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Ibn Zuhr
Ibn Zuhr
(Arabic: ابن زهر‎; 1094–1162), traditionally known by his Latinized name of Avenzoar, was an Arab
Arab
physician, surgeon, and poet. He was born at Seville
Seville
in medieval Andalusia (present-day Spain), was a contemporary of Averroes
Averroes
and Ibn Tufail, and was the most well-regarded physician of his era.[1] He was particularly known for his emphasis on a more rational, empiric basis of medicine. His major work, Al-Taysīr fil-Mudāwāt wal-Tadbīr ("Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet"), was translated into Latin and Hebrew and was influential to the progress of surgery. He also improved surgical and medical knowledge by keying out several diseases and their treatments. Ibn Zuhr
Ibn Zuhr
performed the first experimental tracheotomy on a goat.[2] He is thought to have made the earliest description of bezoar stones as medicinal items.[3]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Name 1.2 Early life 1.3 Exile and return to Seville

2 Works 3 Pathology 4 Animal testing 5 Identification of Scabies. 6 Legacy 7 Veneration 8 See also 9 Notes 10 Sources 11 External links

Biography[edit] Name[edit] His full name is Abū-Marwān ʻAbd al-Malik ibn Abī al-ʻAlāʼ Ibn Zuhr (أبو مروان عبد الملك بن أبي العلاء بن زهر). His name was Latinized as Avenzoar, Abumeron, Abhomeron, Alomehón or Abhomjeron. Early life[edit] He was born in Seville
Seville
and belonged to the Banu Zuhr family (of Arab origin), which produced six consecutive generations of physicians, and included jurists, poets, viziers or courtiers, and midwives who served under rulers of Al-Andalus.[4][5] He studied medicine with his father, Abu'l-Ala Zuhr (d.1131)[6] at an early age. According to Leo Africanus, ibn Zuhr heard Averroes
Averroes
lecture, and learned physic from him. He was a great admirer of Galen, and in his writings he protests emphatically against quackery and the superstitious remedies of astrologers.[7] Exile and return to Seville[edit] He fell out of favour of with the Almoravid
Almoravid
ruler, 'Ali bin Yusuf bin Tashufin, and fled from Seville. He was however, apprehended and jailed in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
in 1140. Later in 1147 when the Almohad dynasty conquered Seville, he returned and devoted himself to medical practice. He died in Seville
Seville
in 1162. Works[edit] Ibn Zuhr
Ibn Zuhr
wrote three major books:[8]

Kitab al-iqtisad fi Islah Al-Anfus WA al-Ajsad, written in his youth. Kitab al-aghdhiya, on foods and regimen of health, written in exile in Morocco. Kitab al-taysir, his magnum opus and written at the request of his colleague Averroes.

Pathology[edit] Ibn Zuhr
Ibn Zuhr
presented an accurate description of the esophageal and stomach cancers, as well as other lesions.[9][10] Animal testing[edit] Ibn Zuhr
Ibn Zuhr
introduced animal testing as an experimental method of testing surgical procedures before applying them to human patients.[11] Identification of Scabies.[edit] He is the first to record evidence of the Scabies
Scabies
mite, which contributed to the scientific advancement of microbiology.[12] Legacy[edit] The Jewish physician-philosopher Maimonides
Maimonides
admired Ibn Zuhr,[13] describing him as "unique in his age and one of the great sages". He frequently quoted him in his medical texts.[14] He performed medical procedures on animals before doing them on humans to know if they would work. Both his daughter and granddaughter also became physicians, specializing in obstetrics. This was 700 years prior to the first female physicians graduating in the United States.[15] Veneration[edit]

He was depicted on a 1968 stamp from Syria.[16]

See also[edit]

Islamic medicine List of Muslim scientists List of Arab
Arab
scientists and scholars

Notes[edit]

