The Info List - Ibn Al-Nafis

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Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
(Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab
physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. The work of Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
regarding the right sided (pulmonary) circulation pre-dates the later work (1628) of William Harvey's De motu cordis. Both theories attempt to explain circulation. Apart from medicine, Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
studied jurisprudence, literature and theology. He was an expert on the Shafi'i
school of jurisprudence and an expert physician.[2] He also performed several human dissections during the course of his work.[3] The number of medical textbooks written by Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
is estimated at more than 110 volumes.[4]


1 Biography 2 Writings 3 Anatomical discoveries

3.1 Pulmonary circulation 3.2 Pulsation 3.3 Lungs 3.4 Coronary circulation

4 Practice of dissection 5 Embryology 6 Philosophy 7 Influences on Ibn-al Nafis and his influence on others

7.1 Possible Western influence

8 Death 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Citations 10.2 Sources

11 External links

Biography[edit] Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
was born in Damascus
in an Arab
family[5] and studied medicine at Nuri Hospital in Damascus, which was founded by the Turkish Prince Nur-al Din Muhmud ibn Zanki, in the 12th century. Ibn al-Nafis was taught by the founder of a medical school in Damascus, Al-Dakhwar. Al-Nafis taught and practiced at his own, then lesser known hospital in Egypt. He became the chief physician there and personal physician for prominent political leaders, thus becoming also an authority among practitioners of medicine. Prior to his death, he donated his house and library to Qalawun Hospital or, as it was also known, the House of Recovery. He died on December 17, 1288, in Cairo.[6] In 1236, Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
moved to Egypt
to teach jurisprudence in Cairo at al-Masruriyya (Arabic: المدرسة المسرورية). His name is found among those of other scholars, which gives insight into how well he was regarded in the study and practice of religious law. He wrote Kitab al-Shamil fi ‘l-Sina’a al-Tibbiyya (Comprehensive Book in the Art of Medicine) around his 30s. It comprised 300 volumes of notes, but only 80 of these were published. His writings are cataloged in many libraries around the world, including the Cambridge University Library, the Bodleian Library, and the Lane Medical Library
Lane Medical Library
at Stanford University.[6] Kitab al-Shamil is a book that went unpublished, but gives insight into his view of medicine and human relations. His surgical technique had three stages. Step one was to give the patient information on how it was to be performed and the knowledge it was based on. Second was to perform the surgery itself. The final step was to have a post-surgery appointment and a routine of checkups. There is also a description of a surgeon's responsibility when working with nurses, patients, or other surgeons.[6] Writings[edit]

The opening page of one of Ibn al-Nafis' medical works. This is probably a copy made in India
during the 17th or 18th century.

The most voluminous of his books is Al-Shamil fi al-Tibb, which was planned to be an encyclopedia comprising 300 volumes, was left incomplete upon his death. The manuscript is available in Damascus.[citation needed] His book on ophthalmology is largely an original contribution. His most famous work is The Summary of Law (Mujaz al-Qanun). Another famous work, also an original contribution, was on the effects of diet on health, entitled Kitab al-Mukhtar fi al-Aghdhiya. His Al-Risalah al-Kamiliyyah fi al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, translated in the West under the title Theologus Autodidactus, is claimed by some to be the first theological novel. He also wrote a number of commentaries on the topics of law and medicine. Commentaries include one on Hippocrates' book, several volumes on Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, and a commentary on Hunayn Ibn Ishaq. Other works include:

Sharh Tabi’at al-Insan li-Buqrat (“Commentary on Hippocrates’ ‘Nature of Man’”); Sharh Tashrih al-Qanun (“Commentary on Anatomy
in Books I and II of Ibn Sina’s Kitab al-Qanun”), in four parts: “A Commentary on Generalities,” “A Commentary on Materia Medicine
and Compound Drugs,” “A Commentary on Head-to-Toe Diseases, ” and “A Commentary on Diseases Which Are Not Specific to Certain Organs." Sharh Abidhimya li-Buqrat (“Commentary on Hippocrates’ Endemics); Sharh Masa’il Hunayn (“Commentary on Hunayn [Ibn Ishaq’s] Questions”); al-Muhadhdhab fi ‘l-Kuhl (“Polished Book for Physicians”); Bughyat al-Talibin wa Hujjat al-Mutatabbibn (“Reference Book for Physicians”).[6]

