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AVICENNA or IBN SīNā (Persian : ابن سینا‎‎; c. 980 – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age
Islamic Golden Age
.

Of the 450 works he is known to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine .

His most famous works are The Book of Healing
The Book of Healing
, a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia , and The Canon of Medicine
The Canon of Medicine
, a medical encyclopedia which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650. In 1973, Avicenna's Canon Of Medicine
Medicine
was reprinted in New York.

Besides philosophy and medicine, Avicenna's corpus includes writings on astronomy , alchemy , geography and geology , psychology , Islamic theology , logic , mathematics , physics and poetry .

CONTENTS

* 1 Name * 2 Circumstances

* 3 Biography

* 3.1 Early life * 3.2 Adulthood * 3.3 Later life and death

* 4 Philosophy
Philosophy

* 4.1 Metaphysical doctrine * 4.2 Argument
Argument
for God\'s existence * 4.3 Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
correspondence * 4.4 Theology
Theology
* 4.5 Thought experiments

* 5 The Canon of Medicine
The Canon of Medicine

* 6 The Book of Healing
The Book of Healing

* 6.1 Earth sciences * 6.2 Philosophy
Philosophy
of science * 6.3 Logic
Logic
* 6.4 Physics * 6.5 Psychology

* 7 Other contributions

* 7.1 Astronomy
Astronomy
and astrology * 7.2 Chemistry * 7.3 Poetry

* 8 Legacy

* 8.1 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance
Renaissance
* 8.2 Modern reception

* 9 Arabic
Arabic
works

* 9.1 List of works

* 10 Persian works * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Sources

* 14 Further reading

* 14.1 Encyclopedic articles * 14.2 Primary literature * 14.3 Secondary literature * 14.4 Medicine
Medicine
* 14.5 Philosophy
Philosophy

* 15 External links

NAME

Avicenna
Avicenna
is a Latin
Latin
corruption of the Arabic
Arabic
patronym Ibn Sīnā (ابن سينا), meaning "Son of Sina", a rare Persian masculine given name of uncertain etymology. However, Avicenna
Avicenna
was not the son, but the great-great-grandson of a man named Sina. His full name was ABū ʿALī AL-ḤUSAYN IBN ʿABD ALLāH IBN AL-ḤASAN IBN ʿALī IBN SīNā (أبو علي الحسين بن عبد الله بن الحسن بن علي بن سينا).

CIRCUMSTANCES

Ibn Sina created an extensive corpus of works during what is commonly known as the Islamic Golden Age, in which the translations of Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
, Persian, and Indian texts were studied extensively. Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
(Mid- and Neo-Platonic , and Aristotelian ) texts translated by the Kindi school were commented, redacted and developed substantially by Islamic intellectuals , who also built upon Persian and Indian mathematical systems , astronomy , algebra , trigonometry and medicine . The Samanid dynasty in the eastern part of Persia
Persia
, Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
and Central Asia
Central Asia
as well as the Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
in the western part of Persia
Persia
and Iraq
Iraq
provided a thriving atmosphere for scholarly and cultural development. Under the Samanids, Bukhara rivaled Baghdad
Baghdad
as a cultural capital of the Islamic world .

The study of the Quran
Quran
and the Hadith
Hadith
thrived in such a scholarly atmosphere. Philosophy, Fiqh
Fiqh
and theology (kalaam ) were further developed, most noticeably by Avicenna
Avicenna
and his opponents. Al-Razi and Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
had provided methodology and knowledge in medicine and philosophy. Avicenna
Avicenna
had access to the great libraries of Balkh
Balkh
, Khwarezm , Gorgan
Gorgan
, Rey , Isfahan
Isfahan
and Hamadan
Hamadan
. Various texts (such as the 'Ahd with Bahmanyar) show that he debated philosophical points with the greatest scholars of the time. Aruzi Samarqandi describes how before Avicenna
Avicenna
left Khwarezm he had met Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
(a famous scientist and astronomer), Abu Nasr Iraqi (a renowned mathematician), Abu Sahl Masihi (a respected philosopher) and Abu al-Khayr Khammar (a great physician).

BIOGRAPHY

EARLY LIFE

Avicenna
Avicenna
was born c. 980 in Afshana, a village near Bukhara
Bukhara
(in present-day Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
), the capital of the Samanids , a Persian dynasty in Central Asia
Central Asia
and Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
. His mother , named Sitāra, was from Bukhara; his father, Abdullāh, was a respected Ismaili
Ismaili
scholar from Balkh
Balkh
, an important town of the Samanid Empire , in what is today Balkh
Balkh
Province , Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. His father worked in the government of Samanid in the village Kharmasain, a Sunni regional power. After five years, his younger brother, Mahmoud, was born. Avicenna
Avicenna
first began to learn the Quran
Quran
and literature in such a way that when he was ten years old he had essentially learned all of them.

According to his autobiography, Avicenna
Avicenna
had memorised the entire Quran
Quran
by the age of 10. He learned Indian arithmetic from an Indian greengrocer,ءMahmoud Massahi and he began to learn more from a wandering scholar who gained a livelihood by curing the sick and teaching the young. He also studied Fiqh
Fiqh
(Islamic jurisprudence) under the Sunni
Sunni
Hanafi
Hanafi
scholar Ismail al-Zahid. Avicenna
Avicenna
was taught some extent of philosophy books such as Introduction ( Isagoge )'s Porphyry (philosopher) , Euclid\'s Elements , Ptolemy\'s Almagest
Almagest
by an unpopular philosopher, Abu Abdullah Nateli, who claimed philosophizing.

As a teenager, he was greatly troubled by the Metaphysics of Aristotle
Aristotle
, which he could not understand until he read al-Farabi\'s commentary on the work. For the next year and a half, he studied philosophy , in which he encountered greater obstacles. In such moments of baffled inquiry, he would leave his books, perform the requisite ablutions , then go to the mosque, and continue in prayer till light broke on his difficulties. Deep into the night, he would continue his studies, and even in his dreams problems would pursue him and work out their solution. Forty times, it is said, he read through the Metaphysics of Aristotle, till the words were imprinted on his memory; but their meaning was hopelessly obscure, until one day they found illumination, from the little commentary by Farabi
Farabi
, which he bought at a bookstall for the small sum of three dirhams. So great was his joy at the discovery, made with the help of a work from which he had expected only mystery, that he hastened to return thanks to God, and bestowed alms upon the poor.

He turned to medicine at 16, and not only learned medical theory, but also by gratuitous attendance of the sick had, according to his own account, discovered new methods of treatment. The teenager achieved full status as a qualified physician at age 18, and found that " Medicine
Medicine
is no hard and thorny science, like mathematics and metaphysics , so I soon made great progress; I became an excellent doctor and began to treat patients, using approved remedies." The youthful physician's fame spread quickly, and he treated many patients without asking for payment.

A number of theories have been proposed regarding Avicenna's madhab (school of thought within Islamic jurisprudence). Medieval
Medieval
historian Ẓahīr al-dīn al-Bayhaqī (d. 1169) considered Avicenna
Avicenna
to be a follower of the Brethren of Purity . On the other hand, Dimitri Gutas along with Aisha Khan and Jules J. Janssens demonstrated that Avicenna was a Sunni
Sunni
Hanafi
Hanafi
. However, the 14th century Shia
Shia
faqih Nurullah Shushtari according to Seyyed Hossein Nasr , maintained that he was most likely a Twelver Shia
Shia
. Conversely, Sharaf Khorasani , citing a rejection of an invitation of the Sunni
Sunni
Governor Sultan Mahmoud Ghazanavi by Avicenna
Avicenna
to his court, believes that Avicenna
Avicenna
was an Ismaili
Ismaili
. Similar disagreements exist on the background of Avicenna's family, whereas some writers considered them Sunni, some more recent writers contested that they were Shia.

ADULTHOOD

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A drawing of Avicenna
Avicenna
from 1271

Ibn Sina's first appointment was that of physician to the emir , Nuh II , who owed him his recovery from a dangerous illness (997). Ibn Sina's chief reward for this service was access to the royal library of the Samanids, well-known patrons of scholarship and scholars. When the library was destroyed by fire not long after, the enemies of Ibn Sina accused him of burning it, in order for ever to conceal the sources of his knowledge. Meanwhile, he assisted his father in his financial labors, but still found time to write some of his earliest works.

When Ibn Sina was 22 years old, he lost his father. The Samanid dynasty came to its end in December 1004. Ibn Sina seems to have declined the offers of Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
, and proceeded westwards to Urgench in modern Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
, where the vizier , regarded as a friend of scholars, gave him a small monthly stipend. The pay was small, however, so Ibn Sina wandered from place to place through the districts of Nishapur
Nishapur
and Merv
Merv
to the borders of Khorasan , seeking an opening for his talents. Qabus , the generous ruler of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
, himself a poet and a scholar, with whom Ibn Sina had expected to find asylum, was on about that date (1012) starved to death by his troops who had revolted. Ibn Sina himself was at this time stricken by a severe illness. Finally, at Gorgan
Gorgan
, near the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
, Ibn Sina met with a friend, who bought a dwelling near his own house in which Ibn Sina lectured on logic and astronomy . Several of Ibn Sina's treatises were written for this patron; and the commencement of his Canon of Medicine
Medicine
also dates from his stay in Hyrcania
Hyrcania
.

Ibn Sina subsequently settled at Rey , in the vicinity of modern Tehran
Tehran
, the home town of Rhazes ; where Majd Addaula , a son of the last Buwayhid emir, was nominal ruler under the regency of his mother ( Seyyedeh Khatun ). About thirty of Ibn Sina's shorter works are said to have been composed in Rey. Constant feuds which raged between the regent and her second son, Shams al-Daula , however, compelled the scholar to quit the place. After a brief sojourn at Qazvin he passed southwards to Hamadãn where Shams al-Daula, another Buwayhid emir, had established himself. At first, Ibn Sina entered into the service of a high-born lady; but the emir, hearing of his arrival, called him in as medical attendant, and sent him back with presents to his dwelling. Ibn Sina was even raised to the office of vizier. The emir decreed that he should be banished from the country. Ibn Sina, however, remained hidden for forty days in sheikh Ahmed Fadhel's house, until a fresh attack of illness induced the emir to restore him to his post. Even during this perturbed time, Ibn Sina persevered with his studies and teaching. Every evening, extracts from his great works, the Canon and the Sanatio, were dictated and explained to his pupils. On the death of the emir, Ibn Sina ceased to be vizier and hid himself in the house of an apothecary , where, with intense assiduity, he continued the composition of his works.

Meanwhile, he had written to Abu Ya'far, the prefect of the dynamic city of Isfahan
Isfahan
, offering his services. The new emir of Hamadan, hearing of this correspondence and discovering where Ibn Sina was hiding, incarcerated him in a fortress. War meanwhile continued between the rulers of Isfahan
Isfahan
and Hamadãn; in 1024 the former captured Hamadan
Hamadan
and its towns, expelling the Tajik mercenaries. When the storm had passed, Ibn Sina returned with the emir to Hamadan, and carried on his literary labors. Later, however, accompanied by his brother, a favorite pupil, and two slaves, Ibn Sina escaped from the city in the dress of a Sufi
Sufi
ascetic . After a perilous journey, they reached Isfahan, receiving an honorable welcome from the prince.

