1 Use and current status 2 Phonology
2.1 Vowels 2.2 Consonants
3.1 Dialects 3.2 Archaic Ibanag
4.1 Orthography 4.2 Nouns 4.3 Personal pronouns
4.3.1 Sakan/So' 4.3.2 Sikaw 4.3.3 Yayya 4.3.4 Sittam 4.3.5 Sikami 4.3.6 Sikamu 4.3.7 Ira
4.4 Possessive pronouns 4.5 Demonstrative pronouns 4.6 Locatives 4.7 Enclitic particles 4.8 Interrogative Words
5.1 Infinitive and present tense 5.2 Past tense 5.3 Future tense
5.3.1 Sangaw and Sangawe
6.1 Syntax and word order 6.2 Markers
6.2.1 "Tu" and "Ta" in the Isabela Dialect
6.3 Consonant mutation
8.1 Loan words 8.2 Simple greetings 8.3 Numbers 8.4 Sentences
9 References 10 External links
Use and current status As of Oct. 2012, "revival of the Ibanag culture is part of the Mother-Tongue Based (MTB) program of the [Philippine] government which seeks to preserve indigenous cultures, including its languages, for generations to come. Ibanag is one of the MTB languages now taught in Philippine schools," and two current stage plays, “Zininaga Ta Bannag (Heritage of the River)” and “Why Women Wash the Dishes” are being performed in the Ibanag language.
Phonology Vowels A (ah) E (eh) I (ee) O (oh) U (ooh) Y (ee) Monophthongization of diphthongs is observable in Ibanag. For example, the words umay (to go), balay (house) or aggaw (day) are sometimes pronounced as ume, bale, and aggo respectively.
Ibanag is also one of the
gaddua [gad'dwa] (half) mappazzi [mappaz'zɪ] (to squeeze or squeezing)
Table of consonant phonemes of Ibanag
ɾ ~ r
Similar to more known languages in the
Since Ibanag is spoken in various areas of Northeastern Region of the
Mapatu - mafatu (hot)
paggipayan - faggifayan (a place to put)
dupo - dufo (banana)
Ari ka nga kuman ta illuk.
Kammu nga kumang tu illug.
Don't eat eggs.
Huwag kang kumain ng itlog.
Archaic Ibanag Some words used in the present such as innafi or rice, bavi or pig, afi or fire, are listed in Spanish texts as innafuy, bavuy, and afuy respectively. Also, the Ibanag term for the number one, tadday, was once used interchangeably with the word itte, which is no longer used apparently by modern speakers of the language.
There are two ways that Ibanag can be written. In older texts, the
"Spanish style" is often used. This is where ⟨c⟩, and ⟨qu⟩ are
used in representing /k/, and words that end with a glottal stop are
added with "-c" after the word.
Example 1: Quiminac cami tab bavi - We ate pork.
Example 2: Napannu tac cunam y langui-c. - The sky is full of clouds.
The other way of writing Ibanag is the new and simplified way that
tends to be more phonetic. This modern spelling system is consistent
with that of the
Nouns Personal pronouns Independent pronouns I - Sakan, So' You - Sikaw He, She, It - Yayya We (inclusive) - Sittam We (exclusive) - Sikami You (plural/polite) - Sikamu They - Ira
Possessive pronouns forms
Example of root word
Example of derived word(s)
Sakan, So' (I)
-ku, -' when subject ends with a vowel or diphthong
kazzing (goat) lima (hand)
kazzing ku (my goat) lima' (my hand)
Sikami (Exclusive, Our), Sittam (Inclusive, Our)
libru mi (our book), libru tam (our book)
Sikaw (you, singular)
mejas (socks)libru (book)
mejas mu (your socks)librum (your book)
Bandera nu (your flag)
Yeyya, yatun (he, she, it)
manu' na (his, her, its chicken)
itubang da (their chair)
Sakan/So' I/Me: There are many ways to say I or me in Ibanag. The language is agglutinative. Thus most of the time pronouns are attached to verbs. There are at least 4 ways to indicate the pronoun "I". I am eating - Kuman na' = Kuman (to eat) and na' (I). Sometimes, nga' is used instead of na'. I gave him some food - Neddak ku yayya ta makan. = Neddan (to give) ku (I). I will be the one to go - So' laman ngana y ume = So' (I) I split it in half - Ginaddwa' = Ginaddwa (to split in half) ' (I) Here the glottal stop on the sentence indicates "I". Without the glottal stop, the sentence would become incomplete and would otherwise not make any sense. Sikaw You: There are also a couple of ways to indicate you. (You) go outside - Mallawak ka - Mallawan (to go) and ka (you) You give - Iddammu - Iddan (to give/to put) and mu (you) Yayya He/She/It: As with the other pronouns there are a couple of ways to say this, but usually people use "na". He lost it: - Nawawan na (Nawawan) lost (na) he/she/it (NOTE: without the glottal stop "na" can mean he she or it.) Sittam We: Often "tam" is attached at the end of the verb or noun. Sittam is We, when you want to include the person being spoken to. Let's go - Tam ngana! or Ume tam! Sikami We: When we want to exclude the person being spoken to, we use Sikami. In this case, you only attach "mi" to the end of the verb, adjective or noun. Ume mi nga innan - We are going to look. Ume (to go) Mi (we) Nabattug kami - We are full (as in food). Nabattug (full) kami (we, just us not you) Ibanag kami - We are Ibanags Sikamu You: this is when we refer to more than one person being spoken to. Often "nu" or "kamu" is used. Apannu yayya! - Go get him/her - Apan (to get) nu(you plural) Umine kamu tari? - You went there? - Umine (went) kamu (you) Ira They: Ira. Ira is seldom used unless emphasizing that it is "them". Instead of ira, the word "da" is used. Ginatang da y bale' - They bought my house. Ginatang (bought) da (they) Possessive pronouns "Kua" is the root word that identifies something as belonging to someone. Often "Ku" is added before "Kua" to emphasize this. Note that this is only possible with "Mine" and "Yours" but not with other possessive pronouns. Kukua' yatun - That IS Mine.