Anatomical discoveries[edit] Pulmonary circulation[edit] In 1924, Egyptian physician, Muhyo Al-Deen Altawi, discovered a manuscript entitled, Sharh tashrih al-qanun li’ Ibn Sina, or "Commentary on Anatomy
in Avicenna's Canon" in the Prussian State Library in Berlin
while studying the history of Arabic
at the medical faculty of Albert Ludwig’s University. This manuscript covers in detail the topics of anatomy, pathology, and physiology. This is the earliest description of pulmonary circulation.[2] The most commonly accepted theory of cardiac function prior to Ibn al-Nafis was that of Galen. Galen
taught that the blood reaching the right side of the heart went through invisible pores in the cardiac septum, to the left side of the heart, where it mixed with air to create spirit, and was then distributed to the body. According to Galen, the venous system was separate from the arterial system except when they came in contact through the unseen pores. The manuscript was translated by Max Meyerhof. It includes critiques of Galen’s theory, including a discussion on the pores of the heart. Based on animal dissection, Galen
hypothesized porosity in the septum in order for blood to travel within the heart as well as additional help on the part of the lungs. However, he could not observe these pores and so thought they were too small to see. “Ibn al-Nafīs's critiques were the result of two processes: an intensive theoretical study of medicine, physics, and theology in order to fully understand the nature of the living body and its soul; and an attempt to verify physiological claims through observation, including dissection of animals.” [7] Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
rejected Galen’s theory in the following passage:[7][8]

The blood, after it has been refined in [the right] cavity, must be transmitted to the left cavity where the (vital) spirit is generated. But there is no passage between these cavities, for the substance of the heart is solid in this region and has neither a visible passage, as was thought by some persons, nor an invisible one which could have permitted the transmission of blood, as was alleged by Galen. The pores of the heart there are closed and its substance is thick. Therefore, the blood after having been refined, must rise in the arterious vein [i.e., pulmonary artery] to the lung in order to expand in its volume and and to be mixed with air so that its finest part may be clarified and may reach the venous artery [i.e., pulmonary vein] in which it is transmitted to the left cavity of the heart. This, after having been mixed with the air and having attained the aptitude to generate the [vital] spirit.

He posited that the “pores” of the heart are closed, that there is no passage between the two chambers, and the substance of the heart is thick. Instead, Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
hypothesized that blood rose into the lungs via the arterial vein and then circulated into the left cavity of the heart.[8] He also believed that blood (spirit) and air passes from the lung to the left ventricle and not in the opposite direction.[8] Some points that conflict with Ibn al-Nafis' are that there are only two ventricles instead of three (Aristotle's, 4th Century BC) and that the ventricle gets its energy from the blood flowing in the vessels running in the coronary vessels, not from blood deposited in the right ventricle.[8] Based on his anatomical knowledge, Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis

from the right chamber of the heart must arrive at the left chamber, but there is no direct pathway between them. The thick septum of the heart is not perforated and does not have visible pores as some people thought or invisible pores as Galen
thought. The blood from the right chamber must flow through the vena arteriosa (pulmonary artery) to the lungs, spread through its substances, be mingled there with air, pass through the arteria venosa (pulmonary vein) to reach the left chamber of the heart, and there form the vital spirit.... [9][10]

Elsewhere in this work, he said:

The heart has only two ventricles...and between these two there is absolutely no opening. Also dissection gives this lie to what they said, as the septum between these two cavities is much thicker than elsewhere. The benefit of this blood (that is in the right cavity) is to go up to the lungs, mix with what air is in the lungs, then pass through the arteria venosa to the left cavity of the two cavities of the heart; and of that mixture is created the animal spirit.