LATER LIFE AND DEATH

The first page of a manuscript of Avicenna's Canon, dated 1596/7 (Yale, Medical Historical Library, Cushing Arabic
Arabic
ms. 5) Gravestone of Avicenna, Hamedan
Hamedan
, Iran
Iran

The remaining ten or twelve years of Ibn Sīnā's life were spent in the service of the Kakuyid
Kakuyid
ruler Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar (also known as Ala al-Dawla), whom he accompanied as physician and general literary and scientific adviser, even in his numerous campaigns.

During these years he began to study literary matters and philology , instigated, it is asserted, by criticisms on his style. A severe colic , which seized him on the march of the army against Hamadan, was checked by remedies so violent that Ibn Sina could scarcely stand. On a similar occasion the disease returned; with difficulty he reached Hamadan, where, finding the disease gaining ground, he refused to keep up the regimen imposed, and resigned himself to his fate.

His friends advised him to slow down and take life moderately. He refused, however, stating that: "I prefer a short life with width to a narrow one with length". On his deathbed remorse seized him; he bestowed his goods on the poor, restored unjust gains, freed his slaves, and read through the Quran
Quran
every three days until his death. He died in June 1037, in his fifty-eighth year, in the month of Ramadan
Ramadan
and was buried in Hamadan
Hamadan
, Iran.

PHILOSOPHY

Ibn Sīnā wrote extensively on early Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
, especially the subjects logic , ethics , and metaphysics , including treatises named Logic
Logic
and Metaphysics. Most of his works were written in Arabic – then the language of science in the Middle East – and some in Persian. Of linguistic significance even to this day are a few books that he wrote in nearly pure Persian language
Persian language
(particularly the Danishnamah-yi 'Ala', Philosophy
Philosophy
for Ala' ad-Dawla'). Ibn Sīnā's commentaries on Aristotle
Aristotle
often criticized the philosopher, encouraging a lively debate in the spirit of ijtihad .

Avicenna's Neoplatonic scheme of "emanations" became fundamental in the Kalam
Kalam
(school of theological discourse) in the 12th century.

His Book of Healing became available in Europe in partial Latin translation some fifty years after its composition, under the title Sufficientia, and some authors have identified a " Latin
Latin
Avicennism" as flourishing for some time, paralleling the more influential Latin Averroism , but suppressed by the Parisian decrees of 1210 and 1215 . Avicenna's psychology and theory of knowledge influenced William of Auvergne, Bishop of Paris and Albertus Magnus
Albertus Magnus
, while his metaphysics influenced the thought of Thomas Aquinas .

METAPHYSICAL DOCTRINE

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Early Islamic philosophy
Early Islamic philosophy
and Islamic metaphysics , imbued as it is with Islamic theology
Islamic theology
, distinguishes more clearly than Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
between essence and existence. Whereas existence is the domain of the contingent and the accidental, essence endures within a being beyond the accidental. The philosophy of Ibn Sīnā, particularly that part relating to metaphysics, owes much to al-Farabi. The search for a definitive Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
separate from Occasionalism can be seen in what is left of his work.

Following al-Farabi's lead, Avicenna
Avicenna
initiated a full-fledged inquiry into the question of being, in which he distinguished between essence (Mahiat) and existence (Wujud). He argued that the fact of existence can not be inferred from or accounted for by the essence of existing things, and that form and matter by themselves cannot interact and originate the movement of the universe or the progressive actualization of existing things. Existence must, therefore, be due to an agent-cause that necessitates, imparts, gives, or adds existence to an essence. To do so, the cause must be an existing thing and coexist with its effect.

Avicenna's consideration of the essence-attributes question may be elucidated in terms of his ontological analysis of the modalities of being; namely impossibility, contingency, and necessity. Avicenna argued that the impossible being is that which cannot exist, while the contingent in itself (mumkin bi-dhatihi) has the potentiality to be or not to be without entailing a contradiction. When actualized, the contingent becomes a 'necessary existent due to what is other than itself' (wajib al-wujud bi-ghayrihi). Thus, contingency-in-itself is potential beingness that could eventually be actualized by an external cause other than itself. The metaphysical structures of necessity and contingency are different. Necessary being due to itself (wajib al-wujud bi-dhatihi) is true in itself, while the contingent being is 'false in itself' and 'true due to something else other than itself'. The necessary is the source of its own being without borrowed existence. It is what always exists.

The Necessary exists 'due-to-Its-Self', and has no quiddity/essence (mahiyya) other than existence (wujud). Furthermore, It is 'One' (wahid ahad) since there cannot be more than one 'Necessary-Existent-due-to-Itself' without differentia (fasl) to distinguish them from each other. Yet, to require differentia entails that they exist 'due-to-themselves' as well as 'due to what is other than themselves'; and this is contradictory. However, if no differentia distinguishes them from each other, then there is no sense in which these 'Existents' are not one and the same. Avicenna
Avicenna
adds that the 'Necessary-Existent-due-to-Itself' has no genus (jins), nor a definition (hadd), nor a counterpart (nadd), nor an opposite (did), and is detached (bari) from matter (madda), quality (kayf), quantity (kam), place (ayn), situation (wad), and time (waqt).

Avicenna's theology on metaphysical issues (ilāhiyyāt) has been criticized by some Islamic scholars, among them al-Ghazali , Ibn Taymiyya , and Ibn al-Qayyim . While discussing the views of the theists among the Greek philosophers, namely Socrates
Socrates
, Plato
Plato
, and Aristotle
Aristotle
in Al-Munqidh min ad-Dalal ("Deliverance from Error"), al-Ghazali noted that the Greek philosophers "must be taxed with unbelief, as must their partisans among the Muslim philosophers, such as Ibn Sina and al- Farabi
Farabi
and their likes." He added that "None, however, of the Muslim philosophers engaged so much in transmitting Aristotle's lore as did the two men just mentioned. The sum of what we regard as the authentic philosophy of Aristotle, as transmitted by al- Farabi
Farabi
and Ibn Sina, can be reduced to three parts: a part which must be branded as unbelief; a part which must be stigmatized as innovation; and a part which need not be repudiated at all.

ARGUMENT FOR GOD\'S EXISTENCE

Main article: Proof of the Truthful
Proof of the Truthful

Avicenna
Avicenna
made an argument for the existence of God which would be known as the " Proof of the Truthful
Proof of the Truthful
" ( Arabic
Arabic
: al-burhan al-siddiqin). Avicenna
Avicenna
argued that there must be a "necessary existent" (Arabic: wajib al-wujud), an entity that cannot not exist, and through a series of argument, he identified it with God of Islam . Present-day historian of philosophy Peter Adamson called this argument one of the most influential medieval arguments for God's existence, and Avicenna's biggest contribution to the history of philosophy.

AL-BIRUNI CORRESPONDENCE

Correspondence between Ibn Sina (with his student Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Ma'sumi) and Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
has survived in which they debated Aristotelian natural philosophy and the Peripatetic school
Peripatetic school
. Abu Rayhan began by asking Avicenna
Avicenna
eighteen questions, ten of which were criticisms of Aristotle's On the Heavens
On the Heavens
.

THEOLOGY

Avicenna
Avicenna
was a devout Muslim and sought to reconcile rational philosophy with Islamic theology. His aim was to prove the existence of God and His creation of the world scientifically and through reason and logic . Avicenna's views on Islamic theology
Islamic theology
(and philosophy) were enormously influential, forming part of the core of the curriculum at Islamic religious schools until the 19th century. Avicenna
Avicenna
wrote a number of short treatises dealing with Islamic theology. These included treatises on the prophets (whom he viewed as "inspired philosophers"), and also on various scientific and philosophical interpretations of the Quran, such as how Quranic cosmology corresponds to his own philosophical system. In general these treatises linked his philosophical writings to Islamic religious ideas; for example, the body's afterlife.

There are occasional brief hints and allusions in his longer works however that Avicenna
Avicenna
considered philosophy as the only sensible way to distinguish real prophecy from illusion. He did not state this more clearly because of the political implications of such a theory, if prophecy could be questioned, and also because most of the time he was writing shorter works which concentrated on explaining his theories on philosophy and theology clearly, without digressing to consider epistemological matters which could only be properly considered by other philosophers.

Later interpretations of Avicenna's philosophy split into three different schools; those (such as al-Tusi ) who continued to apply his philosophy as a system to interpret later political events and scientific advances; those (such as al-Razi ) who considered Avicenna's theological works in isolation from his wider philosophical concerns; and those (such as al-Ghazali ) who selectively used parts of his philosophy to support their own attempts to gain greater spiritual insights through a variety of mystical means. It was the theological interpretation championed by those such as al-Razi which eventually came to predominate in the madrasahs .

Avicenna
Avicenna
memorized the Quran
Quran
by the age of ten, and as an adult, he wrote five treatises commenting on suras from the Quran. One of these texts included the Proof of Prophecies, in which he comments on several Quranic verses and holds the Quran
Quran
in high esteem. Avicenna argued that the Islamic prophets should be considered higher than philosophers.

THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS

Main article: floating man

While he was imprisoned in the castle of Fardajan near Hamadhan, Avicenna
Avicenna
wrote his famous "Floating Man " – literally falling man – thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantiality and immateriality of the soul. Avicenna
Avicenna
believed his "Floating Man" thought experiment demonstrated that the soul is a substance, and claimed humans cannot doubt their own consciousness, even in a situation that prevents all sensory data input. The thought experiment told its readers to imagine themselves created all at once while suspended in the air, isolated from all sensations, which includes no sensory contact with even their own bodies. He argued that, in this scenario, one would still have self-consciousness . Because it is conceivable that a person, suspended in air while cut off from sense experience , would still be capable of determining his own existence, the thought experiment points to the conclusions that the soul is a perfection, independent of the body, and an immaterial substance. The conceivability of this "Floating Man" indicates that the soul is perceived intellectually, which entails the soul's separateness from the body. Avicenna
Avicenna
referred to the living human intelligence , particularly the active intellect , which he believed to be the hypostasis by which God communicates truth to the human mind and imparts order and intelligibility to nature . Following is an English translation of the argument:

One of us (i.e. a human being) should be imagined as having been created in a single stroke; created perfect and complete but with his vision obscured so that he cannot perceive external entities; created falling through air or a void, in such a manner that he is not struck by the firmness of the air in any way that compels him to feel it, and with his limbs separated so that they do not come in contact with or touch each other. Then contemplate the following: can he be assured of the existence of himself? He does not have any doubt in that his self exists, without thereby asserting that he has any exterior limbs, nor any internal organs, neither heart nor brain, nor any one of the exterior things at all; but rather he can affirm the existence of himself, without thereby asserting there that this self has any extension in space. Even if it were possible for him in that state to imagine a hand or any other limb, he would not imagine it as being a part of his self, nor as a condition for the existence of that self; for as you know that which is asserted is different from that which is not asserted, and that which is inferred is different from that which is not inferred. Therefore the self, the existence of which has been asserted, is a unique characteristic, in as much that it is not as such the same as the body or the limbs, which have not been ascertained. Thus that which is ascertained (i.e. the self), does have a way of being sure of the existence of the soul as something other than the body, even something non-bodily; this he knows, this he should understand intuitively, if it is that he is ignorant of it and needs to be beaten with a stick . — Ibn Sina, Kitab Al-Shifa, On the Soul

However, Avicenna
Avicenna
posited the brain as the place where reason interacts with sensation. Sensation prepares the soul to receive rational concepts from the universal Agent Intellect. The first knowledge of the flying person would be "I am," affirming his or her essence. That essence could not be the body, obviously, as the flying person has no sensation. Thus, the knowledge that "I am" is the core of a human being: the soul exists and is self-aware. Avicenna
Avicenna
thus concluded that the idea of the self is not logically dependent on any physical thing , and that the soul should not be seen in relative terms , but as a primary given, a substance . The body is unnecessary; in relation to it, the soul is its perfection. In itself, the soul is an immaterial substance.

