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The Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
pardinus) is a wild cat species native to the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in southwestern Europe that is listed as Endangered on the IUCN
IUCN
Red List.[1] It preys almost exclusively on the European rabbit.[2] In the 20th century, the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
population declined because of sharp declines in rabbit populations, caused by myxomatosis, rabbit haemorrhagic disease and overhunting, fragmentation of grassland and forest habitats and poaching.[3] By the turn of the 21st century, the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
was on the verge of extinction, as only about 100 individuals survived in two isolated subpopulations in Andalusia. Conservation measures implemented since 2002 included improving habitat, restocking of rabbits, translocating and re-introducing Iberian lynxes, so that by 2012 the population had increased to 326 individuals.[4] As an attempt to save this species from extinction, an EU LIFE project is underway that includes habitat preservation, lynx population monitoring, and rabbit population management.[5] Formerly considered a subspecies of the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
lynx), the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
is now classified as a separate species. Both species occurred together in Central Europe
Central Europe
in the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and evolved as distinct species in the Late Pleistocene.[6] The Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
is thought to have evolved from Lynx
Lynx
issiodorensis.[7]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 Distribution and habitat 3 Ecology and behaviour 4 Reproduction 5 Conservation

5.1 Wild population and re-introductions 5.2 Captive breeding

6 Genetic studies 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Characteristics[edit]

Closeup of the Iberian lynx

The Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
has a bright yellowish to tawny colored spotted and short fur, a short body, long legs, a short tail, a small head with tufted ears and facial whiskers, called a ruff. Head and body length of males is 74.7 to 82 cm (29.4 to 32.3 in) with a 12.5 to 16 cm (4.9 to 6.3 in) long tail and a weight of 7 to 15.9 kg (15 to 35 lb). Males are larger than females who have a head-to-body-length of 68.2 to 77.5 cm (26.9 to 30.5 in) and weigh 9.2 to 10 kg (20 to 22 lb).[8] The spot pattern of the fur varies from uniformly and densely distributed small spots to more elongate spots arranged in lines that decrease in size from the back towards the sides.[9] Distribution and habitat[edit] The Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
was once present throughout the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
and southern France. In the 1950s, the northern population extended from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
to Galicia and parts of northern Portugal, and the southern population from central to southern Spain.[10] Populations declined from 15 subpopulations in the 1940s to only two subpopulations in the early 1990s, most noticeably in Montes de Toledo and Sierra Morena. Before 1973, it was present in Sierra de Gata, Montes de Toledo, eastern Sierra Morena, Sierra de Relumbrar and Doñana coastal plains. Between the early 1960s and 2000, it has lost about 80% of its former range.[11][12] It is now restricted to very limited areas in southern Spain, with breeding only confirmed in Sierra Morena
Sierra Morena
and Doñana coastal plains.[6] A study of mitochondrial DNA from fossil remains, published in March 2015, suggests the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
had a wider range during the Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and Holocene, including northern Italy and southern France.[13] The Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
prefers heterogeneous environments of open grassland mixed with dense shrubs such as strawberry tree, mastic, and juniper, and trees such as holm oak and cork oak. It is now largely restricted to mountainous areas. Ecology and behaviour[edit]

Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
hunting Common quail
Common quail
Coturnix coturnix

