Iberian lynx (
Lynx pardinus) is a wild cat species native to the
Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe that is listed as Endangered
IUCN Red List. It preys almost exclusively on the European
rabbit. In the 20th century, the
Iberian lynx population declined
because of sharp declines in rabbit populations, caused by
myxomatosis, rabbit haemorrhagic disease and overhunting,
fragmentation of grassland and forest habitats and poaching.
By the turn of the 21st century, the
Iberian lynx was on the verge of
extinction, as only about 100 individuals survived in two isolated
subpopulations in Andalusia. Conservation measures implemented since
2002 included improving habitat, restocking of rabbits, translocating
and re-introducing Iberian lynxes, so that by 2012 the population had
increased to 326 individuals. As an attempt to save this species
from extinction, an EU LIFE project is underway that includes habitat
preservation, lynx population monitoring, and rabbit population
Formerly considered a subspecies of the
Eurasian lynx (
Lynx lynx), the
Iberian lynx is now classified as a separate species. Both species
occurred together in
Central Europe in the
Pleistocene and evolved as
distinct species in the Late Pleistocene. The
Iberian lynx is
thought to have evolved from
2 Distribution and habitat
3 Ecology and behaviour
5.1 Wild population and re-introductions
5.2 Captive breeding
6 Genetic studies
7 See also
9 External links
Closeup of the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx has a bright yellowish to tawny colored spotted and
short fur, a short body, long legs, a short tail, a small head with
tufted ears and facial whiskers, called a ruff. Head and body length
of males is 74.7 to 82 cm (29.4 to 32.3 in) with a 12.5 to
16 cm (4.9 to 6.3 in) long tail and a weight of 7 to
15.9 kg (15 to 35 lb). Males are larger than females who
have a head-to-body-length of 68.2 to 77.5 cm (26.9 to
30.5 in) and weigh 9.2 to 10 kg (20 to 22 lb).
The spot pattern of the fur varies from uniformly and densely
distributed small spots to more elongate spots arranged in lines that
decrease in size from the back towards the sides.
Distribution and habitat
Iberian lynx was once present throughout the
Iberian Peninsula and
southern France. In the 1950s, the northern population extended from
Mediterranean to Galicia and parts of northern Portugal, and the
southern population from central to southern Spain. Populations
declined from 15 subpopulations in the 1940s to only two
subpopulations in the early 1990s, most noticeably in Montes de Toledo
and Sierra Morena. Before 1973, it was present in Sierra de Gata,
Montes de Toledo, eastern Sierra Morena, Sierra de Relumbrar and
Doñana coastal plains. Between the early 1960s and 2000, it has lost
about 80% of its former range. It is now restricted to very
limited areas in southern Spain, with breeding only confirmed in
Sierra Morena and Doñana coastal plains.
A study of mitochondrial DNA from fossil remains, published in March
2015, suggests the
Iberian lynx had a wider range during the Late
Pleistocene and Holocene, including northern Italy and southern
Iberian lynx prefers heterogeneous environments of open grassland
mixed with dense shrubs such as strawberry tree, mastic, and juniper,
and trees such as holm oak and cork oak. It is now largely restricted
to mountainous areas.
Ecology and behaviour
Iberian lynx hunting
Common quail Coturnix coturnix
Swiping with right paw with claws extended
Caught prey in mouth
Iberian lynx preys foremost on the
European rabbit (Oryctolagus
cuniculus) for the bulk of its diet, supplemented by red-legged
partridge, rodents and to a smaller degree also on wild
ungulates. It sometimes preys on young fallow deer, roe
deer, mouflon, and ducks. A male requires one rabbit per day while
a female raising kittens will eat three per day. The Iberian
species has low adaptability — it continued to rely heavily on
rabbits (75% of its food intake) despite the latter's repeated
population crashes due to two diseases: myxomatosis, which spread to
Iberia after a physician intentionally introduced it in France in
1952, and rabbit haemorrhagic disease beginning in 1988. There were
two major outbreaks of the latter in 2011 and 2012. Recovery has
occurred in some areas — in 2013, rabbit overpopulation was reported
south of Córdoba, causing damage to transport infrastructure and
farms. In December 2013, however, it was reported that wildlife
officials were concerned about the spread of a new strain of the
hemorraghic disease, affecting mainly young rabbits. Sierra
Morena's rabbit population was worst affected, falling from an average
of three per hectare to less than one — below the minimum required
level of 1.5 to two per hectare. Forced to travel greater
distances for food, the lynx became more susceptible to death in road
accidents, particularly on Autovía A-4.