THE CANON OF MEDICINE

Main article: The Canon of Medicine
The Canon of Medicine
12th-century manuscript of the Canon, kept at the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
.

Avicenna
Avicenna
authored a five-volume medical encyclopedia: The Canon of Medicine
Medicine
(Al-Qanun fi't-Tibb). It was used as the standard medical textbook in the Islamic world and Europe up to the 18th century. The Canon still plays an important role in Unani medicine .

THE BOOK OF HEALING

Main article: The Book of Healing
The Book of Healing

THIS SECTION SHOULD INCLUDE ONLY A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE BOOK OF HEALING . See:Summary style for information on how to properly incorporate it into this article's main text. (July 2016)

EARTH SCIENCES

Ibn Sīnā wrote on Earth sciences such as geology in The Book of Healing. While discussing the formation of mountains , he explained:

Either they are the effects of upheavals of the crust of the earth, such as might occur during a violent earthquake, or they are the effect of water, which, cutting itself a new route, has denuded the valleys, the strata being of different kinds, some soft, some hard ... It would require a long period of time for all such changes to be accomplished, during which the mountains themselves might be somewhat diminished in size.

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

In the Al-Burhan (On Demonstration) section of The Book of Healing, Avicenna
Avicenna
discussed the philosophy of science and described an early scientific method of inquiry . He discusses Aristotle's Posterior Analytics and significantly diverged from it on several points. Avicenna
Avicenna
discussed the issue of a proper methodology for scientific inquiry and the question of "How does one acquire the first principles of a science?" He asked how a scientist would arrive at "the initial axioms or hypotheses of a deductive science without inferring them from some more basic premises?" He explains that the ideal situation is when one grasps that a "relation holds between the terms, which would allow for absolute, universal certainty." Avicenna
Avicenna
then adds two further methods for arriving at the first principles : the ancient Aristotelian method of induction (istiqra), and the method of examination and experimentation (tajriba). Avicenna
Avicenna
criticized Aristotelian induction, arguing that "it does not lead to the absolute, universal, and certain premises that it purports to provide." In its place, he develops a "method of experimentation as a means for scientific inquiry."

LOGIC

An early formal system of temporal logic was studied by Avicenna. Although he did not develop a real theory of temporal propositions, he did study the relationship between temporalis and the implication. Avicenna's work was further developed by Najm al-Dīn al-Qazwīnī al-Kātibī and became the dominant system of Islamic logic until modern times. Avicennian logic also influenced several early European logicians such as Albertus Magnus
Albertus Magnus
and William of Ockham
William of Ockham
. Avicenna
Avicenna
endorsed the law of noncontradiction proposed by Aristotle, that a fact could not be both true and false at the same time and in the same sense of the terminology used. He stated, "Anyone who denies the law of noncontradiction should be beaten and burned until he admits that to be beaten is not the same as not to be beaten, and to be burned is not the same as not to be burned."

PHYSICS

In mechanics , Ibn Sīnā, in The Book of Healing, developed a theory of motion , in which he made a distinction between the inclination (tendency to motion) and force of a projectile , and concluded that motion was a result of an inclination (mayl) transferred to the projectile by the thrower, and that projectile motion in a vacuum would not cease. He viewed inclination as a permanent force whose effect is dissipated by external forces such as air resistance .

The theory of motion presented by Avicenna
Avicenna
was probably influenced by the 6th-century Alexandrian scholar John Philoponus . Avicenna's is a less sophisticated variant of the theory of impetus developed by Buridan
Buridan
in the 14th century. It is unclear if Buridan
Buridan
was influenced by Avicenna, or by Philoponus directly.

In optics , Ibn Sina was among those who argued that light had a speed, observing that "if the perception of light is due to the emission of some sort of particles by a luminous source, the speed of light must be finite." He also provided a wrong explanation of the rainbow phenomenon. Carl Benjamin Boyer described Avicenna's ("Ibn Sīnā") theory on the rainbow as follows:

Independent observation had demonstrated to him that the bow is not formed in the dark cloud but rather in the very thin mist lying between the cloud and the sun or observer. The cloud, he thought, serves simply as the background of this thin substance, much as a quicksilver lining is placed upon the rear surface of the glass in a mirror. Ibn Sīnā would change the place not only of the bow, but also of the color formation, holding the iridescence to be merely a subjective sensation in the eye.

In 1253, a Latin
Latin
text entitled Speculum Tripartitum stated the following regarding Avicenna's theory on heat :

Avicenna
Avicenna
says in his book of heaven and earth, that heat is generated from motion in external things.

PSYCHOLOGY

Avicenna's legacy in classical psychology is primarily embodied in the Kitab al-nafs parts of his Kitab al-shifa (The Book of Healing) and Kitab al-najat (The Book of Deliverance). These were known in Latin
Latin
under the title De Anima (treatises "on the soul"). Notably, Avicenna
Avicenna
develops what is called the "flying man" argument in the Psychology of The Cure I.1.7 as defense of the argument that the soul is without quantitative extension, which has an affinity with Descartes\'s cogito argument (or what phenomenology designates as a form of an "epoche").

Avicenna's psychology requires that connection between the body and soul be strong enough to ensure the soul's individuation, but weak enough to allow for its immortality. Avicenna
Avicenna
grounds his psychology on physiology, which means his account of the soul is one that deals almost entirely with the natural science of the body and its abilities of perception. Thus, the philosopher's connection between the soul and body is explained almost entirely by his understanding of perception; in this way, bodily perception interrelates with the immaterial human intellect. In sense perception, the perceiver senses the form of the object; first, by perceiving features of the object by our external senses. This sensory information is supplied to the internal senses, which merge all the pieces into a whole, unified conscious experience. This process of perception and abstraction is the nexus of the soul and body, for the material body may only perceive material objects, while the immaterial soul may only receive the immaterial, universal forms. The way the soul and body interact in the final abstraction of the universal from the concrete particular is the key to their relationship and interaction, which takes place in the physical body.

The soul completes the action of intellection by accepting forms that have been abstracted from matter. This process requires a concrete particular (material) to be abstracted into the universal intelligible (immaterial). The material and immaterial interact through the Active Intellect, which is a "divine light" containing the intelligible forms. The Active Intellect reveals the universals concealed in material objects much like the sun makes color available to our eyes.

OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS

ASTRONOMY AND ASTROLOGY

Avicenna
Avicenna
wrote an attack on astrology titled Resāla fī ebṭāl aḥkām al-nojūm, in which he cited passages from the Quran
Quran
to dispute the power of astrology to foretell the future. He believed that each planet had some influence on the earth, but argued against astrologers being able to determine the exact effects.

Avicenna's astronomical writings had some influence on later writers, although in general his work could be considered less developed than Alhazen
Alhazen
or Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
. One important feature of his writing is that he considers mathematical astronomy as a separate discipline to astrology. He criticized Aristotle's view of the stars receiving their light from the Sun
Sun
, stating that the stars are self-luminous, and believed that the planets are also self-luminous. He claimed to have observed Venus as a spot on the Sun
Sun
. This is possible, as there was a transit on May 24, 1032, but Avicenna
Avicenna
did not give the date of his observation, and modern scholars have questioned whether he could have observed the transit from his location at that time; he may have mistaken a sunspot for Venus. He used his transit observation to help establish that Venus was, at least sometimes, below the Sun
Sun
in Ptolemaic cosmology, i.e. the sphere of Venus comes before the sphere of the Sun
Sun
when moving out from the Earth in the prevailing geocentric model.

He also wrote the Summary of the Almagest, (based on Ptolemy\'s Almagest
Almagest
), with an appended treatise "to bring that which is stated in the Almagest
Almagest
and what is understood from Natural Science into conformity". For example, Avicenna
Avicenna
considers the motion of the solar apogee , which Ptolemy
Ptolemy
had taken to be fixed.

CHEMISTRY

Ibn Sīnā invented steam distillation and used it to produce essential oils such as rose essence, forming the foundation of what later became aromatherapy .

Unlike, for example, al-Razi, Ibn Sīnā explicitly disputed the theory of the transmutation of substances commonly believed by alchemists :

Those of the chemical craft know well that no change can be effected in the different species of substances, though they can produce the appearance of such change.

Four works on alchemy attributed to Avicenna
Avicenna
were translated into Latin
Latin
as:

* Liber Aboali Abincine de Anima in arte Alchemiae * Declaratio Lapis physici Avicennae filio sui Aboali * Avicennae de congelatione et conglutinatione lapidum * Avicennae ad Hasan Regem epistola de Re recta

Liber Aboali Abincine de Anima in arte Alchemiae was the most influential, having influenced later medieval chemists and alchemists such as Vincent of Beauvais
Vincent of Beauvais
. However Anawati argues (following Ruska) that the de Anima is a fake by a Spanish author. Similarly the Declaratio is believed not to be actually by Avicenna. The third work (The Book of Minerals) is agreed to be Avicenna's writing, adapted from the Kitab al-Shifa (Book of the Remedy). Ibn Sina classified minerals into stones, fusible substances, sulfurs, and salts, building on the ideas of Aristotle
Aristotle
and Jabir. The epistola de Re recta is somewhat less sceptical of alchemy; Anawati argues that it is by Avicenna, but written earlier in his career when he had not yet firmly decided that transmutation was impossible.

POETRY

Almost half of Ibn Sīnā's works are versified. His poems appear in both Arabic
Arabic
and Persian. As an example, Edward Granville Browne claims that the following Persian verses are incorrectly attributed to Omar Khayyám , and were originally written by Ibn Sīnā:

از قعر گل سیاه تا اوج زحل کردم همه مشکلات گیتی را حل بیرون جستم زقید هر مکر و حیل هر بند گشاده شد مگر بند اجل‎

Up from Earth's Centre through the Seventh Gate, I rose, and on the Throne of Saturn sate, And many Knots unravel'd by the Road, But not the Master-Knot of Human Fate.

LEGACY

MIDDLE AGES AND RENAISSANCE

Inside view of the Avicenna
Avicenna
Mausoleum, designed by Hooshang Seyhoun in 1945–1950.

As early as the 13th century when Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
depicted him in Limbo alongside the virtuous non-Christian thinkers in his Divine Comedy such as Virgil
Virgil
, Averroes
Averroes
, Homer
Homer
, Horace
Horace
, Ovid
Ovid
, Lucan , Socrates
Socrates
, Plato
Plato
, and Saladin
Saladin
, Avicenna
Avicenna
has been recognized by both East and West, as one of the great figures in intellectual history.