^ Azar 2008, p. 1. ^ Missori, Paolo; Brunetto, Giacoma M.; Domenicucci, Maurizio (7 February 2012). "Origin of the Cannula for Tracheotomy
Tracheotomy
During the Middle Ages and Renaissance". World Journal of Surgery. 36 (4): 928–934. doi:10.1007/s00268-012-1435-1.  ^ Byrne, Joseph P. Encyclopedia of the Black Death. ABC-CLIO. p. 33. ISBN 1598842536.  ^ Azar 2008, p. 1. ^ The Art as a Profession, United States National Library of Medicine ^ Arvide Cambra, L.M. (2015), "Abu l-'Ala' Zuhr, The Quack of Al-Andalus", International Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 99-102. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Avenzoar". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 54.  ^ Azar 2008, p. 3. ^ Tweel, Jan G.; Taylor, Clive R. (25 May 2010). "A brief history of pathology". Virchows Archiv. 457 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1007/s00428-010-0934-4. PMC 2895866 . PMID 20499087.  ^ "2 Early concepts of cancer", 2000, Cancer and metastasis reviews, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 205-205. ^ Hajar, Rachel (1 January 2011). "Animal testing and medicine". Heart Views. 12 (1): 42. doi:10.4103/1995-705X.81548. PMC 3123518 . PMID 21731811.  ^ Microbiology
Microbiology
in islam http://www.diwanalarab.com/spip.php?article34512 ^ Kraemer, Joel L. (2010). Maimonides: The Life and World of One of Civilization's Greatest Minds. Random House of Canada. p. 91. ISBN 0385512007.  ^ Azar 2008, p. 2. ^ " Ibn Zuhr
Ibn Zuhr
and the Progress of Surgery Muslim Heritage". muslimheritage.com. Retrieved 2017-03-15.  ^ Shulman, S.T., M.D. 2002, "Otitis media: Old problem, new problem", Pediatric annals, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 767-768.

Sources[edit]

Azar, Henry (2008). The Sage of Seville: Ibn Zuhr, His Time, and His Medical Legacy. Cairo: American University in Cairo. ISBN 9774161556.  Azar, Henry A. (2008). The Sage of Seville: Ibn Zuhr, His Time, and His Medical Legacy. American Univ in Cairo Press. ISBN 9789774161551. Retrieved 19 May 2013.  Millán, Cristina Álvarez (2005). "Ibn Zuhr". In Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven John; Wallis, Faith. Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. Routledge
Routledge
encyclopedias of the Middle Ages ; v. 11. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415969301. 

External links[edit]

Hamarneh, Sami (2008) [1970-80]. "Ibn Zuhr,Abū Marwān ʿAbd Al-Malik Ibn Abiʿl-ʿAlāʿ (Latin,Abhomjeron or Avenzoar)". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Encyclopedia.com. 

v t e

Medicine in the medieval Islamic world

Physicians

7th century

Al-Harith ibn Kalada and his son Abu Hafsa Yazid Bukhtishu Masarjawaih Ibn Abi Ramtha al-Tamimi Rufaida Al-Aslamia Ibn Uthal

8th century

Bukhtishu family Ja'far al-Sadiq

9th century

Ali al-Ridha Albubather Bukhtishu family Jabril ibn Bukhtishu Jābir ibn Hayyān Hunayn ibn Ishaq
Hunayn ibn Ishaq
and his son Yusuf Al-Khuri Yahya ibn Sarafyun Al-Kindi Masawaiyh Shapur ibn Sahl al-Tabari Al-Ruhawi Yuhanna ibn Bukhtishu Salmawaih ibn Bunan

10th century

Qusta ibn Luqa Abu ul-Ala Shirazi Abul Hasan al-Tabari Al-Natili Qumri Abu Zayd al-Balkhi Isaac Israeli ben Solomon al-Majusi al-Masihi Muvaffak al-Razi Ibn Juljul al-Jabali Al-Tamimi, the physician al-Zahrawi Ibn al-Jazzar Al-Kaŝkarī Ibn Abi al-Ashʿath Ibn al-Batriq Ibrahim ibn Baks Abu al-Qasim Muqane'i Abu Bakr Bokhari