It competes for prey with the red fox, the Egyptian mongoose
Herpestes ichneumon) and the wildcat. Also, it often kills other
smaller carnivores such as the red fox, the Egyptian mongoose, and the
Common genet (Genetta genetta). The species is solitary and hunts
alone; it will stalk its prey or lie in wait for hours behind a bush
or rock until the prey is sufficiently close to pounce in a few
Iberian lynx is smaller than its northern relatives, and typically
hunts smaller animals, usually no larger than hares. It also differs
in habitat choice, with
Iberian lynx inhabiting open scrubland and
Eurasian lynx inhabiting forests.
A lynx, especially with younger animals, will roam widely, with ranges
reaching more than 100 km (62 mi). Its territory (≈10 to
20 km2 (3.9 to 7.7 sq mi)) is also dependent on how
much food is available. Adult
Iberian lynx tend to require a
minimum amount of space of 5 to 20 km2 (1.9 to
7.7 sq mi), and a population of 50 breeding females requires
about 500 km2 (190 sq mi) of habitat area.
Nonetheless, once established, ranges tend to be stable in size over
many years, the boundaries often being along man-made roads and
Iberian lynx marks its territory with its urine, droppings
left in existing tracks through the vegetation, and scratch marks on
the barks of trees.
Specimen in the Doñana National Park
During the mating season the female leaves her territory in search of
a male. The typical gestation period is about two months; the kittens
are born between March and September, with a peak of births in March
and April. A litter consists of two or three (rarely one, four or
five) kittens weighing between 200 and 250 grams (7.1 and
The kittens become independent at 7 to 10 months old, but remain with
the mother until around 20 months old. Survival of the young depends
heavily on the availability of prey species. In the wild, both males
and females reach sexual maturity at the age of one year, though in
practice they rarely breed until a territory becomes vacant; one
female was known not to breed until five years old when its mother
died. The maximum longevity in the wild is 13 years.
Siblings become violent towards one another between 30 and 60 days,
peaking at 45 days. A kitten will frequently kill its littermate in a
brutal fight. It is unknown why these episodes of aggression occur,
though many scientists believe it is related to a change in hormones
when a kitten switches from its mother's milk to meat. Others believe
it is related to hierarchy, and "survival of the fittest."
Difficulty in finding mates has led to more inbreeding, which results
in fewer kittens and a greater rate of non-traumatic death.
Inbreeding leads to lower semen quality and greater rates of
infertility in males, hindering efforts to increase the species'
Iberian lynx has been downlisted from critically endangered
species to endangered species thanks to reintroduction and other
conservation actions. Its small population makes the cat especially
vulnerable to extinction from sudden random events such as a natural
disaster or disease. Conservation measures include restoring its
native habitat, maintaining the wild rabbit population, reducing
unnatural causes of death, and captive breeding for release. The
Spanish National Commission for the Protection of Nature endorsed the
Lynx Ex Situ Conservation Breeding Program to serve as a
"safety net" by managing the captive population and also to "help
Iberian lynx free-ranging populations through
reintroduction programmes." Before release of captive-bred cats,
their natural habit may be simulated to prepare them for life in the
wild. A 2006 study used a non-intrusive monitoring system
involving cameras to monitor the demographics of both lynxes and
rabbits residing in Sierra Morena. Supplemental food sources could
be provided if wild rabbits suffered a decline.
Iberian lynx and its habitat are fully protected, and they are no
longer legally hunted. Threats include habitat loss, vehicle strikes,
poisoning, feral dogs, illegal poaching, and occasional outbreaks of
feline leukemia. Chronic renal illness affects some captive
animals. Habitat loss is due mainly to infrastructure improvement,
urban and resort development and tree monocultivation, which fragments
the lynx's distribution. In the 20th century, rabbit diseases such as
myxomatosis and hemorrhagic disease resulted in a dramatic decline of
its main prey; outbreaks have been reported into the 2010s.
Accidental vehicle strikes are the leading cause of unnatural
death; The death toll on Spanish roads was 14 in 2013, and
21 in 2014. Illegal traps set for rabbits and foxes are other
leading causes for lynx fatality.
