Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi
(Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي
حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as
1 Biography 2 Writings 3 Anatomical discoveries
3.1 Pulmonary circulation 3.2 Pulsation 3.3 Lungs 3.4 Coronary circulation
4 Practice of dissection 5 Embryology 6 Philosophy 7 Influences on Ibn-al Nafis and his influence on others
7.1 Possible Western influence
8 Death 9 See also 10 References
10.1 Citations 10.2 Sources
11 External links
The opening page of one of Ibn al-Nafis' medical works. This is
probably a copy made in
The most voluminous of his books is Al-Shamil fi al-Tibb, which was planned to be an encyclopedia comprising 300 volumes, was left incomplete upon his death. The manuscript is available in Damascus. His book on ophthalmology is largely an original contribution. His most famous work is The Summary of Law (Mujaz al-Qanun). Another famous work, also an original contribution, was on the effects of diet on health, entitled Kitab al-Mukhtar fi al-Aghdhiya. His Al-Risalah al-Kamiliyyah fi al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, translated in the West under the title Theologus Autodidactus, is claimed by some to be the first theological novel. He also wrote a number of commentaries on the topics of law and medicine. Commentaries include one on Hippocrates' book, several volumes on Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, and a commentary on Hunayn Ibn Ishaq. Other works include:
Sharh Tabi’at al-Insan li-Buqrat (“Commentary on Hippocrates’
‘Nature of Man’”);
Sharh Tashrih al-Qanun (“Commentary on
In 1924, Egyptian physician, Muhyo Al-Deen Altawi, discovered a
manuscript entitled, Sharh tashrih al-qanun li’ Ibn Sina, or
The blood, after it has been refined in [the right] cavity, must be transmitted to the left cavity where the (vital) spirit is generated. But there is no passage between these cavities, for the substance of the heart is solid in this region and has neither a visible passage, as was thought by some persons, nor an invisible one which could have permitted the transmission of blood, as was alleged by Galen. The pores of the heart there are closed and its substance is thick. Therefore, the blood after having been refined, must rise in the arterious vein [i.e., pulmonary artery] to the lung in order to expand in its volume and and to be mixed with air so that its finest part may be clarified and may reach the venous artery [i.e., pulmonary vein] in which it is transmitted to the left cavity of the heart. This, after having been mixed with the air and having attained the aptitude to generate the [vital] spirit.
He posited that the “pores” of the heart are closed, that there is
no passage between the two chambers, and the substance of the heart is
Elsewhere in this work, he said:
The heart has only two ventricles...and between these two there is absolutely no opening. Also dissection gives this lie to what they said, as the septum between these two cavities is much thicker than elsewhere. The benefit of this blood (that is in the right cavity) is to go up to the lungs, mix with what air is in the lungs, then pass through the arteria venosa to the left cavity of the two cavities of the heart; and of that mixture is created the animal spirit.
"The primary purpose of the expansion and contraction of the heart is to absorb the cool air and expel the wastes of the spirit and the warm air; however, the ventricle of the heart is wide. Moreover, when it expands it is not possible for it to absorb air until it is full, for that would then ruin the temperament of the spirit, its substance and texture, as well as the temperament of the heart. Thus, the heart is necessarily forced to complete its fill by absorbing the spirit."
In describing the anatomy of the lungs,
The lungs are composed of parts, one of which is the bronchi; the second, the branches of the arteria venosa; and the third, the branches of the vena arteriosa, all of them connected by loose porous flesh.
He then added:
The need of the lungs for the vena arteriosa is to transport to it the blood that has been thinned and warmed in the heart, so that what seeps through the pores of the branches of this vessel into the alveoli of the lungs may mix with what there is of air therein and combine with it, the resultant composite becoming fit to be spirit when this mixing takes place in the left cavity of the heart. The mixture is carried to the left cavity by the arteria venosa.
It is also found that "In the lungs, some blood was filtered through
the two tunics (coverings) of the vessel that brought blood to the
lungs from the heart. Ibn al-Nafīs called this vessel the
‘artery-like vein’, but we now call it the pulmonary artery."
Again his [Avicenna's] statement that the blood that is in the right side is to nourish the heart is not true at all, for the nourishment to the heart is from the blood that goes through the vessels that permeate the body of the heart.
Practice of dissection
There is some debate about whether or not
According to his theory,
^ Loukas M, Lam R, Tubbs RS, Shoja MM, Apaydin N (2008). "Ibn al-Nafis
(1210–1288): the first description of the pulmonary circulation". Am
Surg. 74 (5): 440–42. PMID 18481505.