11th century

Abu 'Ubayd al-Juzjani Ibn al-Haytham Al-Biruni Ali ibn Ridwan Avicenna Ephraim ibn al-Za'faran Ibn al-Wafid Ammar Al-Mawsili Abdollah ibn Bukhtishu Ibn Butlan al-Kirmani Ibn al-Kattani Ibn Jazla Masawaih al-Mardini al-Ilaqi Ibn Al-Thahabi Ibn Abi Sadiq Ali ibn Isa al-Kahhal Ibn Hindu

12th century

Avempace Abu al-Bayan ibn al-Mudawwar Ahmad ibn Farrokh Ibn Hubal Zayn al-Din Gorgani Maimonides Serapion the Younger Ibn Zuhr Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Israili al-Turjali Averroes Ibn Tufail Al-Ghafiqi Ibn Abi al-Hakam Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī Al-Samawal al-Maghribi Ibn al-Tilmīdh Ibn Jumay‘

13th century

Ibn al-Baitar Ibn Ṭumlūs Sa'ad al-Dawla Al-Shahrazuri Rashidun al-Suri As-Suwaydi Amin al-Din Rashid al-Din Vatvat Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon Da'ud Abu al-Fadl Al-Dakhwar Ibn Abi Usaibia Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi Ibn al-Nafis Zakariya al-Qazwini Najib ad-Din-e-Samarqandi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Ibn al-Quff

14th century

Ibn al-Akfani Muhammad ibn Mahmud Amuli Al-Nagawri Aqsara'i Zayn-e-Attar Mansur ibn Ilyas Jaghmini Mas‘ud ibn Muhammad Sijzi Najm al-Din al-Shirazi Nakhshabi al-Kazaruni al-Kutubi Ibn Shuayb Ibn al-Khatib Rashid-al-Din Hamadani

15th century

Abu Sa'id al-Afif Muhammad Ali Astarabadi Husayni Isfahani Burhan-ud-din Kermani Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu al-Harawi Nurbakhshi Shaykh Muhammad ibn Thaleb

16th century

Hakim-e-Gilani Abul Qasim ibn Mohammed al-Ghassani Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf Dawud al-Antaki Sultan Ali Khorasani

Concepts

Psychology Ophthalmology

Works

Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah The Canon of Medicine Anatomy Charts of the Arabs The Book of Healing Book of the Ten Treatises of the Eye De Gradibus Al-Tasrif Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi Adab al-Tabib Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyya Al-Hawi Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon

Centers

Bimaristan Nur al-Din Bimaristan Al-'Adudi

Influences

Ancient Greek medicine

Influenced

Medical Renaissance Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences

v t e

Ancient anaesthesia

Plants / animals

Aconitum
Aconitum
(aconite) Atropa belladonna
Atropa belladonna
(belladonna) Cannabis

medical use

Castoreum Coca Conium
Conium
(hemlock) Datura innoxia
Datura innoxia
(thorn-apple) Datura metel
Datura metel
(devil's trumpet) Hyoscyamus niger
Hyoscyamus niger
(henbane) Lactucarium Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
(mandrake) Opium Saussurea
Saussurea
(saw-wort) Willow

People

Abulcasis Avenzoar Avicenna Celsus Dioscorides Galen Hippocrates Rhazes Sabuncuoğlu Sushrutha Theophrastus Zhang

Compounds

Aconitine Atropine Cocaine Coniine Hyoscine Δ9-THC Hyoscyamine Morphine Salicylate

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 273335435 LCCN: n85194395 ISNI: 0000 0001 1804 4632 GND: 102428522 SELIBR: 191284 SUDOC: 073977543 BNF: cb12417647b (data) BNE: XX841

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