George Sarton , the author of The History of Science, described Ibn Sīnā as "one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history" and called him "the most famous scientist of Islam and one of the most famous of all races, places, and times." He was one of the Islamic world's leading writers in the field of medicine. Along with Rhazes , Abulcasis , Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
, and al-Ibadi , Ibn Sīnā is considered an important compiler of early Muslim medicine. He is remembered in the Western history of medicine as a major historical figure who made important contributions to medicine and the European Renaissance
Renaissance
. His medical texts were unusual in that where controversy existed between Galen
Galen
and Aristotle's views on medical matters (such as anatomy), he preferred to side with Aristotle, where necessary updating Aristotle's position to take into account post-Aristotelian advances in anatomical knowledge. Aristotle's dominant intellectual influence among medieval European scholars meant that Avicenna's linking of Galen's medical writings with Aristotle's philosophical writings in the Canon of Medicine
Medicine
(along with its comprehensive and logical organisation of knowledge) significantly increased Avicenna's importance in medieval Europe in comparison to other Islamic writers on medicine. His influence following translation of the Canon was such that from the early fourteenth to the mid-sixteenth centuries he was ranked with Hippocrates
Hippocrates
and Galen
Galen
as one of the acknowledged authorities, princeps medicorum ("prince of physicians").

MODERN RECEPTION

In modern Iran
Iran
, he is considered a national icon, and is often regarded as one of the greatest Persians to have ever lived. A monument was erected outside the Bukhara
Bukhara
museum. The Avicenna Mausoleum and Museum in Hamadan
Hamadan
was built in 1952. Bu-Ali Sina University
University
in Hamadan
Hamadan
(Iran), Avicenna Research Institute in Tehran (Iran), the ibn Sīnā Tajik State Medical University
University
in Dushanbe
Dushanbe
, Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval
Medieval
Medicine
Medicine
and Sciences at Aligarh
Aligarh
, India , Avicenna
Avicenna
School
School
in Karachi
Karachi
and Avicenna Medical College in Lahore
Lahore
, Pakistan
Pakistan
Ibne Sina Balkh
Balkh
Medical School
School
in his native province of Balkh
Balkh
in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Ibni Sina Faculty Of Medicine
Medicine
of Ankara University
University
Ankara
Ankara
, Turkey
Turkey
and Ibn Sina Integrated School
School
in Marawi City (Philippines) are all named in his honour. His portrait hangs in the Hall of the Avicenna
Avicenna
Faculty of Medicine
Medicine
in the University
University
of Paris . There is also a crater on the Moon named Avicenna
Avicenna
and a plant genus Avicennia
Avicennia
. A monument to Avicenna
Avicenna
in Qakh (city) , Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan

In 1980, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, which then ruled his birthplace Bukhara, celebrated the thousandth anniversary of Avicenna's birth by circulating various commemorative stamps with artistic illustrations, and by erecting a bust of Avicenna
Avicenna
based on anthropological research by Soviet scholars. Near his birthplace in Qishlak Afshona, some 25 km (16 mi) north of Bukhara, a training college for medical staff has been named for him. On the grounds is a museum dedicated to his life, times and work. Image of Avicenna
Avicenna
on the Tajikistani somoni
Tajikistani somoni

The Avicenna Prize for Ethics
Ethics
in Science is awarded every two years by UNESCO
UNESCO
and rewards individuals and groups in the field of ethics in science . The prize was established in 2003 and named after Avicenna. The aim of the award is to promote ethical reflection on issues raised by advances in science and technology, and to raise global awareness of the importance of ethics in science.

In March 2008, it was announced that Avicenna's name would be used for new Directories of education institutions for health care professionals, worldwide. The Avicenna Directories will list universities and schools where doctors, public health practitioners, pharmacists and others, are educated. The project team stated "Why Avicenna? Avicenna
Avicenna
... was ... noted for his synthesis of knowledge from both east and west. He has had a lasting influence on the development of medicine and health sciences. The use of Avicenna's name symbolises the worldwide partnership that is needed for the promotion of health services of high quality." The statue of Avicenna
Avicenna
in United Nations Office in Vienna as a part of the Persian Scholars Pavilion donated by Iran
Iran

In June 2009 Iran
Iran
donated a " Persian Scholars Pavilion " to United Nations Office in Vienna
Vienna
which is placed in the central Memorial Plaza of the Vienna International Center . The "Persian Scholars Pavilion" at United Nations in Vienna
Vienna
, Austria
Austria
is featuring the statues of four prominent Iranian figures.

Highlighting the Iranian architectural features, the pavilion is adorned with Persian art forms and includes the statues of renowned Iranian scientists Avicenna, Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
, Zakariya Razi (Rhazes) and Omar Khayyam
Omar Khayyam
.

The 1982 Soviet film Youth of Genius (Russian: Юность гения, translit. Yunost geniya) by Elyor Ishmukhamedov (ru) recounts Avicenna's younger years. The film is set in Bukhara
Bukhara
at the turn of the millennium.

In Louis L\'Amour\'s 1985 historical novel The Walking Drum , Kerbouchard studies and discusses Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine.

In his book The Physician
The Physician
(1988) Noah Gordon tells the story of a young English medical apprentice who disguises himself as a Jew to travel from England to Persia
Persia
and learn from Avicenna, the great master of his time. The novel was adapted into a feature film, The Physician , in 2013. Avicenna
Avicenna
was played by Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
.

ARABIC WORKS

The treatises of Ibn Sīnā influenced later Muslim thinkers in many areas including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics, and music. His works numbered almost 450 volumes on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 volumes of his surviving works concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine. His most famous works are The Book of Healing, and The Canon of Medicine.

Ibn Sīnā wrote at least one treatise on alchemy, but several others have been falsely attributed to him. His Logic, Metaphysics, Physics, and De Caelo, are treatises giving a synoptic view of Aristotelian doctrine , though Metaphysics demonstrates a significant departure from the brand of Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
known as Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
in Ibn Sīnā's world; Arabic
Arabic
philosophers have hinted at the idea that Ibn Sīnā was attempting to "re-Aristotelianise" Muslim philosophy in its entirety, unlike his predecessors, who accepted the conflation of Platonic, Aristotelian, Neo- and Middle-Platonic works transmitted into the Muslim world.

The Logic
Logic
and Metaphysics have been extensively reprinted, the latter, e.g., at Venice in 1493, 1495, and 1546. Some of his shorter essays on medicine, logic, etc., take a poetical form (the poem on logic was published by Schmoelders in 1836). Two encyclopaedic treatises, dealing with philosophy, are often mentioned. The larger, Al-Shifa\' (Sanatio), exists nearly complete in manuscript in the Bodleian Library
Bodleian Library
and elsewhere; part of it on the De Anima appeared at Pavia (1490) as the Liber Sextus Naturalium, and the long account of Ibn Sina's philosophy given by Muhammad al-Shahrastani seems to be mainly an analysis, and in many places a reproduction, of the Al-Shifa'. A shorter form of the work is known as the An-najat (Liberatio). The Latin
Latin
editions of part of these works have been modified by the corrections which the monastic editors confess that they applied. There is also a حكمت مشرقيه (hikmat-al-mashriqqiyya, in Latin
Latin
Philosophia Orientalis), mentioned by Roger Bacon
Roger Bacon
, the majority of which is lost in antiquity, which according to Averroes
Averroes
was pantheistic in tone.

LIST OF WORKS

This is the list of some of Avicenna's well-known works:

* Sirat al-shaykh al-ra'is (The Life of Ibn Sina), ed. and trans. WE. Gohlman, Albany, NY: State University
University
of New York Press, 1974. (The only critical edition of Ibn Sina's autobiography, supplemented with material from a biography by his student Abu 'Ubayd al-Juzjani. A more recent translation of the Autobiography appears in D. Gutas, Avicenna
Avicenna
and the Aristotelian Tradition: Introduction to Reading Avicenna's Philosophical
Philosophical
Works, Leiden: Brill, 1988; second edition 2014.) * Al-isharat wa al-tanbihat (Remarks and Admonitions), ed. S. Dunya, Cairo, 1960; parts translated by S.C. Inati, Remarks and Admonitions, Part One: Logic, Toronto, Ont.: Pontifical Institute for Mediaeval Studies, 1984, and Ibn Sina and Mysticism, Remarks and Admonitions: Part 4, London: Kegan Paul International, 1996. * Al-Qanun fi'l-tibb (The Canon of Medicine), ed. I. a-Qashsh, Cairo, 1987. ( Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of medicine.) manuscript, Latin translation, Flores Avicenne, Michael de Capella, 1508, Modern text. Ahmed Shawkat Al-Shatti, Jibran Jabbur. * Risalah fi sirr al-qadar (Essay on the Secret of Destiny), trans. G. Hourani in Reason
Reason
and Tradition in Islamic Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University
University
Press, 1985. * Danishnama-i 'ala'i (The Book of Scientific
Scientific
Knowledge), ed. and trans. P. Morewedge, The Metaphysics of Avicenna, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973. * Kitab al-Shifa' ( The Book of Healing
The Book of Healing
). (Ibn Sina's major work on philosophy. He probably began to compose al-Shifa' in 1014, and completed it in 1020.) Critical editions of the Arabic
Arabic
text have been published in Cairo, 1952–83, originally under the supervision of I. Madkour. * Kitab al-Najat (The Book of Salvation), trans. F. Rahman, Avicenna's Psychology: An English Translation of Kitab al-Najat, Book II, Chapter VI with Historical-philosophical Notes and Textual Improvements on the Cairo Edition, Oxford: Oxford University
University
Press, 1952. (The psychology of al-Shifa'.) * Hayy ibn Yaqdhan a Persian myth. A novel called Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, based on Avicenna's story, was later written by Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) in the 12th century and translated into Latin
Latin
and English as Philosophus Autodidactus in the 17th and 18th centuries respectively. In the 13th century, Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
wrote his own novel Fadil ibn Natiq, known as Theologus Autodidactus in the West, as a critical response to Hayy ibn Yaqdhan.

PERSIAN WORKS

Avicenna's most important Persian work is the Danishnama-i 'Alai (دانشنامه علائی, "the Book of Knowledge
Knowledge
for 'Ala ad-Daulah"). Avicenna
Avicenna
created new scientific vocabulary that had not previously existed in Persian. The Danishnama covers such topics as logic, metaphysics, music theory and other sciences of his time. It has been translated into English by Parwiz Morewedge in 1977. The book is also important in respect to Persian scientific works.

Andar Danesh-e Rag (اندر دانش رگ, "On the Science of the Pulse") contains nine chapters on the science of the pulse and is a condensed synopsis.

Persian poetry
Persian poetry
from Ibn Sina is recorded in various manuscripts and later anthologies such as Nozhat al-Majales .

