in Skien

17. Birgitte Holtermann (1692–1728)

4. Henrich Ibsen
Ibsen
(1765–1797), ship's captain and merchant in Skien

18. Giert Andersen Dishington (1706–1769)

9. Wenche Dishington (1738–1780)

19. Margrethe Jansen Forman

2. Knud Ibsen
Knud Ibsen
(1797–1877), merchant in Skien

20. Johan Glüsing Plesner (1731–1790), merchant in Skien

10. Knud Plesner (1731–1789), ship's captain and merchant in Skien

21. Karen Cathrine Hind (1708–1778)

5. Johanne Cathrine Plesner (1770–1847) (married to shipowner Ole Paus
Paus
in her second marriage from 1798)

22. Nicolai Kall (1709–1774), merchant in Skien

11. Maria Kall (1741–1786)

23. Elisabeth Marie Bomhoff (1707–1784)

1. Henrik Ibsen

24. Jochum Altenburg (1684–1745)

12. Diderik Altenburg, manager of Ulefos Saugbrug

6. Johan Andreas Altenburg
Johan Andreas Altenburg
(1763–1824), merchant and former ship's captain in Skien

26. Johan David Barth, postmaster in Kragerø

13. Marichen Johansdatter Barth

27. Dorothea Ruhland

3. Marichen Cornelia Martine Altenburg (1799–1869)

28. Paul Paus
Paus
(1697–1768), lawyer and acting district judge

14. Cornelius Paus
Paus
(1726–1799), forest inspector of Upper Telemark

29. Martha Christophersdatter Blom

7. Hedevig Christine Paus
Paus
(1763–1848) (a sister of Johanne Plesner's husband Ole Paus)

30. Ole Falck

15. Christine Falck (1723–1798)

Descendants[edit] From his marriage with Suzannah Thoresen, Ibsen
Ibsen
had one son, lawyer and government minister Sigurd Ibsen. Sigurd Ibsen
Sigurd Ibsen
married Bergljot Bjørnson, the daughter of Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson. Their son was Tancred Ibsen, who became a film director and was married to Lillebil Ibsen; their only child was diplomat Tancred Ibsen, Jr. Sigurd Ibsen's daughter, Irene Ibsen, married Josias Bille, a member of the Danish ancient noble Bille family; their son was Danish actor Joen Bille. Honours[edit] Ibsen
Ibsen
was decorated Knight in 1873, Commander in 1892, and with the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav
Order of St. Olav
in 1893. He received the Grand Cross of the Danish Order of the Dannebrog, and the Grand Cross of the Swedish Order of the Polar Star, and was Knight, First Class of the Order of Vasa.[37] In 1995, the asteroid 5696 Ibsen
Ibsen
was named in his memory. Works[edit]

1850 Catiline (Catilina) 1850 The Burial Mound also known as The Warrior's Barrow (Kjæmpehøjen) 1851 Norma or a Politician's Love (Norma eller en Politikers Kjaerlighed), an eight-page political parody[a] 1852 St. John's Eve (Sancthansnatten) 1854 Lady Inger of Oestraat
Lady Inger of Oestraat
(Fru Inger til Østeraad) 1855 The Feast at Solhaug
The Feast at Solhaug
(Gildet paa Solhaug) 1856 Olaf Liljekrans (Olaf Liljekrans) 1858 The Vikings at Helgeland (Hærmændene paa Helgeland) 1862 Love's Comedy
Love's Comedy
(Kjærlighedens Komedie) 1863 The Pretenders (Kongs-Emnerne) 1866 Brand (Brand) 1867 Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
(Peer Gynt) Translation By William Archer (1911) 1869 The League of Youth (De unges Forbund) 1871 Digte - only released collection of poetry, included Terje Vigen (written in 1862 but published in Digte from 1871) 1873 Emperor and Galilean
Emperor and Galilean
(Kejser og Galilæer) 1877 Pillars of Society (Samfundets Støtter) 1879 A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(Et Dukkehjem) 1881 Ghosts (Gengangere) 1882 An Enemy of the People
An Enemy of the People
(En Folkefiende) 1884 The Wild Duck
The Wild Duck
(Vildanden) 1886 Rosmersholm
Rosmersholm
(Rosmersholm) 1888 The Lady from the Sea
The Lady from the Sea
(Fruen fra Havet) 1890 Hedda Gabler
Hedda Gabler
(Hedda Gabler) 1892 The Master Builder (Bygmester Solness) Translation By Edmund Grosse and William Archer (1893) 1894 Little Eyolf
Little Eyolf
(Lille Eyolf) 1896 John Gabriel Borkman
John Gabriel Borkman
(John Gabriel Borkman) 1899 When We Dead Awaken
When We Dead Awaken
(Når vi døde vaagner)

English translations[edit] The authoritative translation in the English language for Ibsen remains the 1928 ten-volume version of the Complete Works of Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
from Oxford University Press. Many other translations of individual plays by Ibsen
Ibsen
have appeared since 1928 though none have purported to be a new version of the complete works of Ibsen.