^ a b c Haddad, Sami; Amin A. Khairallah (1936). "A Forgotten Chapter
in the History of the Circulation of Blood". Annals of Surgery 104.1.
104 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1097/00000658-193607000-00001.
PMC 1390327 . PMID 17856795.
^ Patrice Le Floch-Prigent and Dominique Delaval (April 2014). "The
discovery of the pulmonary circulation by Ibn al Nafis during the 13th
century: an anatomical approach". The FASEB Journal. 28.
^ Numan, Mohammed T. (6 August 2014). "Ibn Al Nafis: His Seminal
Contributions to Cardiology". Pediatric Cardiology. 35 (7): 1088–90.
doi:10.1007/s00246-014-0990-7. PMID 25096906.
^ أبو غدة, عبد الفتاح (1984). قيمة الزمن
عند العلماء. مكتب المطبوعات الإسلامية
– الطبعة العاشرة, حلب. p. 73.
^ a b c d Iskandar, Albert Z. Dictionary of Scientific Biography.
^ a b c d e f g h i Fancy, DNayhan. "Ibn Al-Nafīs and Pulmonary
Transit". Qatar National Library. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
^ a b c d "Knowledge of the circulation of the blood from Antiquity
down to Ibn al-Nafis". Hamdard medicus. 37 (1): 24–26. 1994.
^ The Pursuit of Learning in the Islamic World, 610–2003 By Hunt
^ Saints and saviours of Islam, By Hamid Naseem Rafiabadi, p. 295
^ Prioreschi, Plinio (1996). A History of Medicine: Byzantine and
Islamic medicine. Horatius Press. ISBN 9781888456042.
^ a b Said, Hakim Mohammed (1994). "Knowledge of the circulation of
the blood from antiquity down to Ibn al-Nafis". Hamdard Medicus. 37
^ Said, Hakim Mohammed (1994). "Knowledge of the circulation of the
blood from antiquity down to Ibn al-Nafis". Hamdard Medicus. 37 (1):
^ Ubani, Lumumba Umunna (2011). Preventive Therapy in Complimentary
Medicine. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 9781462876877.
^ Nahyan A.G. Fancy (2006), "Pulmonary Transit and Bodily
Resurrection: The Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in
the Works of Ibn al-Nafīs (d. 1288)", pp. 42, 60, Electronic Theses
and Dissertations, University of Notre Dame.
^ Nahyan A.G. Fancy (2006), "Pulmonary Transit and Bodily
Resurrection: The Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in
the Works of Ibn al-Nafīs (d. 1288)", pp. 209–10 (Electronic Theses
and Dissertations, University of Notre Dame).
^ Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn Al-Nafis as a philosopher",
Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic
Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf.
Bayon H. P. (1941). "Significance of the demonstration of the Harveyan circulation by experimental tests". Isis. 33 (4): 443–53. doi:10.1086/358600.
Fancy, Nahyan (2006). Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection: The
Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in the Works of Ibn
al-Nafīs (d. 1288) (Ph.D.). University of Notre Dame. Retrieved 8
Iskandar, Albert Z. (1974). "Dictionary of Scientific Biography". 9:
602–06 contribution= ignored (help)
Said, Hakim Mohammed (1994). "Knowledge of the circulation of the
blood from Antiquity down to Ibn al-Nafis". Hamdard Medicus. 37 (1):
Ghalioungui, P. (1983). "Was
Iskandar, Albert Z. (2008) [1970–80]. "Ibn Al-Nafīs, 'Alā' Al-Dīn Abu 'L-Ḥasan 'Alī Ibn Abi 'L-Ḥazm Al-Qurashī (or Al-Qarashī)". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Encyclopedia.com.