SEE ALSO

* Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi * Al-Qumri * Abdol Hamid Khosro Shahi * Avicennia
Avicennia
, a genus of mangrove named after Ibn Sīnā * Avicenna Research Institute , a biotechnology research institute named after Ibn Sīnā * Avicenna Prize * Avicennism * Ibn Sina Peak – named after the Scientist * Islamic scholars * Mumijo

* Philosophy
Philosophy

* Eastern philosophy
Eastern philosophy
* Iranian philosophy
Iranian philosophy
* Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
* Contemporary Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy

* Science in medieval Islam

* List of Muslim scientists * Sufi
Sufi
philosophy

* Science and technology in Iran
Iran

* Ancient Iranian Medicine
Medicine
* List of Iranian scientists and scholars

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University
Press , ISBN 0-19-513580-6 . * ^ James W. Morris (1992), "The Philosopher-Prophet in Avicenna's Political Philosophy", in C. Butterworth (ed.), The Political Aspects of Islamic Philosophy, ISBN 978-0-932885-07-4 , Chapter 4, Cambridge Harvard University
University
Press , pp.152–198 . * ^ James W. Morris (1992), "The Philosopher-Prophet in Avicenna's Political Philosophy", in C. Butterworth (ed.), The Political Aspects of Islamic Philosophy, Chapter 4, Cambridge Harvard University
University
Press , pp.152–198 . * ^ James W. Morris (1992), "The Philosopher-Prophet in Avicenna's Political Philosophy", in C. Butterworth (ed.), The Political Aspects of Islamic Philosophy, Chapter 4, Cambridge Harvard University
University
Press , pp.152–198 . * ^ Jules Janssens (2004), " Avicenna
Avicenna
and the Qur'an: A Survey of his Qur'anic commentaries", MIDEO 25, p. 177–192. * ^ See a discussion of this in connection with an analytic take on the philosophy of mind in: Nader El-Bizri
Nader El-Bizri
, ' Avicenna
Avicenna
and the Problem of Consciousness', in Consciousness and the Great Philosophers, eds. S. Leach and J. Tartaglia (London: Routledge, 2016), 45-53

* ^ Ibn Sina, الفن السادس من الطبيعيات من كتاب الشفاء القسم الأول (Beirut, Lebanon.: M.A.J.D Enterprise Universitaire d'Etude et de Publication S.A.R.L)

يجب أن يتوهم الواحد منا كأنه خلق دفعةً وخلق كاملاً لكنه حجب بصره عن مشاهدة الخارجات وخلق يهوى في هواء أو خلاء هوياً لا يصدمه فيه قوام الهواء صدماً ما يحوج إلى أن يحس وفرق بين أعضائه فلم تتلاق ولم تتماس ثم يتأمل هل أنه يثبت وجود ذاته ولا يشكك في إثباته لذاته موجوداً ولا يثبت مع ذلك طرفاً من أعضائه ولا باطناً من أحشائه ولا قلباً ولا دماغاً ولا شيئاً من الأشياء من خارج بل كان يثبت ذاته ولا يثبت لها طولاً ولا عرضاً ولا عمقاً ولو أنه أمكنه في تلك الحالة أن يتخيل يداً أو عضواً آخر لم يتخيله جزء من ذاته ولا شرطاً في ذاته وأنت تعلم أن المثبت غير الذي لم يثبت والمقربه غير الذي لم يقربه فإذن للذات التي أثبت وجودها خاصية على أنها هو بعينه غير جسمه وأعضائه التي لم تثبت فإذن المثبت له سبيل إلى أن يثبته على وجود النفس شيئاً غير الجسم بل غير جسم وأنه عارف به مستشعر له وإن كان ذاهلاً عنه يحتاج إلى أن يقرع عصاه. — Ibn Sina, Kitab Al-Shifa, On the Soul * ^ Hasse, Dag Nikolaus (2000). Avicenna's De Anima in the Latin West. London: Warburg Institute. p. 81. * ^ A B Nader El-Bizri
Nader El-Bizri
, The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna
Avicenna
and Heidegger
Heidegger
(Binghamton, N.Y.: Global Publications SUNY, 2000), pp. 149–171. * ^ A B Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna's De Anima between Aristotle
Aristotle
and Husserl," in The Passions of the Soul in the Metamorphosis of Becoming, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 67–89. * ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein; Oliver Leaman (1996). History of Islamic philosophy. Routledge. pp. 315, 1022–3. ISBN 978-0-415-05667-0 . * ^ Hasse, Dag Nikolaus (2000). Avicenna's De Anima in the Latin West. London: Warburg Institute. p. 92. * ^ McGinnis, Jon (2010). Avicenna. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-19-533147-9 . * ^ A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications . p. 12. ISBN 978-1780744209 . * ^ Indian Studies on Ibn Sina's Works by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman , Avicenna
Avicenna
( Scientific
Scientific
and Practical International Journal of Ibn Sino International Foundation, Tashkent/Uzbekistan. 1–2; 2003: 40–42 * ^ A B Stephen Toulmin and June Goodfield (1965), The Ancestry of Science: The Discovery of Time, p. 64, University
University
of Chicago Press (cf. The Contribution of Ibn Sina to the development of Earth sciences) * ^ McGinnis, Jon (July 2003). " Scientific
Scientific
Methodologies in Medieval
Medieval
Islam". Journal of the History of Philosophy. 41 (3): 307–327. doi :10.1353/hph.2003.0033 . * ^ History of logic: Arabic
Arabic
logic, Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. * ^ Peter Øhrstrøm; Per Hasle (1995). Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence. Springer. p. 72. * ^ TONY STREET (2000), "TOWARD A HISTORY OF SYLLOGISTIC AFTER AVICENNA: NOTES ON RESCHER'S STUDIES ON ARABIC MODAL LOGIC", Journal of Islamic Studies, Oxford University
University
Press , 11 (2): 209–228, doi :10.1093/jis/11.2.209 * ^ Street, Tony (2005-01-01). "Logic". In Peter Adamson and Richard C. Taylor. The Cambridge Companion to Arabic
Arabic
Philosophy. Cambridge University
University
Press. pp. 247–265. ISBN 978-0-521-52069-0 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ Richard F. Washell (1973), "Logic, Language, and Albert the Great", Journal of the History of Ideas 34 (3), p. 445–450 . * ^ Kneale p. 229 * ^ Kneale: p. 266; Ockham: Summa Logicae i. 14; Avicenna: Avicennae Opera Venice 1508 f87rb * ^ Avicenna, Metaphysics, I; commenting on Aristotle, Topics I.11.105a4–5 * ^ Fernando Espinoza (2005). "An analysis of the historical development of ideas about motion and its implications for teaching", Physics Education 40 (2), p. 141. * ^ A. Sayili (1987), "Ibn Sīnā and Buridan
Buridan
on the Motion of the Projectile", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500 (1), pp. 477–482: "It was a permanent force whose effect got dissipated only as a result of external agents such as air resistance. He is apparently the first to conceive such a permanent type of impressed virtue for non-natural motion." * ^ Jack Zupko, "John Buridan" in Stanford Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Philosophy
Philosophy
, 2014 (fn. 48) "We do not know precisely where Buridan
Buridan
got the idea of impetus, but a less sophisticated notion of impressed forced can be found in Avicenna's doctrine of mayl (inclination). In this he was possibly influenced by Philoponus, who was developing the Stoic notion of hormé (impulse). For discussion, see Zupko (1997) ." * ^ George Sarton , Introduction to the History of Science, Vol. 1, p. 710. * ^ Carl Benjamin Boyer (1954)."Robert Grosseteste on the Rainbow", Osiris 11, p. 247–258 . * ^ Gutman, Oliver (1997). "On the Fringes of the Corpus Aristotelicum: the Pseudo- Avicenna
Avicenna
Liber Celi Et Mundi". Early Science and Medicine. Brill Publishers
Brill Publishers
. 2 (2): 109–28. doi :10.1163/157338297X00087 . * ^ Avicenna
Avicenna
(1952). F. Rahman, eds. Avicenna's Psychology. An English translation of Kitāb al-Najāt, Book II, Chapter VI, with Historico- Philosophical
Philosophical
Notes and Textual Improvements on the Cairo edition. London: Oxford University
University
Press, Geoffrey Cumberlege. p. 41. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ Avicenna
Avicenna
(1952). F. Rahman, eds. Avicenna's Psychology. An English translation of Kitāb al-Najāt, Book II, Chapter VI, with Historico- Philosophical
Philosophical
Notes and Textual Improvements on the Cairo edition. London: Oxford University
University
Press, Geoffrey Cumberlege. pp. 68–69. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ George Saliba (1994), A History of Arabic
Arabic
Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, p. 60, 67–69. New York University
University
Press , ISBN 0-8147-8023-7 . * ^ Saliba, George (2011). "Avicenna". Encyclopædia Iranica, Online Edition. * ^ A B C Sally P. Ragep (2007). Thomas Hockey, ed. Ibn Sīnā: Abū ʿAlī al‐Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbdallāh ibn Sīnā. The Biographical Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Astronomers. Springer Science+Business Media
Springer Science+Business Media
. pp. 570–572. * ^ Ariew, Roger (March 1987). "The phases of venus before 1610". Studies in History and Philosophy
Philosophy
of Science Part A. 18 (1): 81–92. doi :10.1016/0039-3681(87)90012-4 . * ^ Goldstein, Bernard R. (1969). "Some Medieval
Medieval
Reports of Venus and Mercury Transits". Centaurus. John Wiley & Sons
John Wiley & Sons
. 14 (1): 49–59. Bibcode :1969Cent...14...49G. doi :10.1111/j.1600-0498.1969.tb00135.x . * ^ Goldstein, Bernard R. (March 1972). "Theory and Observation
Observation
in Medieval
Medieval
Astronomy". Isis . University
University
of Chicago Press . 63 (1): 39–47 . doi :10.1086/350839 . * ^ Marlene Ericksen (2000). Healing with Aromatherapy, p. 9. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-658-00382-8 . * ^ Robert Briffault (1938). The Making of Humanity, p. 196–197. * ^ A B C Georges C. Anawati (1996), " Arabic
Arabic
alchemy", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of the History of Arabic
Arabic
Science , Vol. 3, p. 853–885 . Routledge
Routledge
, London and New York. * ^ Leicester, Henry Marshall (1971), The Historical Background of Chemistry, Courier Dover Publications, p. 70, ISBN 978-0-486-61053-5 , There was one famous Arab physician who doubted even the reality of transmutation. This was 'Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina (980–1037), called Avicenna
Avicenna
in the West, the greatest physician of Islam. ... Many of his observations on chemistry are included in the Kitab al-Shifa, the "Book of the Remedy". In the physical section of this work he discusses the formation of minerals, which he classifies into stones, fusible substances, sulfurs, and salts. Mercury is classified with the fusible substances, metals * ^ E.G. Browne , Islamic Medicine
Medicine
(sometimes also printed under the title Arabian medicine), 2002, Goodword Pub., ISBN 81-87570-19-9 , p61 * ^ E.G. Browne, Islamic Medicine
Medicine
(sometimes also printed under the title Arabian medicine), 2002, Goodword Pub., ISBN 81-87570-19-9 , p 60–61)