Ibsen: The Complete Major Prose Plays (Rolf G. Fjelde, translator. Plume: 1978) Ibsen
Ibsen
- 3 Plays (Kenneth McLeish & Stephen Mulrine, translators. Nick Hern Books: 2005) Ibsen's Selected Plays: A Norton Critical Edition (ed. Brian Johnston, Brian Johnston & Rick Davis, translators. W.W. Norton: 2004)

Adaptations[edit] There have been numerous adaptations of Ibsen's work, particularly in film, theatre and music. Notable are Torstein Blixfjord's Terje and Identity of the Soul - two multimedia, film and dance pieces first presented in Yokohama in 2006, based on the poem Terje Vigen.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Literature portal Biography portal

Book: Henrik Ibsen, playwright

Centre for Ibsen
Ibsen
Studies Ibsen
Ibsen
Studies Naturalism (theatre) Nineteenth-century theatre Problem play

Notes[edit]

^ Though sometimes identified as a play, Norma was never intended for performance. This "juvenile polemical work" was an attack on the Norwegian parliament or Storting, identifying several legislators by name as "fortune hunters". It first appeared anonymously in the satirical magazine Andhrimner.[38] Using play-like dialog and the names of characters from Bellini's opera Norma, Ibsen's hero chooses the "passive" female who represents the government over the heroic title character representing the opposition.[39][40]

References[edit]