Swiping with right paw with claws extended

Caught prey in mouth

The Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
preys foremost on the European rabbit
European rabbit
(Oryctolagus cuniculus) for the bulk of its diet, supplemented by red-legged partridge, rodents and to a smaller degree also on wild ungulates.[14][15][16] It sometimes preys on young fallow deer, roe deer, mouflon, and ducks.[17] A male requires one rabbit per day while a female raising kittens will eat three per day.[18] The Iberian species has low adaptability — it continued to rely heavily on rabbits (75% of its food intake) despite the latter's repeated population crashes due to two diseases: myxomatosis, which spread to Iberia after a physician intentionally introduced it in France in 1952, and rabbit haemorrhagic disease beginning in 1988.[3] There were two major outbreaks of the latter in 2011 and 2012.[19] Recovery has occurred in some areas — in 2013, rabbit overpopulation was reported south of Córdoba, causing damage to transport infrastructure and farms.[20] In December 2013, however, it was reported that wildlife officials were concerned about the spread of a new strain of the hemorraghic disease, affecting mainly young rabbits.[21][22] Sierra Morena's rabbit population was worst affected, falling from an average of three per hectare to less than one — below the minimum required level of 1.5 to two per hectare.[23] Forced to travel greater distances for food, the lynx became more susceptible to death in road accidents, particularly on Autovía A-4.[23] It competes for prey with the red fox, the Egyptian mongoose ( Herpestes
Herpestes
ichneumon) and the wildcat. Also, it often kills other smaller carnivores such as the red fox, the Egyptian mongoose, and the Common genet
Common genet
(Genetta genetta).[24] The species is solitary and hunts alone; it will stalk its prey or lie in wait for hours behind a bush or rock until the prey is sufficiently close to pounce in a few strides. The Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
is smaller than its northern relatives, and typically hunts smaller animals, usually no larger than hares. It also differs in habitat choice, with Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
inhabiting open scrubland and Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
inhabiting forests.[25] A lynx, especially with younger animals, will roam widely, with ranges reaching more than 100 km (62 mi). Its territory (≈10 to 20 km2 (3.9 to 7.7 sq mi)) is also dependent on how much food is available.[18] Adult Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
tend to require a minimum amount of space of 5 to 20 km2 (1.9 to 7.7 sq mi), and a population of 50 breeding females requires about 500 km2 (190 sq mi) of habitat area.[16] Nonetheless, once established, ranges tend to be stable in size over many years, the boundaries often being along man-made roads and trails. The Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
marks its territory with its urine, droppings left in existing tracks through the vegetation, and scratch marks on the barks of trees.[8] Reproduction[edit]

Specimen in the Doñana National Park

During the mating season the female leaves her territory in search of a male. The typical gestation period is about two months; the kittens are born between March and September, with a peak of births in March and April. A litter consists of two or three (rarely one, four or five) kittens weighing between 200 and 250 grams (7.1 and 8.8 oz). The kittens become independent at 7 to 10 months old, but remain with the mother until around 20 months old. Survival of the young depends heavily on the availability of prey species. In the wild, both males and females reach sexual maturity at the age of one year, though in practice they rarely breed until a territory becomes vacant; one female was known not to breed until five years old when its mother died. The maximum longevity in the wild is 13 years.[25][26] Siblings become violent towards one another between 30 and 60 days, peaking at 45 days. A kitten will frequently kill its littermate in a brutal fight. It is unknown why these episodes of aggression occur, though many scientists believe it is related to a change in hormones when a kitten switches from its mother's milk to meat. Others believe it is related to hierarchy, and "survival of the fittest." Difficulty in finding mates has led to more inbreeding, which results in fewer kittens and a greater rate of non-traumatic death.[27] Inbreeding leads to lower semen quality and greater rates of infertility in males, hindering efforts to increase the species' fitness.[28] Conservation[edit] The Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
has been downlisted from critically endangered species to endangered species thanks to reintroduction and other conservation actions. Its small population makes the cat especially vulnerable to extinction from sudden random events such as a natural disaster or disease.[29] Conservation measures include restoring its native habitat, maintaining the wild rabbit population, reducing unnatural causes of death, and captive breeding for release.[29] The Spanish National Commission for the Protection of Nature endorsed the Iberian Lynx
Lynx
Ex Situ Conservation Breeding Program to serve as a "safety net" by managing the captive population and also to "help establish new Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
free-ranging populations through reintroduction programmes."[29] Before release of captive-bred cats, their natural habit may be simulated to prepare them for life in the wild.[29] A 2006 study used a non-intrusive monitoring system involving cameras to monitor the demographics of both lynxes and rabbits residing in Sierra Morena.[30] Supplemental food sources could be provided if wild rabbits suffered a decline.[30] The Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
and its habitat are fully protected, and they are no longer legally hunted. Threats include habitat loss, vehicle strikes, poisoning, feral dogs, illegal poaching, and occasional outbreaks of feline leukemia.[31] Chronic renal illness affects some captive animals.[32] Habitat loss is due mainly to infrastructure improvement, urban and resort development and tree monocultivation, which fragments the lynx's distribution. In the 20th century, rabbit diseases such as myxomatosis and hemorrhagic disease resulted in a dramatic decline of its main prey;[33] outbreaks have been reported into the 2010s.[19] Accidental vehicle strikes are the leading cause of unnatural death;[34][35] The death toll on Spanish roads was 14 in 2013,[36] and 21 in 2014.[37] Illegal traps set for rabbits and foxes are other leading causes for lynx fatality.[38] In 2013, it was reported that the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
possesses antibiotic resistant bacteria within its digestive tract, which may lead to more dangerous and difficult-to-treat infections and decrease the cat's fitness.[39] A 2013 study suggests climate change may threaten the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
species due to their inability to adapt well to new climates or it may lead them to relocate to areas that have a more suitable climate but fewer rabbits, increasing mortality.[40] Management efforts are being developed to conserve and restore the animal's native range.[41] Officials intending to release captive-bred lynx look for areas of appropriate habitat, rabbit abundance, and acceptance by the local human population.[42] About 90 million euros was spent on various conservation measures between 1994 and 2013.[43] The European Union
European Union
contributes up to 61% of funding.[21][31]

Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
in closeup

Wild population and re-introductions[edit]

Graph showing Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
population in Spain, 1960–2007

The Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
species has declined by about 80% in the last 20 years. The cat was estimated to number 3,000 in 1960,[44] about 400 in 2000, less than 200 in 2002, and possibly as few as 100 in March 2005.[45] Doñana National Park
Doñana National Park
and the Sierra de Andújar, Jaén had the only known breeding populations until the 2007 discovery of a previously unknown population of around 15 individuals in Castile-La Mancha (central Spain).[46][47] In 2008, the Doñana population was assessed at 24 to 33, while the Sierra Morena
Sierra Morena
group was believed to number 67 to 190 adults. The total population was estimated to be 99 to 158 adults, including the La Mancha population. The Iberian lynx was thus listed as Critically Endangered under C2a(i) on the IUCN Redlist.[1] Beginning in 2009, the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
was reintroduced into Guadalmellato, resulting in a population of 23 in 2013.[48] Since 2010, the species has also been released in Guarrizas.[42][49] Discussions were held with the Ministry of Environment on plans for releases in the Campanarios de Azaba area near Salamanca.[50] In April 2013, it was reported that Andalusia's total wild population—only 94 in 2002—had tripled to 309 individuals.[51][48] In July 2013, environmental groups confirmed the presence of a wild-born litter in the Province of Cáceres
Province of Cáceres
(Extremadura).[52] A study published in July 2013 in Nature Climate Change advised that reintroduction programs take place in northern Iberia, suggesting that climate change would threaten rabbits in the south.[43][53] On 26 November 2014, 8 Iberian lynxes were released into Toledo, Spain; one of them traveled near Madrid, the first time in 40 years.[54] The presence of Iberian lynxes in Portugal, particularly in the south has been verified.[55] In 2014, the Institute for Nature Conservation and Forests signed contracts securing 2,000 hectares of land for Portugal's reintroduction project.[56][57][58] On 16 December 2014, a pair of Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
was released into Guadiana Valley Natural Park near Mértola, Portugal.[59] On 7 February 2015, another pair was released into the park, but the female was later found dead on 12 March 2015 after being poisoned in Mertola.[60] The last pair of captive-bred Iberian lynxes were released into Guadiana Valley Nature Reserve on 12 May 2015.[61] By the end of 2015 there were 400 lynx on the Iberian peninsula, the vast majority in Andalusia, in southern Spain, but with smaller new populations in the hills near Toledo, in Extremadura
Extremadura
(south-western Spain) and in southern Portugal.[62] The reintroduction of iberian lynx in Portugal has been a success, from 17 animals that were reintroduced, 12 have already established territories .[63] Since a 2007 outbreak of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), wild lynxes are tested periodically for possible disease. September–December 2013 samples were negative for FeLV but one male became the first of his species to test positive for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and was placed into quarantine.[64] Captive breeding[edit]