In 2013, it was reported that the
Iberian lynx possesses antibiotic
resistant bacteria within its digestive tract, which may lead to more
dangerous and difficult-to-treat infections and decrease the cat's
fitness. A 2013 study suggests climate change may threaten the
Iberian lynx species due to their inability to adapt well to new
climates or it may lead them to relocate to areas that have a more
suitable climate but fewer rabbits, increasing mortality.
Management efforts are being developed to conserve and restore the
animal's native range. Officials intending to release captive-bred
lynx look for areas of appropriate habitat, rabbit abundance, and
acceptance by the local human population. About 90 million euros
was spent on various conservation measures between 1994 and 2013.
European Union contributes up to 61% of funding.
Iberian lynx in closeup
Wild population and re-introductions
Iberian lynx population in Spain, 1960–2007
Iberian lynx species has declined by about 80% in the last 20
years. The cat was estimated to number 3,000 in 1960, about 400 in
2000, less than 200 in 2002, and possibly as few as 100 in March
Doñana National Park
Doñana National Park and the Sierra de Andújar, Jaén had
the only known breeding populations until the 2007 discovery of a
previously unknown population of around 15 individuals in Castile-La
Mancha (central Spain). In 2008, the Doñana population was
assessed at 24 to 33, while the
Sierra Morena group was believed to
number 67 to 190 adults. The total population was estimated to be 99
to 158 adults, including the La Mancha population. The Iberian lynx
was thus listed as Critically Endangered under C2a(i) on the IUCN
Beginning in 2009, the
Iberian lynx was reintroduced into
Guadalmellato, resulting in a population of 23 in 2013. Since
2010, the species has also been released in Guarrizas.
Discussions were held with the Ministry of Environment on plans for
releases in the Campanarios de Azaba area near Salamanca. In April
2013, it was reported that Andalusia's total wild population—only 94
in 2002—had tripled to 309 individuals. In July 2013,
environmental groups confirmed the presence of a wild-born litter in
Province of Cáceres
Province of Cáceres (Extremadura). A study published in July
2013 in Nature Climate Change advised that reintroduction programs
take place in northern Iberia, suggesting that climate change would
threaten rabbits in the south.
On 26 November 2014, 8 Iberian lynxes were released into Toledo,
Spain; one of them traveled near Madrid, the first time in 40
The presence of Iberian lynxes in Portugal, particularly in the south
has been verified. In 2014, the Institute for Nature Conservation
and Forests signed contracts securing 2,000 hectares of land for
Portugal's reintroduction project. On 16 December 2014, a
Iberian lynx was released into Guadiana Valley Natural Park
near Mértola, Portugal. On 7 February 2015, another pair was
released into the park, but the female was later found dead on 12
March 2015 after being poisoned in Mertola. The last pair of
captive-bred Iberian lynxes were released into Guadiana Valley Nature
Reserve on 12 May 2015. By the end of 2015 there were 400 lynx on
the Iberian peninsula, the vast majority in Andalusia, in southern
Spain, but with smaller new populations in the hills near Toledo, in
Extremadura (south-western Spain) and in southern Portugal.
The reintroduction of iberian lynx in Portugal has been a success,
from 17 animals that were reintroduced, 12 have already established
Since a 2007 outbreak of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), wild lynxes are
tested periodically for possible disease. September–December 2013
samples were negative for FeLV but one male became the first of his
species to test positive for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and
was placed into quarantine.
Lynx CNRLI reproduction centre near the village of Vale
Fuzeiros near the town of Silves, Portugal
In 2002, the Jerez Zoo confirmed it had three females and was
developing a plan for a captive breeding program. One of those
females was Saliega, captured as a kitten in April 2002. She
became the first
Iberian lynx to breed in captivity, giving birth to
three healthy kittens on 29 March 2005 at the El Acebuche Breeding
Center, in the Doñana Nature Park in Huelva, Spain. Over the
following years, the number of births grew and additional breeding
centers were opened. In March 2009, it was reported that 27 kittens
had been born since the beginning of the program. In 2009, the
Spanish government planned to build a €5.5 million breeding center
in Zarza de Granadilla. In Portugal the Centro Nacional de
Reprodução do Lince-Ibérico (CNRLI) established a breeding center
There were 14 surviving kittens in 2008 and 15 in 2009. In 2010,
intense rain and health issues resulted in lower reproductive
success—14 born, 8 surviving—but the next year, breeding
centers recorded 45 births with 26 surviving kittens. In 2012,
breeding centers in Portugal and
Spain reported a total of 44
survivors from 59 births, while 2013 saw a total of 44
survivors out of 53 born. In 2017, the total population of Iberian
lynx reached 475 specimens.