* ^ George Sarton , Introduction to the History of Science. (cf. Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq (1997). Quotations From Famous Historians of Science, Cyberistan.) * ^ Musallam, B. (2011). " Avicenna
Avicenna
Medicine
Medicine
and Biology". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2011-11-09. * ^ Weisser, U. (2011). " Avicenna
Avicenna
The influence of Avicenna
Avicenna
on medical studies in the West". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2011-11-09. * ^ 1 (28 March 2014). "Home Page". amch.edu.pk. * ^ Thought Experiments: Popular Thought Experiments in Philosophy, Physics, Ethics, Computer Science & Mathematics
Mathematics
by Fredrick Kennard, p114 * ^ "UNESCO: The Avicenna Prize for Ethics
Ethics
in Science". * ^ "Educating health professionals: the Avicenna
Avicenna
project" The Lancet, March 2008. Volume 371 pp 966–967. * ^ UNIS. "Monument to Be Inaugurated at the Vienna
Vienna
International Centre, \'Scholars Pavilion\' donated to International Organizations in Vienna
Vienna
by Iran". unvienna.org. * ^ "Permanent mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
to the United Nations office – Vienna". mfa.ir. * ^ Mir Masood Hosseini. "Negareh: Persian Scholars Pavilion at United Nations Vienna, Austria". parseed.ir. Archived from the original on 2016-03-19. * ^ "Youth of Genius" (USSR, Uzbekfilm and Tajikfilm, 1982): 1984 – State Prize of the USSR (Elyer Ishmuhamedov); 1983 – VKF (All-Union Film Festival) Grand Prize (Elyer Ishmuhamedov); 1983 – VKF (All-Union Film Festival) Award for Best Cinematography (Tatiana Loginov). See annotation on kino-teatr.ru. * ^ Thought Experiments: Popular Thought Experiments in Philosophy, Physics, Ethics, Computer Science & Mathematics
Mathematics
by Fredrick Kennard, p115 * ^ A B C D E F G "Ibn Sina Abu \'Ali Al-Husayn". Muslimphilosophy.com. Archived from the original on 2 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-19. * ^ Tasaneef lbn Sina by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman , Tabeeb Haziq, Gujarat, Pakistan, 1986, p. 176–198 * ^ "The Canon of Medicine". 1 January 1597. * ^ "The Canon of Medicine". World Digital Library. 1597. Retrieved 2014-03-01. * ^ "Flowers of Avicenna". 1 January 1508. * ^ "Flowers of Avicenna
Avicenna
– Flores Avicenne". World Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-03-01. * ^ ""The Book of Simple Medicine
Medicine
and Plants" from "The Canon of Medicine"". 1 January 1900. * ^ Avicenna. "The Canon of Medicine". World Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-03-01. * ^ Nahyan A. G. Fancy (2006), "Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection: The Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy
Philosophy
and Religion in the Works of Ibn al-Nafīs (d. 1288)", pp. 95–102, Electronic Theses and Dissertations, University
University
of Notre Dame . * ^ Avicenna, Danish Nama-i 'Alai. trans. Parviz Morewedge as The Metaphysics of Avicenna
Avicenna
(New York: Columbia University
University
Press), 1977.

SOURCES

* Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Avicenna". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University
University
Press.

FURTHER READING

ENCYCLOPEDIC ARTICLES

* Syed Iqbal, Zaheer. An Educational Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Islam (2 ed.). Bangalore: Iqra Publishers. p. 1280. ISBN 978-603-90004-4-0 . * Flannery, Michael. "Avicenna". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. * Goichon, A.-M. (1999). "IBN SINA, Abu \'Ali al-Husayn b. \'Abd Allah b. Sina, known in the West as Avicenna". Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Islam . Brill Publishers
Brill Publishers
. * Mahdi, M. ; Gutas, D; Abed, Sh. B.; Marmura, M. E.; Rahman, F.; Saliba, G.; Wright, O.; Musallam, B.; Achena, M.; Van Riet,, S.; Weisser, U. (1987). "Avicenna". Encyclopædia Iranica . * Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Avicenna". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company. * O\'Connor, John J. ; Robertson, Edmund F. , "Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina (Avicenna)", MacTutor History of Mathematics
Mathematics
archive , University
University
of St Andrews . * Ragep, Sally P. (2007). "Ibn Sīnā: Abū ʿAlī al‐Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbdallāh ibn Sīnā". In Thomas Hockey; et al. The Biographical Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Astronomers . New York: Springer. pp. 570–2. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0 . (PDF version) * Avicenna
Avicenna
entry by Sajjad H. Rizvi in the Internet Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Philosophy
Philosophy

PRIMARY LITERATURE

* For an old list of other extant works, C. Brockelmann\'s Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur (Weimar, 1898), vol. i. pp. 452–458. (XV. W.; G. W. T.) * For a current list of his works see A. Bertolacci (2006) and D. Gutas (2014) in the section "Philosophy". * Avicenna
Avicenna
(2005). The Metaphysics of The Healing. A parallel English- Arabic
Arabic
text translation. Michael E. Marmura (trans.) (1 ed.). Brigham Young University. ISBN 0-934893-77-2 . * Avicenna
Avicenna
(1999). The Canon of Medicine
The Canon of Medicine
(al-Qānūn fī'l-ṭibb), vol. 1. Laleh Bakhtiar (ed.), Oskar Cameron Gruner (trans.), Mazhar H. Shah (trans.). Great Books of the Islamic World. ISBN 978-1-871031-67-6 . * Avicenne: Réfutation de l'astrologie. Edition et traduction du texte arabe, introduction, notes et lexique par Yahya Michot. Préface d'Elizabeth Teissier (Beirut-Paris: Albouraq, 2006) ISBN 2-84161-304-6 . * William E. Gohlam (ed.), The Life of Ibn Sina. A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation, Albany, State of New York University
University
Press, 1974. * For Ibn Sina's life, see Ibn Khallikan\'s Biographical Dictionary, translated by de Slane (1842); F. Wüstenfeld\'s Geschichte der arabischen Aerzte und Naturforscher (Göttingen, 1840). * Madelung, Wilferd and Toby Mayer (ed. and tr.), Struggling with the Philosopher: A Refutation of Avicenna's Metaphysics. A New Arabic Edition and English Translation of Shahrastani\'s Kitab al-Musara'a.

SECONDARY LITERATURE

* Afnan, Soheil M. (1958). Avicenna: His Life and Works. London: G. Allen & Unwin. OCLC
OCLC
31478971 .

* This is, on the whole, an informed and good account of the life and accomplishments of one of the greatest influences on the development of thought both Eastern and Western. ... It is not as philosophically thorough as the works of D. Saliba, A. M. Goichon, or L. Gardet, but it is probably the best essay in English on this important thinker of the Middle Ages. (Julius R. Weinberg, The Philosophical
Philosophical
Review, Vol. 69, No. 2, Apr. 1960, pp. 255–259)

* Goodman, Lenn E. (2006). Avicenna
Avicenna
(Updated ed.). Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-415-01929-X .

* This is a distinguished work which stands out from, and above, many of the books and articles which have been written in this century on Avicenna
Avicenna
(Ibn Sīnā) (A.D. 980–1037). It has two main features on which its distinction as a major contribution to Avicennan studies may be said to rest: the first is its clarity and readability; the second is the comparative approach adopted by the author. ... (Ian Richard Netton, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 4, No. 2, July 1994, pp. 263–264)

* Gutas, Dimitri (1987). "Avicenna's maḏhab, with an Appendix on the question of his date of birth". Quaderni di Studi Arabi. 5–6: 323–36. * Y. T. Langermann (ed.), Avicenna
Avicenna
and his Legacy. A Golden Age of Science and Philosophy, Brepols Publishers, 2010, ISBN 978-2-503-52753-6 * For a new understanding of his early career, based on a newly discovered text, see also: Michot, Yahya, Ibn Sînâ: Lettre au vizir Abû Sa'd. Editio princeps d'après le manuscrit de Bursa, traduction de l'arabe, introduction, notes et lexique (Beirut-Paris: Albouraq, 2000) ISBN 2-84161-150-7 .

* Strohmaier, Gotthard (2006). Avicenna
Avicenna
(in German). C.H. Beck. ISBN 3-406-54134-8 .

* This German publication is both one of the most comprehensive general introductions to the life and works of the philosopher and physician Avicenna
Avicenna
(Ibn Sīnā, d. 1037) and an extensive and careful survey of his contribution to the history of science. Its author is a renowned expert in Greek and Arabic
Arabic
medicine who has paid considerable attention to Avicenna
Avicenna
in his recent studies. ... (Amos Bertolacci, Isis, Vol. 96, No. 4, December 2005, p. 649)

* Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman. Resalah Judiya of Ibn Sina (First edition 1971), Literary Research Unit, CCRIH, Aligarh
Aligarh
Muslim University
University
, Aligarh
Aligarh
; (Second edition 1981) Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Govt. of India, New Delhi; (Fourth edition 1999), Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Govt. of India, New Delhi. * Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (1996). AI-Advia al-Qalbia of Ibn Sina. Publication Division, Aligarh
Aligarh
Muslim University, Aligarh. * Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman. Ilmul Amraz of Ibn Sina (First edition 1969), Tibbi Academy, Delhi (Second edition 1990), (Third edition 1994), Tibbi Academy, Aligarh. * Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (1986). Qanoon lbn Sina Aur Uskey Shareheen wa Mutarjemeen. Publication Division, Aligarh
Aligarh
Muslim University, Aligarh. * Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (1986), Qānūn-i ibn-i Sīnā aur us ke shārḥīn va mutarajimīn, ʻAlīgaṛh: Pablīkeshan Dīvīzan, Muslim Yūnīvarsiṭī * Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (2004). Qanun Ibn Sina and its Translation and Commentators (Persian Translation; 203pp). Society for the Appreciation of Cultural Works and Dignitaries, Tehran, Iran. * Shaikh al Rais Ibn Sina ( Special
Special
number) 1958–59, Ed. Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Tibbia College Magazine, Aligarh
Aligarh
Muslim University, Aligarh, India
India
.

MEDICINE

* Browne, Edward G. . Islamic Medicine. Fitzpatrick Lectures Delivered at the Royal College of Physicians in 1919–1920, reprint: New Delhi: Goodword Books, 2001. ISBN 81-87570-19-9 * Pormann, Peter padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutAVICENNAat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource

* Gutas, Dimitri. "Ibn Sina ". Stanford Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Philosophy
Philosophy
.

* Lizzini, Olga. "Ibn Sina\'s Metaphysics". Stanford Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Philosophy
Philosophy
. * McGinnis, Jon. "Ibn Sina\'s Natural Philosophy". Stanford Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Philosophy
Philosophy
. * Rizvi, Sajjad H. " Avicenna
Avicenna
(Ibn Sina)". Internet Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Philosophy
Philosophy
. * Chatti, Saloua. " Avicenna
Avicenna
(Ibn Sina): Logic". Internet Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Philosophy
Philosophy
. * Avicenna
Avicenna
(Ibn-Sina) on the Subject and the Object of Metaphysics with a list of translations of the logical and philosophical works and an annotated bibliography * * Avicenna
Avicenna
on In Our Time at the BBC
BBC
.