The Iberian Lynx
Lynx
CNRLI reproduction centre near the village of Vale Fuzeiros near the town of Silves, Portugal

In 2002, the Jerez Zoo confirmed it had three females and was developing a plan for a captive breeding program.[65] One of those females was Saliega, captured as a kitten in April 2002.[65] She became the first Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
to breed in captivity, giving birth to three healthy kittens on 29 March 2005 at the El Acebuche Breeding Center, in the Doñana Nature Park in Huelva, Spain.[66] Over the following years, the number of births grew and additional breeding centers were opened. In March 2009, it was reported that 27 kittens had been born since the beginning of the program.[67] In 2009, the Spanish government planned to build a €5.5 million breeding center in Zarza de Granadilla.[67] In Portugal the Centro Nacional de Reprodução do Lince-Ibérico (CNRLI) established a breeding center in Silves.[68][69] There were 14 surviving kittens in 2008 and 15 in 2009.[70] In 2010, intense rain and health issues resulted in lower reproductive success—14 born, 8 surviving[70]—but the next year, breeding centers recorded 45 births with 26 surviving kittens.[71] In 2012, breeding centers in Portugal and Spain
Spain
reported a total of 44 survivors from 59 births,[71][72] while 2013 saw a total of 44 survivors out of 53 born.[73] In 2017, the total population of Iberian lynx reached 475 specimens.[74] In March 2013, it was reported that Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
embryos and oocytes had been collected and preserved for the first time.[75] They were collected from Saliega and another female—both sterilized and retired from the breeding program—by Berlin's Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research and stored in liquid nitrogen at the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid
Madrid
for possible future breeding.[75] In July 2014, the MNCN-CSIC announced they had produced sperm cells from the testicular tissue of sexually immature lynx.[76] Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
can be observed in captivity only at the Jerez Zoo,[77] since December 2014 at the Lisbon Zoo,[78] and since July 2016 at the Madrid
Madrid
Zoo.[79] The Jerez animals integrate the breeding program, the two Lisbon lynxes were formerly in the Portuguese breeding center but are no longer suited for the program (the female had multiple failed pregnancies and the male has a form of epilepsy),[80] and the two Madrid
Madrid
lynxes were equally retired from the breeding program for not being suited for reproduction. Genetic studies[edit] In August 2012, researchers announced that the genome of the Iberian lynx had been sequenced.[81] They also plan genetic testing of the remains of long-deceased lynx to quantify loss of genetic diversity and improve conservation programs.[82] In December 2012, it was reported that researchers had located remains of 466 Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
in private and museum collections.[82] However, it is estimated that 40% of specimens were lost over the preceding 20 years.[82] Genetic diversity in the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
is lower than in any other felids known to be genetically impoverished, including the cheetah ( Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus), Ngorongoro crater lions, and Scandinavia's Eurasian lynx. Researchers believe this may be a consequence of decreasing population sizes and isolation.[83] A study published in 2013 indicated strong genetic differentiation between the Doñana and Andujar populations, due to both allelic frequencies and allelic composition. Doñana lynxes have differentiated more from the ancestral population as a result of their longer isolation and lower population size. The researchers suggested bringing the two groups together in order to lessen the degree of inbreeding.[83] See also[edit]