^ "Ibsen". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ On Ibsen's role as "father of modern drama", see " Ibsen
Ibsen
Celebration to Spotlight 'Father of Modern Drama'". Bowdoin College. 23 January 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2007. ; on Ibsen's relationship to modernism, see Moi (2006, 1-36) ^ shakespearetheatre.org ^ "Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
– book launch to commemorate the "Father of Modern Drama"".  ^ Bonnie G. Smith, "A Doll's House", in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, Vol. 2, p. 81, Oxford University Press ^ Klaus Van Den Berg, "Peer Gynt" (review), Theatre Journal 58.4 (2006) 684-687 ^ a b Valency, Maurice. The Flower and the Castle. Schocken, 1963. ^ Richard Hornby, Ibsen
Ibsen
Triumphant, The Hudson Review, Vol. 56, No. 4 (Winter, 2004), pp. 685-691 ^ Byatt, AS (15 December 2006). "The age of becoming". The Guardian. London.  ^ "Nomination Database".  ^ Danish language
Danish language
was the written language of both Denmark
Denmark
and Norway at the time, although it was referred to as Norwegian in Norway
Norway
and occasionally included some minor differences from the language used in Denmark. Ibsen
Ibsen
occasionally used some Norwegianisms in his early work, but in his later work wrote a more standardised Danish, as his plays were published by a Danish publisher and marketed to both Norwegian and Danish audiences in the original Danish. Cf. Haugen, Einar (1979). "The nuances of Norwegian". Ibsen's Drama: Author to Audience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. p. 99. ISBN 0-8166-0896-2.  ^ "Henrik Ibsens skrifter".  ^ Haugen (1979: 23) ^ a b c d Michael Meyers. Henrick Ibsen. Chapter one. ^ Theodore Jorgenson (1945). Henrik Ibsen: life and drama. Northfield, Minnesota: St. Olaf College Press ^ Ferguson p. 280 ^ Michael Meyers. Henrik Ibsen, Chapter one. ^ Hans Bernhard Jaeger, Henrik Ibsen, 1828-1888: et literært livsbillede, Copenhagen, Gyldendal, 1888 ^ Michael Meyes. Henrik Ibsen. Chapters corresponding to individual early plays. ^ Shapiro, Bruce. Divine Madness and the Absurd Paradox. (1990) ISBN 978-0-313-27290-5 ^ Downs, Brian. Ibsen: The Intellectual Background (1946) ^ Hanssen, Jens-Morten (10 August 2001). "Facts about Pillars of Society". ibsen.nb.no. Retrieved 8 February 2013.  ^ since 2006 The Ibsen
Ibsen
Museum (Oslo) ^ Michael Meyer, Ibsen
Ibsen
- A Biography, Doubleday 1971, p. 807 ^ norges-bank.no Archived 10 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ norway.sk ^ Mazur, G.O. One Hundrd Year Commemoration to the Life of Henrik Ibsen, Semenenko Foundation, Andreeff Hall, 12, rue de Montrosier, 92200 Neuilly, Paris, France, 2006. ^ Gioia, Michael. "Premiere of Will Eno's Gnit, Adaptation of Peer Gynt Directed by Les Waters, Opens March 17 at Humana Fest" Archived 8 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. playbill.com, 17 March 2013 ^ "Ibsen.nb.no".  ^ " Ibsen
Ibsen
time of the year again - Hindustan Times". 22 November 2012. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2013.  ^ Daftuar, Swati (24 November 2012). "Showcase: Reinventing Ibsen". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 21 December 2013.  ^ Schanke, Robert A. (1988). Ibsen
Ibsen
in America: A Century of Change. Scarecrow Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0810820999. Retrieved 28 January 2018.  ^ Johan Kïelland Bergwitz, Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
i sin avstamning: norsk eller fremmed?, Gyldendal
Gyldendal
Norsk Forlag, 1916 ^ Terje Bratberg. " Ibsen
Ibsen
– norsk slekt". Store norske leksikon.  ^ Henrik Jaeger, Henrik Ibsen. A Critical Biography, Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co., 1891 ^ Bergwitz, Joh. K, Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
i sin avstamning. Norsk eller fremmed?, Nordisk forlag, Gyldendalske boghandel, Christiania and Copenhagen, 1916 ^ Amundsen, O. Delphin (1947). Den kongelige norske Sankt Olavs Orden 1847-1947 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Grøndahl. p. 12.  ^ Jaeger, Henrik Bernhard (1890). The Life of Henrik Ibsen. London: William Heinemann. p. 64. Retrieved 4 April 2015.  ^ Templeton, Joan (1997). Ibsen's Women. Cambridge University Press. p. 340. Retrieved 4 April 2015.  ^ Hanssen, Jens-Morten (10 July 2005). "Facts about Norma". National Library of Norway. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Boyesen, Hjalmar Hjorth, A Commentary on the Works of Henrik Ibsen (New York: Macmillan, 1894) Ferguson, Robert (2001) Henrik Ibsen: A New Biography. New York: Dorset Press. ISBN 0760720940 Goldman, Michael, Ibsen: The Dramaturgy of Fear, Columbia University Press, 1998 Haugan, Jørgen, Henrik Ibsens Metode:Den Indre Utvikling Gjennem Ibsens Dramatikk (Norwegian: Gyldendal
Gyldendal
Norsk Forlag. 1977) Johnston, Brian: The Ibsen
Ibsen
Cycle, Pennsylvania State University Press 1992 Johnston, Brian, To the Third Empire: Ibsen's Early Plays, University of Minnesota Press (1980) Johnston, Brian, Text and Supertext in Ibsen's Drama, Pennsylvania State Press (1988) Koht, Halvdan. The Life of Ibsen
Ibsen
translated by Ruth Lima McMahon and Hanna Astrup Larsen. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York, 1931 Krys, Svitlana, A Comparative Feminist Reading of Lesia Ukrainka’s and Henrik Ibsen’s Dramas. Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 34.4 (Dec. 2007 [Sept 2008]): pp.389-409 Lucas, F. L. The Drama of Ibsen
Ibsen
and Strindberg, Cassell, London, 1962. (A useful introduction, giving the biographical background to each play and detailed play-by-play summaries and discussion for the theatre-goer, including the less well-known plays) Meyer, Michael. Ibsen. History Press Ltd., Stroud, reprinted 2004 Moi, Toril (2006) Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
and the Birth of Modernism: Art, Theater, Philosophy. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP. ISBN 978-0-19-920259-1 Shaw, George Bernard. The Quintessence of Ibsenism (1891). The classic introduction, setting the playwright in his time and place.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henrik Ibsen

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Henrik Ibsen

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Henrik Ibsen.

The Ibsen
Ibsen
Society of America Official Website ibsen.nb.no Ibsen
Ibsen
Studies The only international academic journal devoted to Ibsen Online course by Ibsen
Ibsen
scholar Brian Johnston author of The Ibsen Cycle and To the Third Empire: Ibsen's Early Drama Extensive resource in several languages from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Multilingual edition of all Ibsen
Ibsen
Plays in the Bibliotheca Polyglotta A Chronological List of Henrik Ibsen's Plays and Japanese Translation Digitized books and manuscripts by Ibsen
Ibsen
in the National Library of Norway Ibsen's Influence on Hitler Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
Sculpture Park, Official Website[permanent dead link] Works by Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
at Internet Archive Works by Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
at Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
(the biography by Edmund Gosse) Henrik Ibsen
Ibsen
- A Bibliography of Criticism and Biography, by Ina Ten Eyck Firkins, from Project Gutenberg " Ibsen
Ibsen
and His Discontents" - a critical, conservative view of Ibsen's works, written by Theodore Dalrymple Ibsen
Ibsen
Museum - Former home of the famous playwright is situated in Henrik Ibsen's gate 26, across from the Royal Palace Henrik Ibsen: Critical Studies by Georg Brandes
Georg Brandes
(1899). Retrieved January 5, 2017.