My, mine - ku, kua', kukua' Your, Yours - -m, mu, kuam, kukuam His, Her, Its - na, kuana Our, ours (inclusive) - tam, kuatam Our, ours (exclusive) - mi, kuami Your, Yours - nu, kuanu Their, Theirs - da, kuada My toy - Gaggayam ku Your gift - Regalum Her earring - Aritu' na Our land - Davvut tam Our house - Balay mi Your car - Coche nu Their dog - Kitu da This is mine - Kua' yaw. This is hers/his- Kukua/kua na yaw. That is yours - Kuam yatun. That is hers - Kuana yari. Demonstrative pronouns This - Yaw or Ye or Yawe That (item by person being spoken to) - Yatun or Yane That (far from both speaker and person being spoken to) - Yari or Yore That (sometimes used for objects that are absent or in the past) - Yuri This dog - Ye kitu That cat - Yane kitaw That carabao - Yari nuang That day - Yuri aggaw In order to emphasize or stress the distance or time, the stress on the word falls on the first syllable except for "yatun". I.e. Yatun davvun - That land Other ways that words are emphasized are by using Locatives.
THIS house (here) - Ye balay taw That girl there - Yatun babay tatun That man over there - Yari lalaki tari That old lady a long time ago - Yuri bako' turi* With turi the stress on "tu" is often lengthened to emphasize the distance and time that has passed.
Tadday nga aggaw - Isang araw Tadday vulan - Isang buwan Tadday nga dagun/ragun - Isang taon Locatives Here - Taw or Tawe There - Tatun (by person being spoken to) There - Tari (far from both) There - Turi (absent, past time and/or location) Enclitic particles Interrogative Words What?- Anni? When?- Nikanni? Where?- Sitaw? Who?- Sinni? Why?- Ngatta? How?- Kunnasi? How much? - Piga? Each of the doubled consonants must be pronounced separately. I.E. Anni? - "An ni"
Anni kuammu? - What are you doing? Kanni labbe' mu? - When did you arrive? Sitaw angayat tam? - Where are we going? Sinni nanga' ta affefec ku? - Who took my fan? Ngatta nga ari ka kuman? - Why are you not eating? Kunnasim lutuan yatun nu awan tu rekadum? - How are you going to cook that if you don't have the ingredients? Piga yaw? Piga yatun? - How much is this? How much is that? Verbs Ibanag verbs are not conjugated in the same manner that most Indo-European languages are. They are conjugated based on the tense of the word. As with many other Malayo-Polynesian languages, there is no verb for "to be". However this is sometimes compensated by using the verb for "to have".
Infinitive and present tense Many times, the infinitive form is the same as the present tense.
Egga - There is/ to have Kuman - To eat/ eat Uminum - To drink/ drink Mawag- To need/ need Kaya' - To want/ want, To like/ like Umay - To go/ go, To come/ com Manaki' - To not want/ not want, To not like/ not like I am here - Egga nga tawe Do you eat goat? - Kumak ka tu kazzing? Drink this - Inumammu yaw. Drink water - Uminum ka tu danum. You need to sleep - Mawag mu makkaturug. Past tense There are different ways to form the past tense. Here are a few common ways.
Nilutu/ Nallutu - cooked Ginappo' - cut Inusi' - cut (hair) Inirayyu - placed far away Ginatang - bought We cooked dinengdeng - Nallutu kami ta dinengdeng We cooked the pig - Nilutu mi yari bavi. (Y become yari assuming the pig itself is not present since it was already cooked) They cut my hair - Inusi' da y vu' ku I got my hair cut - Nappa usi' na' ta vu' ku They placed him far away - Inirayyu da yayya. I bought you this cow - Ginatang ku yaw baka para nikaw. Future tense Again there are a couple of ways of forming future tense. One is by the use of a helping word like "to go". Sometimes the present tense can indicate future depending on the context.