In March 2013, it was reported that
Iberian lynx embryos and oocytes
had been collected and preserved for the first time. They were
Saliega and another female—both sterilized and
retired from the breeding program—by Berlin's Leibniz Institute for
Zoo and Wildlife Research and stored in liquid nitrogen at the Museo
Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in
Madrid for possible future
breeding. In July 2014, the MNCN-CSIC announced they had produced
sperm cells from the testicular tissue of sexually immature lynx.
Iberian lynx can be observed in captivity only at the Jerez Zoo,
since December 2014 at the Lisbon Zoo, and since July 2016 at the
Madrid Zoo. The Jerez animals integrate the breeding program, the
two Lisbon lynxes were formerly in the Portuguese breeding center but
are no longer suited for the program (the female had multiple failed
pregnancies and the male has a form of epilepsy), and the two
Madrid lynxes were equally retired from the breeding program for not
being suited for reproduction.
In August 2012, researchers announced that the genome of the Iberian
lynx had been sequenced. They also plan genetic testing of the
remains of long-deceased lynx to quantify loss of genetic diversity
and improve conservation programs. In December 2012, it was
reported that researchers had located remains of 466
Iberian lynx in
private and museum collections. However, it is estimated that 40%
of specimens were lost over the preceding 20 years.
Genetic diversity in the
Iberian lynx is lower than in any other
felids known to be genetically impoverished, including the cheetah
Acinonyx jubatus), Ngorongoro crater lions, and Scandinavia's
Eurasian lynx. Researchers believe this may be a consequence of
decreasing population sizes and isolation. A study published in
2013 indicated strong genetic differentiation between the Doñana and
Andujar populations, due to both allelic frequencies and allelic
composition. Doñana lynxes have differentiated more from the
ancestral population as a result of their longer isolation and lower
population size. The researchers suggested bringing the two groups
together in order to lessen the degree of inbreeding.
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Europe's tiger". London: The Guardian.
^ "Hopes raised by
Spain lynx births". BBC News. 30 March 2005.
Retrieved 5 September 2012.
^ a b "Endangered
Iberian lynx cubs born in Spain". Associated Press.
20 March 2009.
^ Bratley, Carrie-Marie (27 June 2013). "Silves-born Iberian lynx
released in Spain". The Portugal News.
^ Tomás, Carla; de Atayde, André (2 April 2013). "Quinze crias de
lince ibérico nascem em Silves" [Fifteen
Iberian lynx cubs born in
Silves]. Expresso.sapo.pt (in Portuguese).
^ a b Sierra, David (18 August 2010). "Fallece 'Geo', uno de los
cachorros de lince ibérico nacido en cautividad este año" [Death of
'Geo', one of this season's captive-born
Iberian lynx cubs] (in
^ a b "Nacen 59 ejemplares de lince esta temporada en el Programa de
Cría en Cautividad" [59 lynx kittens born this season as part of the
Captive Breeding Program]. Europa Press (in Spanish). 17 June
^ "Success in Silves as seven lynx cubs are born". The Portugal News.
31 March 2012.
^ "El programa de cría en cautividad del lince ibérico acaba la
temporada con 44 cachorros" [The lynx captive breeding program ends
the season with 44 cubs].
EFE (in Spanish). 20minutos.es. 9 September
^ "El lince ibérico amplía sus dominios y alcanza los 475
ejemplares, pese a la falta de conejos y los atropellos". La
Vanguardia. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
^ a b "For the first time
Iberian lynx embryos are collected and
preserved". Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (FVB). phys.org. 23 March
^ Mosquera Rodriguez, Eva (22 July 2014). "Esperma 'de laboratorio'
para salvar al lince ibérico" [Laboratory-made sperm to save the
Iberian lynx]. El Mundo (in Spanish).
^ "The Iberian
Lynx at the Zoobotanico de Jerez (in Spanish)".
^ Novais, Vera (21 December 2014). "Os felinos mais ameacados do mundo
ja moram em Lisboa" [O casal de linces-ibéricos chegou ao Jardim
Zoológico de Lisboa com uma missão especial: mostrar aos visitantes
o que os torna os felinos mais ameaçados do mundo.]. Observador (in
^ "Llega a Zoo Aquarium de
Madrid una pareja de linces ibéricos del
proyecto Iberlince". Zoo Aquarium Madrid. 20 July 2016.