Pulsation[edit] Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
also disagreed with Galen’s theory that the heart's pulse is created by the arteries’ tunics. He believed that "the pulse was a direct result of the heartbeat, even observing that the arteries contracted and expanded at different times depending upon their distance from the heart. He also correctly observed that the arteries contract when the heart expands and expand when the heart contracts.” [7]

"The primary purpose of the expansion and contraction of the heart is to absorb the cool air and expel the wastes of the spirit and the warm air; however, the ventricle of the heart is wide. Moreover, when it expands it is not possible for it to absorb air until it is full, for that would then ruin the temperament of the spirit, its substance and texture, as well as the temperament of the heart. Thus, the heart is necessarily forced to complete its fill by absorbing the spirit."

Lungs[edit] In describing the anatomy of the lungs, Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis

The lungs are composed of parts, one of which is the bronchi; the second, the branches of the arteria venosa; and the third, the branches of the vena arteriosa, all of them connected by loose porous flesh.

He then added:

The need of the lungs for the vena arteriosa is to transport to it the blood that has been thinned and warmed in the heart, so that what seeps through the pores of the branches of this vessel into the alveoli of the lungs may mix with what there is of air therein and combine with it, the resultant composite becoming fit to be spirit when this mixing takes place in the left cavity of the heart. The mixture is carried to the left cavity by the arteria venosa.[2]

It is also found that "In the lungs, some blood was filtered through the two tunics (coverings) of the vessel that brought blood to the lungs from the heart. Ibn al-Nafīs called this vessel the ‘artery-like vein’, but we now call it the pulmonary artery."[7] Coronary circulation[edit] Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
also postulated that nutrients for heart are extracted from the coronary arteries:[11]

Again his [Avicenna's] statement that the blood that is in the right side is to nourish the heart is not true at all, for the nourishment to the heart is from the blood that goes through the vessels that permeate the body of the heart.

Practice of dissection[edit] There is some debate about whether or not Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
participated in dissection to come to his conclusions about pulmonary circulation. Although he states in his writings that he was prevented from practicing dissection because of his beliefs, other scholars have noted that Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
must have either practiced dissection or seen a human heart in order to come to his conclusions.[12] According to one view, his knowledge about the human heart could have been derived from surgical operations rather than dissection.[12] Other comments found in Ibn al-Nafis' writings such as dismissing earlier observations with a reference to dissection as proof, however, support the view that he practiced dissection in order to come to his conclusions about the human heart and pulmonary circulation.[13] Ibn al-Nafis' comments to the contrary and the alternate explanations, however, keep his possible practice of dissection in question. Embryology[edit] Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
also criticized The Galenic theory of generation arguing that neither the female nor the male semen has an active faculty to fashion the embryo[14]:

" Galen
believes that each of the two semen has in it the active faculty to fashion and the passive faculty to be fashioned, however the active faculty is stronger in the male semen while the passive in the female semen. The investigators amongst philosophers believe that the male semen only has the active faculty, while the female only has the passive faculty. ... As for our opinion on this, and God knows best, neither of the two semen has in it an active faculty to fashion."