Cats portal Mammals portal

Bobcat Canada lynx

References[edit]

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(in Spanish). Andaluces Diario. 1 January 2014. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014.  ^ Donaire, Ginés (19 February 2015). "Rise in Iberian lynx
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in a changing climate". Nature Climate Change. 3 (10): 899–903. Bibcode:2013NatCC...3..899F. doi:10.1038/nclimate1954.  ^ Clavero, M.; Delibes, M. (2013). "Using historical accounts to set conservation baselines: the case of Lynx
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presence in Castilla-La Mancha" (PDF). LynxBrief. 10: 3.  ^ a b "La Junta de Andalucía refuerza en el Guadalmellato la población de lince ibérico con la suelta de dos ejemplares" [ Andalusia
Andalusia
reinforces Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
population in Guadalmellato with the release of two individuals]. El Economista (in Spanish). 8 April 2013.  ^ Ward, Dan (December 2008). "LynxBrief" (PDF).  ^ "Wildlife returns to Western Iberia". Rewilding Europe. 8 May 2012.  ^ "La población de linces se triplica en Andalucía en los últimos diez años" [The lynx population has tripled in Andalusia
Andalusia
in the last ten years]. El Mundo (in Spanish). 9 April 2013.  ^ "Grupos ecologistas confirman que el lince ibérico cría en libertad en Cáceres" [Environmental group confirm the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
is breeding in the wild in Cáceres]. EFE
EFE
(in Spanish). ABC.es. 6 July 2013.  ^ Ghose, Tia (21 July 2013). "Climate Change Could Wipe Out Iberian Lynx". Live Science.  ^ "Iberian Lynx
Lynx
returns to Madrid
Madrid
region after 40 years". El Pais. 10 March 2015.  ^ Soares, Marisa (1 June 2013). "Lince ibérico, o mais ameaçado dos felinos, fotografado em Milfontes" [The Iberian Lynx, the most threatened feline, was photographed in Milfontes]. Publico.pt (in Portuguese).  ^ " Lynx
Lynx
pardinas (2000)". ICNF Portal
Portal
(in Portuguese). ICN:B. Retrieved 27 June 2017.  ^ http://www.icnf.pt/portal/naturaclas/rn2000/resource/docs/rn-plan-set/mamif/lynx-pardinus/ ^ Bratley, Carrie-Marie (13 November 2014). "More space in Portugal in pipeline for Iberian Lynx". The Portugal News.  ^ "Portugal makes history with first release of Iberian Lynx". The Portugal News. 18 December 2014.  ^ "Iberian Lynx
Lynx
female released last month found dead". The Portugal News. 19 March 2015.  ^ "Final two Iberian Lynx
Lynx
released into the wild". theportugalnews.com. The Portugal News. 14 May 2015.  ^ "The return of the lynx". bbc.com. BBC. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.  ^ "Começou a época de 2017 de libertações de linces em Portugal". 17 February 2017.  ^ "Resultado negativo en los chequeos a linces para detectar leucemia felina, con un positivo de virus de inmunodeficiencia" [Lynxes negative for feline leukemia but one positive for immunodeficiency virus]. Europa Press (in Spanish). La Informacion. 30 December 2013. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013.  ^ a b Gonçalves, Eduardo (April 2002). "Captured cubs hold future of Europe's tiger". London: The Guardian.  ^ "Hopes raised by Spain
Spain
lynx births". BBC News. 30 March 2005. Retrieved 5 September 2012.  ^ a b "Endangered Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
cubs born in Spain". Associated Press. 20 March 2009.  ^ Bratley, Carrie-Marie (27 June 2013). "Silves-born Iberian lynx released in Spain". The Portugal News.  ^ Tomás, Carla; de Atayde, André (2 April 2013). "Quinze crias de lince ibérico nascem em Silves" [Fifteen Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