^ Figueiredo, Filipe (17 March 2015). "Nova Visita ao Zoo de Lisboa
– O Lince Ibérico" [New visit to the
Lisbon Zoo – The Iberian
Lynx]. O Último Reduto (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on
10 February 2016.
^ Ansede, Manuel (8 August 2012). "Secuenciado el genoma del lince
ibérico" [Genome of the
Iberian lynx is sequenced]. Materia (in
^ a b c Ansede, Manuel (31 December 2012). "Hay más linces ibéricos
disecados o convertidos en alfombras que vivos" [There are more
Iberian lynx stuffed or converted into carpets than living ones].
Materia (in Spanish).
^ a b Casas-Marce, M.; Soriano, L.; López-Bao, J. V. & Godoy, J.
A. (2013). "Genetics at the verge of extinction: insights from the
Iberian lynx". Molecular Ecology. 22 (22): 5503–5515.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Wikispecies has information related to
Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe – Iberian lynx
Programa de Conservación Ex-Situ Official Spanish government page (in
Species portrait Iberian lynx; IUCN/SSC
Cat Specialist Group
ARKive – Images and movies of the
Iberian lynx (
The natural history of the Iberian lynx
Lynx in vertebradosibericos.org (in Spanish)
WWF species profile: Iberian lynx
Lynx pardinus in Naturdata (in Portuguese)
African palm civet
African palm civet (N. binotata)
Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)
Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda)
Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni)
Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes)
Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri)
Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei)
Common kusimanse (C. obscurus)
Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)
Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata)
Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii)
Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens)
Black mongoose (G. nigrata)
Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea)
Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta)
Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea)
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula)
Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)
Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus)
Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii)
Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus)
Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon)
Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose (H. javanicus)
Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso)
Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus)
Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii)
Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva)
Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)
White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)
Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)
Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus)
Banded mongoose (M. mungo)
Selous' mongoose (P. selousi)
Meller's mongoose (R. melleri)
Meerkat (S. suricatta)
Spotted hyena (C. crocuta)
Brown hyena (H. brunnea)
Striped hyena (H. hyaena)
Aardwolf (P. cristatus)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Small family listed below
Cheetah (A. jubatus)
Caracal (C. caracal)
African golden cat
African golden cat (C. aurata)
Bay cat (C. badia)
Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat (C. temminckii)
European wildcat (F. silvestris)
African wildcat (F. lybica)
Jungle cat (F. chaus)
Black-footed cat (F. nigripes)
Sand cat (F. margarita)
Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti)
Domestic cat (F. catus)
Ocelot (L. pardalis)
Margay (L. wiedii)
Pampas cat (L. colocola)
Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi)
Kodkod (L. guigna)
Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita)
Oncilla (L. tigrinus)
Southern tigrina (L. guttulus)
Serval (L. serval)
Canadian lynx (L. canadensis)
Eurasian lynx (L. lynx)
Iberian lynx (L. pardinus)
Bobcat (L. rufus)
Pallas's cat (O. manul)
Marbled cat (P. marmorata)
Fishing cat (P. viverrinus)
Leopard cat (P. bengalensis)
Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis)
Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps)
Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)
Cougar (P. concolor)
Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi)
Lion (P. leo)
Jaguar (P. onca)
Leopard (P. pardus)
Tiger (P. tigris)
Snow leopard (P. uncia)
Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa)
Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)
Viverridae (includes Civets)
Binturong (A. binturong)
Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)
Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)
Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet (P. larvata)
Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus)
Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)
Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni)
Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)
Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni)
Otter civet (C. bennettii)
Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet (D. hosei)
Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)
Banded linsang (P. linsang)
Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)
African civet (C. civetta)
Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica)
Angolan genet (G. angolensis)
Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni)
Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet (G. cristata)
Common genet (G. genetta)
Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni)
Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata)
Pardine genet (G. pardina)
Aquatic genet (G. piscivora)
King genet (G. poensis)
Servaline genet (G. servalina)
Haussa genet (G. thierryi)
Cape genet (G. tigrina)
Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)
African linsang (P. richardsonii)
Leighton's linsang (P. leightoni)
Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina)
Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila)
Malayan civet (V. tangalunga)
Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)
Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet (V. indica)
Fossa (C. ferox)
Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii)
Western falanouc (E. major)
Malagasy civet (F. fossana)
Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata)
Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri)
Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)
Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor)
Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)
Caniformia (cont. below)
Giant panda (A. melanoleuca)