According to his theory, Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
argues that the combination of the hot male semen along with the female one inside the cool womb, creates a warm mixture that is suitable to receive a human soul. The soul then extends and includes all the organisms as the embryo associated with it develops further and further. Philosophy[edit] Main article: Theologus Autodidactus Ibn al-Nafis' philosophical views are mostly known from his theological novel, Theologus Autodidactus. The novel touches upon a variety of philosophical subjects like cosmology, empiricism, epistemology, experimentation, futurology, eschatology,and natural philosophy. It deals with these themes and others through the story of a feral child on a desert island, and the development of his mind after contact with the outside world. Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
described his book Theologus Autodidactus as a defense of "the system of Islam
and the Muslims' doctrines on the missions of Prophets, the religious laws, the resurrection of the body, and the transitoriness of the world." He presents rational arguments for bodily resurrection and the immortality of the human soul, using both demonstrative reasoning and material from the hadith corpus to prove his case. Later Islamic scholars viewed this work as a response to the metaphysical claim of Avicenna
and Ibn Tufail that bodily resurrection cannot be proven through reason, a view that was earlier criticized by al-Ghazali.[15] Unlike Avicenna
whoe supported Aristotle's idea of the soul originating from the heart, Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
on the other hand rejected this idea and instead argued that the soul "is related to the entirety and not to one or a few organs." He further criticized Aristotle's idea that every unique soul requires the existence of a unique source, in this case the heart. Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
concluded that "the soul is related primarily neither to the spirit nor to any organ, but rather to the entire matter whose temperament is prepared to receive that soul" and he defined the soul as nothing other than "what a human indicates by saying ‘I’."[16] Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
dealt with Islamic eschatology
Islamic eschatology
in some depth in his Theologus Autodidactus, where he rationalized the Islamic view of eschatology using reason and science to explain the events that would occur according to Islamic tradition. He presented his rational and scientific arguments in the form of Arabic
fiction, hence his Theologus Autodidactus may be considered the earliest science fiction work.[17] Influences on Ibn-al Nafis and his influence on others[edit] Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
was most well-known for this work on the pulmonary circulation of the blood. Years before Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
was born, Galenic physiology and anatomy dominated the Arabic
medical tradition from the time of Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq (AD 809–873).[7] Medical authorities at the time seldom challenged the underlying principles of this system.[7] What set Al-Nafis apart as a physician was his boldness in challenging Galen’s work. In studying yet criticizing the Galenic system, he formed his own medical hypotheses. Thus Galen
was a major influence on Al-Nafis' medical work. Avicenna
(AD 980–1037) was another influence, as Avicenna “undertook the first rigorous attempt to align Galenic medicine with a philosophically sound understanding of the nature of the living body, and in so doing modified certain aspects of physiology”.[7] This led Al-Nafis to seek his own understanding of the nature of the living body and its soul through theoretical study of medicine, physics, and theology.[7] Ibn al-Nafis' reform of the entire basis of Galenic medicine laid the foundations for William Harvey’s (AD 1578–1657) theory of blood circulation.[7] Possible Western influence[edit] There is currently debate over whether Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
influenced later Western anatomists such as Realdo Columbo
Realdo Columbo
and William Harvey.[18][19] In AD 1344, Kazrouny wrote a verbatim copy of Ibn al-Nafis' commentary on Canon in his Sharh al-Kulliyat.[20][21] In AD 1500, Andrea Alpago returned to Italy after studying in Damascus.[21][22] In Alpago’s 1547 A.D. publication of Libellus de removendis nocumentis, quae accident in regimime sanitatis, there is a Latin translation containing part of Ibn al-Nafis' commentary on pharmacopeia.[21][22] This was published in Venice during its rule over Padua.[21][22] Harvey arrived in Padua in AD 1597.[21][23] The debate currently turns on whether these events are causally connected or are historical coincidences.[23] Death[edit] Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
died in Cairo
after some days sickness. His student Safi Aboo al-fat'h composed a poem about him. He was wealthy man, and because he was childless and unmarried, his estate devolved to Mansoory's hospital. See also[edit]

List of Arab
scientists and scholars Medicine
in medieval Islam Theologus Autodidactus