v t e
Al-Harith ibn Kalada and his son Abu Hafsa Yazid Bukhtishu Masarjawaih Ibn Abi Ramtha al-Tamimi Rufaida Al-Aslamia Ibn Uthal
Bukhtishu family Ja'far al-Sadiq
Jabril ibn Bukhtishu
Jābir ibn Hayyān
Hunayn ibn Ishaq
Qusta ibn Luqa Abu ul-Ala Shirazi Abul Hasan al-Tabari Al-Natili Qumri Abu Zayd al-Balkhi Isaac Israeli ben Solomon al-Majusi al-Masihi Muvaffak al-Razi Ibn Juljul al-Jabali Al-Tamimi, the physician al-Zahrawi Ibn al-Jazzar Al-Kaŝkarī Ibn Abi al-Ashʿath Ibn al-Batriq Ibrahim ibn Baks Abu al-Qasim Muqane'i Abu Bakr Bokhari
Abu 'Ubayd al-Juzjani Ibn al-Haytham Al-Biruni Ali ibn Ridwan Avicenna Ephraim ibn al-Za'faran Ibn al-Wafid Ammar Al-Mawsili Abdollah ibn Bukhtishu Ibn Butlan al-Kirmani Ibn al-Kattani Ibn Jazla Masawaih al-Mardini al-Ilaqi Ibn Al-Thahabi Ibn Abi Sadiq Ali ibn Isa al-Kahhal Ibn Hindu
Avempace Abu al-Bayan ibn al-Mudawwar Ahmad ibn Farrokh Ibn Hubal Zayn al-Din Gorgani Maimonides Serapion the Younger Ibn Zuhr Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Israili al-Turjali Averroes Ibn Tufail Al-Ghafiqi Ibn Abi al-Hakam Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī Al-Samawal al-Maghribi Ibn al-Tilmīdh Ibn Jumay‘
Ibn al-Baitar Ibn Ṭumlūs Sa'ad al-Dawla Al-Shahrazuri Rashidun al-Suri As-Suwaydi Amin al-Din Rashid al-Din Vatvat Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon Da'ud Abu al-Fadl Al-Dakhwar Ibn Abi Usaibia Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi Ibn al-Nafis Zakariya al-Qazwini Najib ad-Din-e-Samarqandi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Ibn al-Quff
Ibn al-Akfani Muhammad ibn Mahmud Amuli Al-Nagawri Aqsara'i Zayn-e-Attar Mansur ibn Ilyas Jaghmini Mas‘ud ibn Muhammad Sijzi Najm al-Din al-Shirazi Nakhshabi al-Kazaruni al-Kutubi Ibn Shuayb Ibn al-Khatib Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
Abu Sa'id al-Afif Muhammad Ali Astarabadi Husayni Isfahani Burhan-ud-din Kermani Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu al-Harawi Nurbakhshi Shaykh Muhammad ibn Thaleb
Hakim-e-Gilani Abul Qasim ibn Mohammed al-Ghassani Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf Dawud al-Antaki Sultan Ali Khorasani
The Canon of Medicine
Bimaristan Nur al-Din Bimaristan Al-'Adudi
Ancient Greek medicine
Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval
v t e
Abu Layla al-Muhalhel Adi ibn Zayd Afira bint 'Abbad Al-Fāriʿah bint Shaddād Al-Hujayjah Al-Ḥurqah Al-Khirniq bint Badr Al-Shanfara Al-Nu'man ibn Humaydah 'Alqama ibn 'Abada 'Amir ibn al-Tufayl Amr ibn Kulthum Antarah ibn Shaddad Al-A'sha Harith ibn Hilliza Al-Yashkuri Hatim al-Tai Labīd Laila bint Lukaiz Mahd al-Aadiyya Mu'aqqir Al-Nabigha Imru' al-Qais Samaw'al ibn 'Adiya Tarafa Uthman ibn al-Huwayrith Zuhayr bin Abi Sulma Zuhayr ibn Janab
Al-Akhtal al-Taghlibi Al-Farazdaq Abd al-Hamid al-Katib Fadl Ashsha'ira Hassan ibn Thabit Ibn Abi Hasina Maysun bint Bahdal Jamil ibn Ma'mar Suraqa bin Malik Jarir ibn Atiyah Ka'b bin Zuhayr Al-Khansa Kuthayyir Layla al-Akhyaliyya Suraqah al-Bariqi Qutayla ukht al-Nadr Waddah al-Yaman Yunus Al-Katib Al-Mughanni Zufar ibn al-Harith al-Kilabi Dhu Jadan al-Himyari Dorayd bin Al Soma Qatari ibn al-Fuja'a