cubs born in Silves]. Expresso.sapo.pt (in Portuguese).  ^ a b Sierra, David (18 August 2010). "Fallece 'Geo', uno de los cachorros de lince ibérico nacido en cautividad este año" [Death of 'Geo', one of this season's captive-born Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
cubs] (in Spanish). rtve.es.  ^ a b "Nacen 59 ejemplares de lince esta temporada en el Programa de Cría en Cautividad" [59 lynx kittens born this season as part of the Captive Breeding Program]. Europa Press (in Spanish). 17 June 2012.  ^ "Success in Silves as seven lynx cubs are born". The Portugal News. 31 March 2012.  ^ "El programa de cría en cautividad del lince ibérico acaba la temporada con 44 cachorros" [The lynx captive breeding program ends the season with 44 cubs]. EFE
EFE
(in Spanish). 20minutos.es. 9 September 2013.  ^ "El lince ibérico amplía sus dominios y alcanza los 475 ejemplares, pese a la falta de conejos y los atropellos". La Vanguardia. Retrieved 11 July 2017.  ^ a b "For the first time Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
embryos are collected and preserved". Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (FVB). phys.org. 23 March 2013.  ^ Mosquera Rodriguez, Eva (22 July 2014). "Esperma 'de laboratorio' para salvar al lince ibérico" [Laboratory-made sperm to save the Iberian lynx]. El Mundo (in Spanish).  ^ "The Iberian Lynx
Lynx
at the Zoobotanico de Jerez (in Spanish)".  ^ Novais, Vera (21 December 2014). "Os felinos mais ameacados do mundo ja moram em Lisboa" [O casal de linces-ibéricos chegou ao Jardim Zoológico de Lisboa com uma missão especial: mostrar aos visitantes o que os torna os felinos mais ameaçados do mundo.]. Observador (in Portuguese).  ^ "Llega a Zoo Aquarium de Madrid
Madrid
una pareja de linces ibéricos del proyecto Iberlince". Zoo Aquarium Madrid. 20 July 2016.  ^ Figueiredo, Filipe (17 March 2015). "Nova Visita ao Zoo de Lisboa – O Lince Ibérico" [New visit to the Lisbon Zoo
Lisbon Zoo
– The Iberian Lynx]. O Último Reduto (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 10 February 2016.  ^ Ansede, Manuel (8 August 2012). "Secuenciado el genoma del lince ibérico" [Genome of the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
is sequenced]. Materia (in Spanish).  ^ a b c Ansede, Manuel (31 December 2012). "Hay más linces ibéricos disecados o convertidos en alfombras que vivos" [There are more Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
stuffed or converted into carpets than living ones]. Materia (in Spanish).  ^ a b Casas-Marce, M.; Soriano, L.; López-Bao, J. V. & Godoy, J. A. (2013). "Genetics at the verge of extinction: insights from the Iberian lynx". Molecular Ecology. 22 (22): 5503–5515. doi:10.1111/mec.12498. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lynx
Lynx
pardinus.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Lynx
Lynx
pardinus

Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe – Iberian lynx Programa de Conservación Ex-Situ Official Spanish government page (in Spanish) Species portrait Iberian lynx; IUCN/SSC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group ARKive
ARKive
– Images and movies of the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
pardinus) The natural history of the Iberian lynx Lynx
Lynx
in vertebradosibericos.org (in Spanish) WWF species profile: Iberian lynx Lynx
Lynx
pardinus in Naturdata (in Portuguese)

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean
Mediterranean
monk seal (M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q129727 ADW: Lynx_pardinus ARKive: lynx-pardinus EoL: 347432 EPPO: LYNXPA Fauna Europaea: 305369 Fossilworks: 224061 GBIF: 2435261 iNaturalist: 41975 ITIS: 621869 IUCN: 12520 MSW: 14000162 NCBI: 191816 Species+: 8879

Authority control

LCCN: sh94003

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