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Loukas M, Lam R, Tubbs RS, Shoja MM, Apaydin N (2008). "Ibn al-Nafis (1210–1288): the first description of the pulmonary circulation". Am Surg. 74 (5): 440–42. PMID 18481505.  ^ a b c Haddad, Sami; Amin A. Khairallah (1936). "A Forgotten Chapter in the History of the Circulation of Blood". Annals of Surgery 104.1. 104 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1097/00000658-193607000-00001. PMC 1390327 . PMID 17856795.  ^ Patrice Le Floch-Prigent and Dominique Delaval (April 2014). "The discovery of the pulmonary circulation by Ibn al Nafis during the 13th century: an anatomical approach". The FASEB Journal. 28.  ^ Numan, Mohammed T. (6 August 2014). "Ibn Al Nafis: His Seminal Contributions to Cardiology". Pediatric Cardiology. 35 (7): 1088–90. doi:10.1007/s00246-014-0990-7. PMID 25096906.  ^ أبو غدة, عبد الفتاح (1984). قيمة الزمن عند العلماء. مكتب المطبوعات الإسلامية – الطبعة العاشرة, حلب. p. 73.  ^ a b c d Iskandar, Albert Z. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. pp. 602–06.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Fancy, DNayhan. "Ibn Al-Nafīs and Pulmonary Transit". Qatar National Library. Retrieved 22 April 2015.  ^ a b c d "Knowledge of the circulation of the blood from Antiquity down to Ibn al-Nafis". Hamdard medicus. 37 (1): 24–26. 1994.  ^ The Pursuit of Learning in the Islamic World, 610–2003 By Hunt Janin, Pg99 ^ Saints and saviours of Islam, By Hamid Naseem Rafiabadi, p. 295 ^ Prioreschi, Plinio (1996). A History of Medicine: Byzantine and Islamic medicine. Horatius Press. ISBN 9781888456042.  ^ a b Said, Hakim Mohammed (1994). "Knowledge of the circulation of the blood from antiquity down to Ibn al-Nafis". Hamdard Medicus. 37 (1): 29.  ^ Said, Hakim Mohammed (1994). "Knowledge of the circulation of the blood from antiquity down to Ibn al-Nafis". Hamdard Medicus. 37 (1): 31.  ^ Ubani, Lumumba Umunna (2011). Preventive Therapy in Complimentary Medicine. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 9781462876877.  ^ Nahyan A.G. Fancy (2006), "Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection: The Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in the Works of Ibn al-Nafīs (d. 1288)", pp. 42, 60, Electronic Theses and Dissertations, University of Notre Dame.[1] ^ Nahyan A.G. Fancy (2006), "Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection: The Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in the Works of Ibn al-Nafīs (d. 1288)", pp. 209–10 (Electronic Theses and Dissertations, University of Notre Dame). ^ Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn Al-Nafis as a philosopher", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf. Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
As a Philosopher Archived 2008-02-06 at the Wayback Machine., Encyclopedia of Islamic World). ^ Said, Hakim. "Knowledge of the circulation of the blood from Antiquity down to Ibn al-Nafis", Hamdard medicus,, p. 35, 1994 ^ Ghalioungui, P. "Was Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
unknown to the scholars of the European Renaissance?", Clio medica,, p. 37, 1983 ^ Said, Hakim. "Knowledge of the circulation of the blood from Antiquity down to Ibn al-Nafis", Hamdard medicus,, p32, 1994 ^ a b c d e Ghalioungui, P. "Was Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
unknown to the scholars of the European Renaissance?", Clio medica,, p. 38, 1983 ^ a b c Said, Hakim. "Knowledge of the circulation of the blood from Antiquity down to Ibn al-Nafis", Hamdard medicus,, p. 34, 1994 ^ a b Said, Hakim. "Knowledge of the circulation of the blood from Antiquity down to Ibn al-Nafis", Hamdard medicus,, p. 36, 1994


Works cited

Bayon H. P. (1941). "Significance of the demonstration of the Harveyan circulation by experimental tests". Isis. 33 (4): 443–53. doi:10.1086/358600. 

General references

Fancy, Nahyan (2006). Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection: The Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in the Works of Ibn al-Nafīs (d. 1288) (Ph.D.). University of Notre Dame. Retrieved 8 October 2012.  Iskandar, Albert Z. (1974). "Dictionary of Scientific Biography". 9: 602–06  contribution= ignored (help) Said, Hakim Mohammed (1994). "Knowledge of the circulation of the blood from Antiquity down to Ibn al-Nafis". Hamdard Medicus. 37 (1): 5–37.  Ghalioungui, P. (1983). "Was Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
unknown to the Scholars of the European Renaissance?". Clio medica. 18 (1–4): 37–42. PMID 6085974. 