Sun bear (H. malayanus)
Sloth bear (M. ursinus)
Spectacled bear (T. ornatus)
American black bear
American black bear (U. americanus)
Brown bear (U. arctos)
Polar bear (U. maritimus)
Asian black bear
Asian black bear (U. thibetanus)
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga)
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii)
American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus)
Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)
Hooded skunk (M. macroura)
Striped skunk (M. mephitis)
Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis)
Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)
Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons)
Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis)
Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius)
Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)
Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni)
Northern olingo (B. gabbii)
Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo (B. medius)
Olinguito (B. neblina)
Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus)
Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)
White-nosed coati (N. narica)
South American coati
South American coati (N. nasua)
Western mountain coati (N. olivacea)
Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)
Kinkajou (P. flavus)
Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus)
Raccoon (P. lotor)
Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)
Red panda (A. fulgens)
Caniformia (cont. above)
(includes fur seals
and sea lions)
South American fur seal
South American fur seal (A. australis)
Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri)
Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis)
Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella)
Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii)
Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal (A. pusillus)
Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi)
Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis)
Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)
Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)
Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion (N. cinerea)
South American sea lion
South American sea lion (O. flavescens)
New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri)
California sea lion
California sea lion (Z. californianus)
Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)
Walrus (O. rosmarus)
Hooded seal (C. cristata)
Bearded seal (E. barbatus)
Gray seal (H. grypus)
Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)
Leopard seal (H. leptonyx)
Weddell seal (L. weddellii)
Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus)
Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris)
Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)
Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus)
Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi)
Ross seal (O. rossi)
Harp seal (P. groenlandicus)
Spotted seal (P. largha)
Harbor seal (P. vitulina)
Caspian seal (P. caspica)
Ringed seal (P. hispida)
Baikal seal (P. sibirica)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Canidae (includes dogs)
Short-eared dog (A. microtis)
Side-striped jackal (C. adustus)
African golden wolf
African golden wolf (C. anthus)
Golden jackal (C. aureus)
Coyote (C. latrans)
Gray wolf (C. lupus)
Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas)
Red wolf (C. rufus)
Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis)
Crab-eating fox (C. thous)
Maned wolf (C. brachyurus)
Dhole (C. alpinus)
Culpeo (L. culpaeus)
Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes)
South American gray fox
South American gray fox (L. griseus)
Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus)
Sechuran fox (L. sechurae)
Hoary fox (L. vetulus)
African wild dog
African wild dog (L. pictus)
Raccoon dog (N. procyonoides)
Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis)
Bush dog (S. venaticus)
Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus)
Island fox (U. littoralis)
Bengal fox (V. bengalensis)
Blanford's fox (V. cana)
Cape fox (V. chama)
Corsac fox (V. corsac)
Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata)
Arctic fox (V. lagopus)
Kit fox (V. macrotis)
Pale fox (V. pallida)
Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli)
Swift fox (V. velox)
Red fox (V. vulpes)
Fennec fox (V. zerda)
African clawless otter
African clawless otter (A. capensis)
Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)
Sea otter (E. lutris)
Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis)
North American river otter
North American river otter (L. canadensis)
Marine otter (L. felina)
Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis)
Southern river otter
Southern river otter (L. provocax)
Eurasian otter (L. lutra)
Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)
Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)
Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)
Hog badger (A. collaris)
Tayra (E. barbara)
Lesser grison (G. cuja)
Greater grison (G. vittata)
Wolverine (G. gulo)
Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca)
Striped polecat (I. striatus)
Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)
American marten (M. americana)
Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula)
Beech marten (M. foina)
Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii)
European pine marten
European pine marten (M. martes)
Japanese marten (M. melampus)
Sable (M. zibellina)
Fisher (P. pennanti)
Japanese badger (M. anakuma)
Asian badger (M. leucurus)
European badger (M. meles)
Honey badger (M. capensis)
Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti)
Chinese ferret-badger (M. moschata)
Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis)
Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)
(Weasels and Ferrets)
Amazon weasel (M. africana)
Mountain weasel (M. altaica)
Stoat (M. erminea)
Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii)
Colombian weasel (M. felipei)
Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata)
Japanese weasel (M. itatsi)
Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah)
European mink (M. lutreola)
Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina)
Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes)
Least weasel (M. nivalis)
Malayan weasel (M. nudipes)
European polecat (M. putorius)
Siberian weasel (M. sibirica)
Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa)
Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)
American mink (N. vison)
African striped weasel
African striped weasel (P. albinucha)
American badger (T. taxus)
Marbled polecat (V. peregusna)
Fauna Europaea: 305369