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Theology
(unmoved mover )

IDEAS AND INTERESTS

* Correspondence theory of truth * Hexis * Virtue ethics
Virtue ethics
(golden mean ) * Four causes * Telos * Phronesis

* Eudaimonia
Eudaimonia
* Arete

* Temporal finitism * Antiperistasis * Philosophy
Philosophy
of nature (sublunary sphere ) * Potentiality and actuality
Potentiality and actuality
* Universals (substantial form ) * Aristotle\'s biology * Hylomorphism * Mimesis * Catharsis * Substance (ousia ) * Essence –accident * Category of being * Minima naturalia * Magnanimity
Magnanimity
* Sensus communis * Rational animal * Genus–differentia

CORPUS ARISTOTELICUM

* Physics * Organon * Nicomachean Ethics
Ethics
* Politics * Metaphysics * On the Soul * Rhetoric * Poetics

INFLUENCES, FOLLOWERS

* Plato
Plato
* Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
* Theophrastus
Theophrastus
* Avicenna * Averroes
Averroes
* Maimonides
Maimonides
* Thomas Aquinas * Alasdair MacIntyre
Alasdair MacIntyre
* Martha Nussbaum

RELATED TOPICS

* Platonism
Platonism
* Commentaries on Aristotle
Aristotle
* Scholasticism
Scholasticism
* Conimbricenses * Pseudo- Aristotle
Aristotle
* Views on women

Philosophy
Philosophy
portal

* v * t * e

Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy

FIELDS

* Alchemy
Alchemy
* Aqidah (theology) * \ 'Aql (intellect)

* Cosmology
Cosmology

* astrology * medieval astronomy

* Eschatology * Ethics
Ethics
* Kalam
Kalam
(dialectic) * Fiqh
Fiqh
(jurisprudence) * Logic
Logic
* Metaphysics * Natural philosophy
Natural philosophy
(physics) * Peace * Madrasah (education) * Medieval
Medieval
science * Medieval
Medieval
psychology * Sufism
Sufism
(mysticism)

SCHOOLS

* Early * Farabism * Avicennism * Averroism * Illuminationism

* Sufi
Sufi

* cosmology * metaphysics

* Transcendent theosophy * Traditionalist * Contemporary

CONCEPTS

* ʻAṣabīya * Ḥāl * Iʻjaz * ʼIjtihād * ʻlm * ʻIrfān * Ijmāʿ * Maslaha * Nafs
Nafs
* Qadar * Qalb * Qiyās * Shūrā * Tawḥīd * Ummah

PHILOSOPHERS BY CENTURY (CE )

9TH–10TH

* Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
* Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari * Abu al-Abbas Iranshahri * Zakariya Razi * Apharabius * Abu Hatim al-Razi * Al Amiri * Ikhwan al-Safa * Abu Sulayman Sijistani * Ibn Masarrah * Abu Yaqub al-Sijistani

11TH

* Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
* Ibn Miskawayh * Avicenna * Ibn Hazm * Bahmanyār
Bahmanyār
* Mu\'ayyad fi\'l-Din al-Shirazi * Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw

12TH

* Abu\'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī * Afdal al-Din Kashani * Ahi Evren * Ahmad Yasavi * Ayn-al-Quzat * Averroes
Averroes
* Ibn Tufail * Omar Khayyám
Omar Khayyám
* Suhrawardi * Shams Tabrizi

13TH

* Hajji Bektash Wali * Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi
Rumi
* Ibn Sab’in * Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
* al-Abharī * Nasir al-Din Tusi * Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi * Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi * Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi

14TH–16TH

* Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
* Yunus Emre * Hajji Bayram * Jalaladdin Davani
Jalaladdin Davani
* Sadr ad-Din Dashtaki * Aziz Mahmud Hudayi * Qadi Mir Husayn al-Maybudi * Mahmud Shabistari * Sayyid Haydar Amuli * Dawūd al-Qayṣarī * Jami
Jami

17TH–19TH

* Mir Damad * Mir Fendereski * Mulla Sadra * Mohsen Fayz Kashani * Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji * Mujaddid Alf-i-Sani * Rajab Ali Tabrizi * Qazi Sa’id Qumi * Shah Waliullah Dehlawi * Hādī Sabzavārī

20TH–PRESENT

* Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei * Muhammad Iqbal
Muhammad Iqbal
* Gohar Shahi * Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr * René Guénon * Frithjof Schuon * Martin Lings * Hossein Nasr * Naquib al-Attas * Abdolkarim Soroush * Gholamhossein Ebrahimi Dinani * Taha Abdurrahman * Mohammed Abed al-Jabri * Mohammed Arkoun * Fouad Zakariyya * Reza Davari Ardakani * Ahmad Fardid
Ahmad Fardid
* Mostafa Malekian * Hasanzadeh Amoli * Javadi Amoli * Partawi Shah

* v * t * e

Medicine in the medieval Islamic world

PHYSICIANS

7TH CENTURY

* Al-Harith ibn Kalada and his son * Abu Hafsa Yazid * Bukhtishu * Masarjawaih * Ibn Abi Ramtha al-Tamimi * Rufaida Al-Aslamia * Ibn Uthal

8TH CENTURY

* Bukhtishu family * Ja\'far al-Sadiq

9TH CENTURY

* Ali al-Ridha
Ali al-Ridha
* Albubather * Bukhtishu family * Jabril ibn Bukhtishu * Jābir ibn Hayyān
Jābir ibn Hayyān
* Hunayn ibn Ishaq and his son * Yahya ibn Sarafyun * Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
* Masawaiyh * Shapur ibn Sahl * Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari * Al-Ruhawi * Yuhanna ibn Bukhtishu * Salmawaih ibn Bunan

10TH CENTURY

* Qusta ibn Luqa * Abu ul-Ala Shirazi * Abul Hasan al-Tabari * Al-Natili * Qumri * Abu Zayd al-Balkhi * Isaac Israeli ben Solomon
Isaac Israeli ben Solomon
* \'Ali ibn al-\'Abbas al-Majusi * Abu Sahl \'Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi * Muvaffak * Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
* Ibn Juljul * Al-Tamimi, the physician * Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi * Ibn al-Jazzar * Al-Kaŝkarī * Ibn Abi al-Ashʿath * Ibn al-Batriq * Ibrahim ibn Baks * Abu al-Qasim Muqane\'i * Abu Bakr Rabee Ibn Ahmad Al-Akhawyni Bokhari

11TH CENTURY

* Abu \'Ubayd al-Juzjani * Ibn al-Haytham
Ibn al-Haytham
* Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
* Ali ibn Ridwan
Ali ibn Ridwan
* Avicenna * Ephraim ibn al-Za\'faran * Ibn al-Wafid * Abdollah ibn Bukhtishu * Ibn Butlan * Ibn al-Kattani
Ibn al-Kattani
* Ibn Jazla * Masawaih al-Mardini
Masawaih al-Mardini
* Ali ibn Yusuf al-Ilaqi * Ibn Al-Thahabi * Ibn Abi Sadiq
Ibn Abi Sadiq
* Ali ibn Isa al-Kahhal

12TH CENTURY

* Abu al-Bayan ibn al-Mudawwar * Ahmad ibn Farrokh * Ibn Hubal * Zayn al-Din Gorgani * Maimonides
Maimonides
* Serapion the Younger * Ibn Zuhr
Ibn Zuhr
* Ya\'qub ibn Ishaq al-Israili * Abu Jafar ibn Harun al-Turjali * Averroes
Averroes
* Ibn Tufail * Al-Ghafiqi * Ibn Abi al-Hakam * Abu\'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī * Al-Samawal al-Maghribi * Ibn al-Tilmīdh * Ibn Jumay‘

13TH CENTURY

* Sa\'ad al-Dawla * Al-Shahrazuri * Rashidun al-Suri * Amin al-Din Rashid al-Din Vatvat * Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon * Da\'ud Abu al-Fadl * Al-Dakhwar * Ibn Abi Usaibia * Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta * Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (medieval writer) * Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn al-Nafis
* Zakariya al-Qazwini
Zakariya al-Qazwini
* Najib ad-Din-e-Samarqandi * Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi * Ibn al-Quff

14TH CENTURY

* Muhammad ibn Mahmud Amuli * Al-Nagawri * Aqsara\'i * Zayn-e-Attar * Mansur ibn Ilyas * Jaghmini * Mas‘ud ibn Muhammad Sijzi * Najm al-Din Mahmud ibn Ilyas al-Shirazi * Nakhshabi * Sadid al-Din al-Kazaruni * Yusuf ibn Ismail al-Kutubi * Ibn al-Khatib
Ibn al-Khatib
* Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani

15TH CENTURY

* Abu Sa\'id al-Afif * Muhammad Ali Astarabadi * Husayni Isfahani * Burhan-ud-din Kermani * Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu * Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Harawi * Nurbakhshi * Shaykh Muhammad ibn Thaleb

16TH CENTURY

* Hakim-e-Gilani * Abul Qasim ibn Mohammed al-Ghassani * Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma\'ruf * Dawud al-Antaki

CONCEPTS

* Psychology * Ophthalmology

WORKS

* Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah
Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah
* The Canon of Medicine
The Canon of Medicine
* Anatomy Charts of the Arabs * The Book of Healing
The Book of Healing
* Book of the Ten Treatises of the Eye * De Gradibus * Al-Tasrif * Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi * Adab al-Tabib * Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyya * Al-Hawi

CENTERS

* Bimaristan
Bimaristan
* Nur al-Din Bimaristan
Bimaristan
* Al-\'Adudi

INFLUENCES

* Ancient Greek medicine
Ancient Greek medicine

INFLUENCED

* Medical Renaissance
Renaissance
* Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval
Medieval
Medicine
Medicine
and Sciences

* v * t * e

People of Khorasan

SCIENTISTS

* Abu Maʿshar * Abu Wafa * Abu Ubayd Juzjani * Abu Zayd Balkhi * Alfraganus * Ali Qushji * Avicenna * Birjandi * Biruni * Hāsib Marwazī * Ibn Hayyān * Khāzin * Khāzinī * Khojandi * Khwarizmi * Nasawi * Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
* Omar Khayyam
Omar Khayyam
* Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī * Sijzi

PHILOSOPHERS

* Algazel * Amiri * Avicenna * Farabi
Farabi
* Haji Bektash Veli * Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
* Qushayri * Sijistani * Shahrastani

ISLAMIC SCHOLARS

* Abu Dawood * Abu Hanifa * Ansari * Baghavi * Bayhaqi * Boharsi * Bukhari * Ghazali * Hākim Nishapuri * Juwayni * Marghinani * Maturidi * Ibn Mubarak * Mulla al-Qari * Muqatil * Muslim * Nasafi * Nasa\'i * Al-Qushayri * Razi * Shaykh Tusi * Taftazani * Tha\'labi Nishapuri * Tirmidhi * Zamakhshari

POETS AND ARTISTS

* Abū-Sa\'īd Abul-Khayr * Anvari * Asadi Tusi * Attar Nishapuri * Behzad * Daqiqi * Farrukhi Sistani * Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
* Jami
Jami
* Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
* Rabia Balkhi * Rudaki * Rumi
Rumi
* Sanā\'ī

Historians and political scientists

* Abu\'l-Fadl Bayhaqi * Abu\'l-Hasan Isfaraini * Abu\'l-Ma\'ali Nasrallah * Abu Muslim * Abu Sa\'id Gardezi * Ali-Shir Nava\'i * Ata-Malik Juvayni * Aufi * Muhammad Bal\'ami * Goharshad Begum * Ibn Khordadbeh * Khalid ibn Barmak * Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk
* Tahir ibn Husayn
Tahir ibn Husayn
* Yahya Barmaki * Ahmad ibn Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk
* Shihab al-Nasawi

* v * t * e

Persian literature
Persian literature

OLD

* Behistun Inscription
Behistun Inscription
* Old Persian inscriptions * Ganjnameh
Ganjnameh
* Inscription of Xerxes the Great in Van Fortress
Van Fortress
* Achaemenid inscription in the Kharg Island