External links[edit]

has original text related to this article: Ibn al-Nafis

Iskandar, Albert Z. (2008) [1970–80]. "Ibn Al-Nafīs, 'Alā' Al-Dīn Abu 'L-Ḥasan 'Alī Ibn Abi 'L-Ḥazm Al-Qurashī (or Al-Qarashī)". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Encyclopedia.com. 

v t e

in the medieval Islamic world


7th century

Al-Harith ibn Kalada and his son Abu Hafsa Yazid Bukhtishu Masarjawaih Ibn Abi Ramtha al-Tamimi Rufaida Al-Aslamia Ibn Uthal

8th century

Bukhtishu family Ja'far al-Sadiq

9th century

Ali al-Ridha Albubather Bukhtishu family Jabril ibn Bukhtishu Jābir ibn Hayyān Hunayn ibn Ishaq
Hunayn ibn Ishaq
and his son Yusuf Al-Khuri Yahya ibn Sarafyun Al-Kindi Masawaiyh Shapur ibn Sahl al-Tabari Al-Ruhawi Yuhanna ibn Bukhtishu Salmawaih ibn Bunan

10th century

Qusta ibn Luqa Abu ul-Ala Shirazi Abul Hasan al-Tabari Al-Natili Qumri Abu Zayd al-Balkhi Isaac Israeli ben Solomon al-Majusi al-Masihi Muvaffak al-Razi Ibn Juljul al-Jabali Al-Tamimi, the physician al-Zahrawi Ibn al-Jazzar Al-Kaŝkarī Ibn Abi al-Ashʿath Ibn al-Batriq Ibrahim ibn Baks Abu al-Qasim Muqane'i Abu Bakr Bokhari

11th century

Abu 'Ubayd al-Juzjani Ibn al-Haytham Al-Biruni Ali ibn Ridwan Avicenna Ephraim ibn al-Za'faran Ibn al-Wafid Ammar Al-Mawsili Abdollah ibn Bukhtishu Ibn Butlan al-Kirmani Ibn al-Kattani Ibn Jazla Masawaih al-Mardini al-Ilaqi Ibn Al-Thahabi Ibn Abi Sadiq Ali ibn Isa al-Kahhal Ibn Hindu

12th century

Avempace Abu al-Bayan ibn al-Mudawwar Ahmad ibn Farrokh Ibn Hubal Zayn al-Din Gorgani Maimonides Serapion the Younger Ibn Zuhr Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Israili al-Turjali Averroes Ibn Tufail Al-Ghafiqi Ibn Abi al-Hakam Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī Al-Samawal al-Maghribi Ibn al-Tilmīdh Ibn Jumay‘

13th century

Ibn al-Baitar Ibn Ṭumlūs Sa'ad al-Dawla Al-Shahrazuri Rashidun al-Suri As-Suwaydi Amin al-Din Rashid al-Din Vatvat Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon Da'ud Abu al-Fadl Al-Dakhwar Ibn Abi Usaibia Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi Ibn al-Nafis Zakariya al-Qazwini Najib ad-Din-e-Samarqandi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Ibn al-Quff

14th century

Ibn al-Akfani Muhammad ibn Mahmud Amuli Al-Nagawri Aqsara'i Zayn-e-Attar Mansur ibn Ilyas Jaghmini Mas‘ud ibn Muhammad Sijzi Najm al-Din al-Shirazi Nakhshabi al-Kazaruni al-Kutubi Ibn Shuayb Ibn al-Khatib Rashid-al-Din Hamadani

15th century

Abu Sa'id al-Afif Muhammad Ali Astarabadi Husayni Isfahani Burhan-ud-din Kermani Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu al-Harawi Nurbakhshi Shaykh Muhammad ibn Thaleb