Bint al-Mahdī Ibn al-Ahnaf Ibn al-Mu'tazz Abu Firas al-Hamdani Abu Tammam Al-Mudabbir Abu'l-Qasimbal-Maghribi Arib al-Ma'muniyya Al-Asma'i Ahmad al-Tifashi Abu-l-'Atahiya ibn al-'Amid Al-Hamadani Baha' al-din Zuhair Bashar ibn Burd Buhturi Al-Busiri Al-Isfahani Al-Fath ibn Khaqan Al-Hariri of Basra Ibn al-Farid Ibn al-Rumi Ibn Duraid ibn al-Mahdi ibn al-Mudabbir Al-Maʿarri Al-Mutanabbi Abu Nuwas Al-Jahiz Shāriyah Al-Armanazi Aban al-Lahiqi Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani Rabia of Basra Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz Yunus ibn Habib Al-Farahidi Al-Shafi‘i Ibn al-Muqaffa' Al-Mubarrad Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur Safiyya al-Baghdadiyya Al-Zahiri Ibn Qutaybah Dik al-Jinn ‘Inān Abu Ahmad Monajjem Ibn Bakkar Al-Sarī al-Raffā’ Al-Suli Niftawayh Al-Tughrai Laylā bint Ṭarīf Al-Tha'alibi Al-Daylami al-Tawhīdī Al-Sharif al-Radi Ibn Jinni Ibn Hayyus Al-Raghib al-Isfahani Sharif al-Murtaza Al Uyuni Yaqut al-Hamawi Al Suhrawardi Al-Hallaj Usama ibn Munqidh Ibn al-Nafis Ibn 'Adlan
Abū Jaʿfar Al-Rumaikiyya Maria Alphaizuli Ibn Ammar Buthaina Al-Rukuniyya Ḥamda bint Ziyād Ibn Hamdis Ibn Abd Rabbih Ibn al-Abbar Ibn al-Zaqqaq Ibn Amira Ibn Baqi Ibn Bassam Ibn Juzayy Ibn Khafaja Ibn al-Khatib Ibn Quzman Ibn Sahl Ibn Zamrak Ibn Zaydún Lubna of Córdoba Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad ibn Hani al-Azdi Muhya Nazhun Qasmuna Al-Tutili Umm Al-Kiram Yusuf III Yusuf III Ibn Hazm Ibn Arabi al-Shushtari Abu Madyan al-Rundi Ibn al-Arif Ibn Wahbun Ibn Abdun Avempace al-Baji al-Fazazi Ibn al-Yayyab Ibn Jubayr Ibn al-Kattani Ibn Tufail
Ahmad ibn Arabshah Ibn Al Ouardy Al-Busiri Ibn Battuta 'A'isha al-Ba'uniyya Ibn al-Wardi Hamdallah Mustawfi Ibn Nubata al-Nafzawi Ibn Khaldun Al-Qalqashandi Al Helly Al-Mansori Al-Safadi Ibn Danyal Al-Azazi Al-Warraq Al-Nahhas Al-Irbeli Al-Zarif Ibn Sudon al-Hamwi
Al-Nabulsi Ahmed Ben Triki Fuzûlî Yusuf al-Maghribi Shaykh Ali al-Khawas El Baroudy Maruf al Rusafi Nasif al-Yaziji Ibrahim al-Yaziji Jamil Sidqi al-Zahawi Ahmad Faris Shidyaq Naoum Mokarzel Ahmad Rida Ameen Rihani Qustaki al-Himsi al-Kawakibi Suleyman al-Boustani Butrus al-Bustani Ahmad Zaki Pasha Rifa'a al-Tahtawi Abdallah Marrash Francis Marrash Maryana Marrash Hafez Ibrahim Ahmed Shawqi Mikha'il Na'ima Kahlil Gibran Farah Antun Jurji Zaydan May Ziade
Taha Hussein Nawal El Saadawi Naguib Mahfouz Yusuf Idris Sonallah Ibrahim Tawfiq al-Hakim Ahlam Mosteghanemi Mahmoud Darwish Adunis Muhammad al-Maghut Nizar Qabbani Abbās al-Aqqād Mustafa Wahbi al-Tal Said Akl Fayeq Abdul-Jaleel Sinan Antoon Ibrahim Tuqan Emile Habibi Ghassan Kanafani Ghada al-Samman Abdul Rahman Munif Al Gosaibi Echebbi Hanna Mina Colette Khoury Saadallah Wannous Zakaria Tamer Tayeb Salih Leila Aboulela Ihsan Abdel Quddous Alaa Al Aswany Mohamed Choukri Leila Abouzeid Mohammed Bennis Abdellatif Laabi Mohamed Said Raihani Waciny Laredj Tahar Djaout Alifa Rifaat Ali Douagi Youssef Rzouga Salah Jahin Amal Donqol Ahmed Zaki Abu Shadi Hasan Tawfiq Ibrahim al-Mazini al-Jawahiri Safa Khulusi Nazik Al-Malaika Ahmed Matar Al-Bayati al-Sayyab Saadi Yousef Ibrahim Nasrallah Elia Abu Madi Omar Abu Risha Yusuf al-Khal Mourid Barghouti Jabra Ibrahim Jabra Samih al-Qasim Fadwa Tuqan
WorldCat Identities VIAF: 17316331 LCCN: n85331623 ISNI: 0000 0001 1380 3126 GND: 118838555 SELIBR: 191256 SUDOC: 071327665 BNF: cb12442782j (da