v t e

Henrik Ibsen

Dramas

Catiline The Burial Mound Norma, or A Politician's Love St. John's Eve Lady Inger of Ostrat The Feast at Solhaug Olaf Liljekrans The Vikings at Helgeland The Mountain Bird Love's Comedy The Pretenders Brand Peer Gynt The League of Youth Emperor and Galilean The Pillars of Society A Doll's House Ghosts An Enemy of the People The Wild Duck Rosmersholm The Lady from the Sea Hedda Gabler The Master Builder Little Eyolf John Gabriel Borkman When We Dead Awaken

Poetry

Digte "Terje Vigen"

Related

Ibsen
Ibsen
quotes, Oslo The Oxford Ibsen Centre for Ibsen
Ibsen
Studies

Ibsen
Ibsen
Studies

Ibsen
Ibsen
Museum, Oslo Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
Sculpture Park Norwegian Ibsen
Ibsen
Award International Ibsen
Ibsen
Award Ibsen
Ibsen
Year The Death of Little Ibsen
Ibsen
(2006 play)

v t e

Henrik Ibsen's family

Ancestors and birth relatives

Grandparents Henrich Ibsen, Johanne Plesner, Johan Andreas Altenburg, Hedevig Christine Paus, Ole Paus
Paus
(step grandfather), parents Knud Ibsen
Ibsen
and Marichen Altenburg, sister Hedvig Ibsen, uncles Christian Cornelius Paus, Henrik Johan Paus, Christopher Blom Paus, great-aunt Kristine Cathrine Ploug
Kristine Cathrine Ploug
(née Altenburg), first cousin Ole Paus, nephew Carl Stousland, first cousin once removed Christopher de Paus

Wife, family-in-law and issue

Wife Suzannah Ibsen
Suzannah Ibsen
(née Thoresen), step mother-in-law Magdalene Thoresen, son Sigurd Ibsen, daughter-in-law Bergliot Ibsen
Ibsen
(née Bjørnson), grandson Tancred Ibsen, granddaughter Irene Ibsen
Ibsen
Bille (née Ibsen), grandson's wife Lillebil Ibsen
Ibsen
(née Krohn), great-grandsons Tancred Ibsen
Ibsen
Jr. and Joen Bille, great-great-granddaughters Nora Ibsen
Ibsen
and Beate Bille

See also: Ibsen
Ibsen
family – Related families: Paus, Plesner, Blom, Bille

Associated subjects

v t e

Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1879)

Films

A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1917 silent) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1918 silent) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1922 silent) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1973 Garland film) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1973 Losey film) Sara (1993 Persian-English)

Television

A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1959) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1992)

Other

Nora A Doll's Life A Doll's House, Part 2

v t e

Henrik Ibsen's Hedda Gabler
Hedda Gabler
(1891)

Films

Hedda Gabler
Hedda Gabler
(1920) Hedda Gabler
Hedda Gabler
(1925) Hedda (1975) Hedda Gabler
Hedda Gabler
(2015)

Other

filmography

v t e

Henrik Ibsen's Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
(1876)

Inspirations

Per Gynt Jo Gjende

Films

Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
(1915) Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
(1919) Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
(1934)

Stage

Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
(1938 Egk opera) Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
(1998 play)

Music

Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
(1875 incidental music)

"In the Hall of the Mountain King" "Morning Mood"

Swinging Suites by Edward E. and Edward G.
Swinging Suites by Edward E. and Edward G.
(1961) "Trying To Be Me" (2000)

Other

Bøyg

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 71378383 LCCN: n79070050 ISNI: 0000 0001 2138 5710 GND: 118555286 SELIBR: 205319 SUDOC: 027325032 BNF: cb119081540 (data) BIBSYS: 90061718 ULAN: 500330924 MusicBrainz: ef9e60c9-c738-4f61-8c1d-ece78093a613 NLA: 35217716 NDL: 00444186 NKC: jn19990003874 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV08640 BNE: XX883971 KulturNav: 77da8af9-222f-4cea-8869-1ec51f32da0e RKD: 463

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