16th century

Hakim-e-Gilani Abul Qasim ibn Mohammed al-Ghassani Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf Dawud al-Antaki Sultan Ali Khorasani


Psychology Ophthalmology


Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah The Canon of Medicine Anatomy
Charts of the Arabs The Book of Healing Book of the Ten Treatises of the Eye De Gradibus Al-Tasrif Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi Adab al-Tabib Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyya Al-Hawi Commentary on Anatomy
in Avicenna's Canon


Bimaristan Nur al-Din Bimaristan Al-'Adudi


Ancient Greek medicine


Medical Renaissance Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine
and Sciences

v t e



Namara inscription Pre-Islamic Arabic


Abu Layla al-Muhalhel Adi ibn Zayd Afira bint 'Abbad Al-Fāriʿah bint Shaddād Al-Hujayjah Al-Ḥurqah Al-Khirniq bint Badr Al-Shanfara Al-Nu'man ibn Humaydah 'Alqama ibn 'Abada 'Amir ibn al-Tufayl Amr ibn Kulthum Antarah ibn Shaddad Al-A'sha Harith ibn Hilliza Al-Yashkuri Hatim al-Tai Labīd Laila bint Lukaiz Mahd al-Aadiyya Mu'aqqir Al-Nabigha Imru' al-Qais Samaw'al ibn 'Adiya Tarafa Uthman ibn al-Huwayrith Zuhayr bin Abi Sulma Zuhayr ibn Janab


Early Islamic

Al-Akhtal al-Taghlibi Al-Farazdaq Abd al-Hamid al-Katib Fadl Ashsha'ira Hassan ibn Thabit Ibn Abi Hasina Maysun bint Bahdal Jamil ibn Ma'mar Suraqa bin Malik Jarir ibn Atiyah Ka'b bin Zuhayr Al-Khansa Kuthayyir Layla al-Akhyaliyya Suraqah al-Bariqi Qutayla ukht al-Nadr Waddah al-Yaman Yunus Al-Katib Al-Mughanni Zufar ibn al-Harith al-Kilabi Dhu Jadan al-Himyari Dorayd bin Al Soma Qatari ibn al-Fuja'a

Abbasid era

Bint al-Mahdī Ibn al-Ahnaf Ibn al-Mu'tazz Abu Firas al-Hamdani Abu Tammam Al-Mudabbir Abu'l-Qasimbal-Maghribi Arib al-Ma'muniyya Al-Asma'i Ahmad al-Tifashi Abu-l-'Atahiya ibn al-'Amid Al-Hamadani Baha' al-din Zuhair Bashar ibn Burd Buhturi Al-Busiri Al-Isfahani Al-Fath ibn Khaqan Al-Hariri of Basra Ibn al-Farid Ibn al-Rumi Ibn Duraid ibn al-Mahdi ibn al-Mudabbir Al-Maʿarri Al-Mutanabbi Abu Nuwas Al-Jahiz Shāriyah Al-Armanazi Aban al-Lahiqi Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani Rabia of Basra Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz Yunus ibn Habib Al-Farahidi Al-Shafi‘i Ibn al-Muqaffa' Al-Mubarrad Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur Safiyya al-Baghdadiyya Al-Zahiri Ibn Qutaybah Dik al-Jinn ‘Inān Abu Ahmad Monajjem Ibn Bakkar Al-Sarī al-Raffā’ Al-Suli Niftawayh Al-Tughrai Laylā bint Ṭarīf Al-Tha'alibi Al-Daylami al-Tawhīdī Al-Sharif al-Radi Ibn Jinni Ibn Hayyus Al-Raghib al-Isfahani Sharif al-Murtaza Al Uyuni Yaqut al-Hamawi Al Suhrawardi Al-Hallaj Usama ibn Munqidh Ibn al-Nafis Ibn 'Adlan