MIDDLE

* Ayadgar-i Zariran * Counsels of Adurbad-e Mahrspandan * Dēnkard * Book of Jamasp * Book of Arda Viraf * Karnamak-i Artaxshir-i Papakan * Cube of Zoroaster * Dana-i Menog Khrat * Shabuhragan of Mani * Shahrestanha-ye Eranshahr * Bundahishn * Menog-i Khrad * Jamasp Namag * Dadestan-i Denig * Anthology of Zadspram * Warshtmansr * Zand-i Wahman yasn * Drakht-i Asurig * Shikand-gumanig Vizar

CLASSICAL

900S

* Rudaki * Abu-Mansur Daqiqi * Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
( Shahnameh
Shahnameh
) * Abu Shakur Balkhi * Abu Tahir Khosrovani * Shahid Balkhi * Bal\'ami * Rabia Balkhi * Abusaeid Abolkheir (967–1049) * Avicenna
Avicenna
(980–1037) * Unsuri * Asjadi * Kisai Marvazi * Ayyuqi

1000S

* Bābā Tāher * Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
(1004–1088) * Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
(1058–1111) * Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
(1006–1088) * Asadi Tusi * Qatran Tabrizi (1009–1072) * Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk
(1018–1092) * Masud Sa\'d Salman (1046–1121) * Moezi Neyshapuri * Omar Khayyām (1048–1131) * Fakhruddin As\'ad Gurgani * Ahmad Ghazali * Hujwiri * Manuchehri * Ayn-al-Quzat Hamadani (1098–1131) * Uthman Mukhtari * Abu-al-Faraj Runi * Sanai * Banu Goshasp * Borzu-Nama * Afdal al-Din Kashani * Abu\'l Hasan Mihyar al-Daylami * Mu\'izzi * Mahsati Ganjavi

1100S

* Hakim Iranshah * Suzani Samarqandi * Hassan Ghaznavi * Faramarz Nama * Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (1155–1191) * Adib Sabir * Falaki Shirvani * Am\'aq * Najm al-Din Razi
Najm al-Din Razi
* Attār (1142–c. 1220) * Khaghani
Khaghani
(1120–1190) * Anvari (1126–1189) * Faramarz-e Khodadad * Nizami Ganjavi
Nizami Ganjavi
(1141–1209) * Fakhr al-Din al-Razi
Fakhr al-Din al-Razi
(1149–1209) * Kamal al-din Esfahani * Shams Tabrizi (d.1248)

1200S

* Abu Tahir Tarsusi * Awhadi Maraghai * Shams al-Din Qays Razi * Sultan Walad * Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī
Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī
* Afdal al-Din Kashani * Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi * Mahmud Shabistari (1288–1320s) * Abu\'l Majd Tabrizi * Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
(1253–1325) * Saadi (Bustan / Golestān ) * Bahram-e-Pazhdo * Pur-Baha Jami
Jami
* Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo * Rumi
Rumi
* Homam Tabrizi (1238–1314) * Nozhat al-Majales * Khwaju Kermani * Sultan Walad

1300S

* Ibn Yamin * Shah Ni\'matullah Wali * Hafez * Abu Ali Qalandar * Fazlallah Astarabadi * Nasimi
Nasimi
* Emad al-Din Faqih Kermani

1400S

* Ubayd Zakani * Salman Sawaji * Hatefi * Jami
Jami
* Kamal Khujandi
Kamal Khujandi
* Ahli Shirzi (1454–1535) * Fuzûlî (1483–1556) * Ismail I
Ismail I
(1487–1524) * Baba Faghani Shirzani

1500S

* Vahshi Bafqi (1523–1583) * \ 'Orfi Shirazi

1600S

* Taleb Amoli * Saib Tabrizi (1607–1670) * Kalim Kashani * Hazin Lāhiji (1692–1766) * Saba Kashani * Bidel Dehlavi (1642–1720)

1700S

* Neshat Esfahani * Abbas Foroughi Bastami (1798–1857)

1800S

* Mahmud Saba Kashani (1813–1893)

CONTEMPORARY

POETRY

IRAN

* Ahmadreza Ahmadi * Mehdi Akhavan-Sales
Mehdi Akhavan-Sales
* Hormoz Alipour * Qeysar Aminpour * Aref Qazvini * Manouchehr Atashi * Mahmoud Mosharraf Azad Tehrani * Mohammad-Taqi Bahar
Mohammad-Taqi Bahar
* Reza Baraheni * Simin Behbahani * Dehkhoda * Hushang Ebtehaj
Hushang Ebtehaj
* Bijan Elahi * Parviz Eslampour * Parvin E\'tesami * Forough Farrokhzad
Forough Farrokhzad
* Hossein Monzavi * Hushang Irani
Hushang Irani
* Iraj Mirza
Iraj Mirza
* Bijan Jalali * Siavash Kasraie * Esmail Khoi * Shams Langeroodi * Mohammad Mokhtari * Nosrat Rahmani * Yadollah Royaee * Tahereh Saffarzadeh * Sohrab Sepehri * Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani * Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar
Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar
* Ahmad Shamlou * Manouchehr Sheybani * Nima Yooshij * Fereydoon Moshiri * Rasoul Yunan

ARMENIA

* Edward Haghverdian

AFGHANISTAN

* Nadia Anjuman * Wasef Bakhtari * Raziq Faani * Khalilullah Khalili * Youssof Kohzad * Massoud Nawabi * Abdul Ali Mustaghni

TAJIKISTAN

* Sadriddin Ayni
Sadriddin Ayni
* Farzona * Iskandar Khatloni * Abolqasem Lahouti * Gulrukhsor Safieva * Loiq Sher-Ali * Payrav Sulaymoni * Mirzo Tursunzoda

UZBEKISTAN

* Asad Gulzoda

PAKISTAN

* Muhammad Iqbal
Muhammad Iqbal

NOVELS

* Ali Mohammad Afghani * Ghazaleh Alizadeh * Bozorg Alavi * Reza Amirkhani * Mahshid Amirshahi * Reza Baraheni * Simin Daneshvar
Simin Daneshvar
* Mahmoud Dowlatabadi * Reza Ghassemi * Houshang Golshiri * Aboutorab Khosravi * Ahmad Mahmoud * Shahriyar Mandanipour * Abbas Maroufi * Iraj Pezeshkzad

SHORT STORIES

* Jalal Al-e-Ahmad
Jalal Al-e-Ahmad
* Shamim Bahar * Sadeq Chubak * Simin Daneshvar
Simin Daneshvar
* Nader Ebrahimi * Ebrahim Golestan * Houshang Golshiri * Sadegh Hedayat * Mohammad-Ali Jamalzadeh * Aboutorab Khosravi * Mostafa Mastoor * Jaafar Modarres-Sadeghi * Houshang Moradi Kermani * Bijan Najdi * Shahrnush Parsipur * Gholam-Hossein Sa\'edi * Bahram Sadeghi * Goli Taraqqi

PLAYS

* Reza Abdoh * Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh * Hamid Amjad * Bahram Beyzai
Bahram Beyzai
* Mohammad Charmshir * Alireza Koushk Jalali * Hadi Marzban * Bijan Mofid * Hengameh Mofid * Abbas Nalbandian * Akbar Radi * Pari Saberi * Mohammad Yaghoubi

SCREENPLAYS

* Saeed Aghighi * Rakhshan Bani-E\'temad * Bahram Beyzai
Bahram Beyzai
* Hajir Darioush * Pouran Derakhshandeh * Asghar Farhadi
Asghar Farhadi
* Bahman Farmanara * Farrokh Ghaffari * Behrouz Gharibpour * Bahman Ghobadi * Fereydun Gole * Ebrahim Golestan * Ali Hatami * Abolfazl Jalili * Ebrahim Hatamikia
Ebrahim Hatamikia
* Abdolreza Kahani
Abdolreza Kahani
* Varuzh Karim-Masihi * Samuel Khachikian * Abbas Kiarostami
Abbas Kiarostami
* David Mahmoudieh * Majid Majidi * Mohsen Makhmalbaf * Dariush Mehrjui * Reza Mirkarimi
Reza Mirkarimi
* Rasoul Mollagholipour * Amir Naderi
Amir Naderi
* Jafar Panahi
Jafar Panahi
* Kambuzia Partovi
Kambuzia Partovi
* Rasul Sadr Ameli * Mohammad Sadri * Parviz Shahbazi * Sohrab Shahid-Saless

TRANSLATORS

* Amrollah Abjadian * Jaleh Amouzgar
Jaleh Amouzgar
* Najaf Daryabandari * Behzad Ghaderi Sohi * Mohammad Ghazi * Lili Golestan * Sadegh Hedayat * Saleh Hosseini * Ahmad Kamyabi Mask
Ahmad Kamyabi Mask
* Mohammad Moin * Ebrahim Pourdavoud * Hamid Samandarian * Jalal Sattari * Jafar Shahidi * Ahmad Shamlou * Ahmad Tafazzoli * Abbas Zaryab

ESSAYISTS

* Aydin Aghdashloo * Mohammad Ebrahim Bastani Parizi * Ehsan Yarshater
Ehsan Yarshater

Contemporary Persian and Classical Persian are the same language, but writers since 1900 are classified as contemporary. At one time, Persian was a common cultural language of much of the non-Arabic Islamic world. Today it is the official language of Iran
Iran
, Tajikistan and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
.

* v * t * e

Ancient anaesthesia

PLANTS / ANIMALS

* Aconitum
Aconitum
(aconite) * Atropa belladonna (belladonna)

* Cannabis

* medical use

* Castoreum * Coca
Coca
* Conium
Conium
(hemlock) * Datura innoxia (thorn-apple) * Datura metel (devil's trumpet) * Hyoscyamus niger (henbane) * Lactucarium * Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
(mandrake) * Opium
Opium
* Saussurea (saw-wort) * Willow
Willow

PEOPLE

* Abulcasis * Avenzoar * Avicenna * Celsus * Dioscorides * Galen
Galen
* Hippocrates
Hippocrates
* Rhazes * Sabuncuoğlu * Sushrutha * Theophrastus
Theophrastus
* Zhang

COMPOUNDS

* Aconitine
Aconitine
* Atropine
Atropine
* Cocaine
Cocaine
* Coniine * Hyoscine * Δ9-THC * Hyoscyamine
Hyoscyamine
* Morphine
Morphine
* Salicylate

* v * t * e

Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam
Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam

ALCHEMISTS

7TH CENTURY

* Khālid ibn Yazīd

8TH CENTURY

* Harbi al-Himyari * Ja\'far al-Sadiq

9TH CENTURY

* Jābir ibn Hayyān
Jābir ibn Hayyān
* Abbas ibn Firnas * Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri * Ziryab

10TH CENTURY

* Ibn Wahshiyya * Muhammed ibn Umail al-Tamimi
Muhammed ibn Umail al-Tamimi
* Al-Razi * Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
* Ibn al-Nadim * Al-Majriti * Abu Mansur Muwaffaq

11TH CENTURY

* Ibn al-Wafid * Al-Bīrūnī * Avicenna * Al-Khwarizmi al-Khati * Miskawayh * Al-Mu\'izz ibn Badis * Ahmad ibn \'Imad al-Din

12TH CENTURY

* Al-Khazini * Artephius * Al-Tughrai * Al-Nabarawi * Abu\'l Hasan ibn Arfa Ra\'a * Abu al-Salt

13TH CENTURY

* Ibn al-Baitar * Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati * Al