Abū Jaʿfar Al-Rumaikiyya Maria Alphaizuli Ibn Ammar Buthaina Al-Rukuniyya Ḥamda bint Ziyād Ibn Hamdis Ibn Abd Rabbih Ibn al-Abbar Ibn al-Zaqqaq Ibn Amira Ibn Baqi Ibn Bassam Ibn Juzayy Ibn Khafaja Ibn al-Khatib Ibn Quzman Ibn Sahl Ibn Zamrak Ibn Zaydún Lubna of Córdoba Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad ibn Hani al-Azdi Muhya Nazhun Qasmuna Al-Tutili Umm Al-Kiram Yusuf III Yusuf III Ibn Hazm Ibn Arabi al-Shushtari Abu Madyan al-Rundi Ibn al-Arif Ibn Wahbun Ibn Abdun Avempace al-Baji al-Fazazi Ibn al-Yayyab Ibn Jubayr Ibn al-Kattani Ibn Tufail

Mamluk era

Ahmad ibn Arabshah Ibn Al Ouardy Al-Busiri Ibn Battuta 'A'isha al-Ba'uniyya Ibn al-Wardi Hamdallah Mustawfi Ibn Nubata al-Nafzawi Ibn Khaldun Al-Qalqashandi Al Helly Al-Mansori Al-Safadi Ibn Danyal Al-Azazi Al-Warraq Al-Nahhas Al-Irbeli Al-Zarif Ibn Sudon al-Hamwi



Al-Nabulsi Ahmed Ben Triki Fuzûlî Yusuf al-Maghribi Shaykh Ali al-Khawas El Baroudy Maruf al Rusafi Nasif al-Yaziji Ibrahim al-Yaziji Jamil Sidqi al-Zahawi Ahmad Faris Shidyaq Naoum Mokarzel Ahmad Rida Ameen Rihani Qustaki al-Himsi al-Kawakibi Suleyman al-Boustani Butrus al-Bustani Ahmad Zaki Pasha Rifa'a al-Tahtawi Abdallah Marrash Francis Marrash Maryana Marrash Hafez Ibrahim Ahmed Shawqi Mikha'il Na'ima Kahlil Gibran Farah Antun Jurji Zaydan May Ziade


Taha Hussein Nawal El Saadawi Naguib Mahfouz Yusuf Idris Sonallah Ibrahim Tawfiq al-Hakim Ahlam Mosteghanemi Mahmoud Darwish Adunis Muhammad al-Maghut Nizar Qabbani Abbās al-Aqqād Mustafa Wahbi al-Tal Said Akl Fayeq Abdul-Jaleel Sinan Antoon Ibrahim Tuqan Emile Habibi Ghassan Kanafani Ghada al-Samman Abdul Rahman Munif Al Gosaibi Echebbi Hanna Mina Colette Khoury Saadallah Wannous Zakaria Tamer Tayeb Salih Leila Aboulela Ihsan Abdel Quddous Alaa Al Aswany Mohamed Choukri Leila Abouzeid Mohammed Bennis Abdellatif Laabi Mohamed Said Raihani Waciny Laredj Tahar Djaout Alifa Rifaat Ali Douagi Youssef Rzouga Salah Jahin Amal Donqol Ahmed Zaki Abu Shadi Hasan Tawfiq Ibrahim al-Mazini al-Jawahiri Safa Khulusi Nazik Al-Malaika Ahmed Matar Al-Bayati al-Sayyab Saadi Yousef Ibrahim Nasrallah Elia Abu Madi Omar Abu Risha Yusuf al-Khal Mourid Barghouti Jabra Ibrahim Jabra Samih al-Qasim Fadwa Tuqan

used to be the lingua franca of the Islamic world. Today it is the official language of the Arab
world, and one of the official languages of Israel, Eritrea, Tanzania
and Chad.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 17316331 LCCN: n85331623 ISNI: 0000 0001 1380 3126 GND: 118838555 SELIBR: 191256 SUDOC: 071327665 BNF: cb12442782j (da