Apam mi ngana yayya - We are going to pick him up. Sonu mangananwang ka na gumatang tu lichon or Sonu bibbinnay ka na matang tu lichon - Go buy lechon later. Sangaw and Sangawe Sangaw ngana! - later on (Sangawe not used in Tuguegarao) Sangawe ngana! - Do it now.. Sonu mangananwan! Or Sonu bibbinnay- later on. Structure Syntax and word order Ibanag sentence structure often follows the " Verb + Subject + Object " pattern. Example: Nellawan ni Andoy y kitu. - Andoy took out the dog. Adjectives often follow the nouns with a marker attached. Example: Dakal nga balay - Big house. Simple sentences as opposed to descriptive patterns: Example: The house is red - Uzzin y balay The red house - Uzzin nga balay
Markers "Y" and "nga" are the two most commonly used markers in Ibanag. They either link adjectives to nouns, or indicate the subject of the sentence. Examples:
Nagallu nga galo' - Loud laughter. Nagallu indicates loud and the "nga" links it to laughter. Atannang y ana' mu - Your child is tall. With the lack of the verb to be and a switched syntax, "Y" indicates that "your child" is the subject. "Tu" is another marker that is used, but is not very simple to explain. Often it is seen in conjunction with the word "Awan" meaning "nothing or none". Example:
Awan tu makan - Wala nang pagkain - There is nothing to eat. Here, "tu" links awan (none) and makan (food). tu - it is like "nang" in Tagalog "Ta" is yet another marker used. ta - is like "sa" in Tagalog Example:
Maggangwa ka ta bagu nga silla - Gagawa ka ng bagong upuan. Make a new
chair. (Here both "nga" and "ta" are used)
"Tu" and "Ta" in the Isabela Dialect
"Ta" - is used to refer place (Isabela) This is also used in
Example: Minay kami ta
Consonant mutation Ibanag verbs that end in "n" lose the last consonant, which is replaced by the first consonant of the succeeding word. However, when the succeeding word starts with a vowel or another "n", the last "n" is not affected. Examples:
Apan mu yari libru. Correct = Apam mu yari libru - Go get the book.
Nasingan ku y yama na. Correct = Nasingak ku y yama na - I saw his father. The marker "ta" and the preposition "na" (not the pronoun) sometimes, depending also on the dialect, acquires the first consonant of the succeeding word.
Ta likuk na balay Tal likuk nab balay - at the back of the house
Ta utun - On top. Notice that "ta" is succeeded by "utun" which starts
with a vowel.
This is an example of an Ibanag proverb, that is also known throughout
Y tolay nga ari nga mallipay ta pinaggafuanan na ay ari nga makadde ta
Ang taong Hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay Hindi
makakarating sa paroroonan.
Translated to: He who does not look back into his past, cannot reach
Tal langi awan tu binarayang, yatun ta utun na davvun ittam minum.
Sa langit walang alak, kaya sa ibabaw ng lupa dapat tayo'y lumaklak.
Translated to: In heaven there is no beer, that's why we drink it
Ari mu kagian nga piyyo ngana y illuk tapenu ari nga magivung
Vocabulary Loan words Many words in Ibanag are of Spanish origin. The language is infused with Spanish words that are often not seen or heard in any of the other Philippine languages. Eyeglasses - Anchuparra/ Anteojos Plants - Masetas Store - Chenda (from Tienda) Door - Puerta Toilet - Kasilyas Quickly, immediately - Insigida (from "en seguida") Simple greetings Good morning - Dios nikamu ta umma (others say "Mapia nga umma") Good afternoon - Dios nikamu ta fugak (others say "Mapia nga fugak") Good evening/night - Dios nikamu ta gabi (others say "Mapia nga gabi") How are you? - Kunnasi ka? I'm fine/good and you? - Mapia so' gapa, sikaw? I'm just fine, thank God - Mapia so' gapa, mabbalo' ta Afu Thank you - Mabbalo' Where are you going? - Sitaw y angayammu? I'm going to...- Umay na' ta... What are you doing? - Anni kukuam mu? Nothing in particular. - Awan, maski anni laman. Please come in. - Tullung kamu, Maddulo kamu or Mattalung kamu. Long time no see. - Nabayag taka nga ari nasingan. Numbers 0-awan 1-tadday 2-duwa 3-tallu 4-appa' 5-lima 6-annam 7-pitu 8-walu 9-siyam 10-mafulu 11-karatadday/onse 12-karaduwa/dose 13-karatallu/trese 14-karappa/katorse 15-karalima/kinse 20-duwafulu/beinte 100-magatu 200-duwa gatu 500-lima gatu 1000-marivu 2000-duwa rivu 
Ibanag Tagalog English
Anni y kinnam mu ganguri? Ano ang kinain mo kanina? What did you eat?
Anni y kinnan nu? Ano ang kinain ninyo? What did you,(all) eat?
Anni y kanakanam mu? Ano ang kinakain mo? What are you eating?
Anni y kankanam mu sangaw? Ano ang kinakain mo ngayon? What are you eating now?
Kuman ittam sangaw nu pallabbe na. Kakain tayo pagdating niya. We will eat when he/she comes.
Maddaguk kami kuman kustu limibbe yayya. Kumakain kami nang dumating siya. We were eating when he came.
Nakakak kami nakwang nu minilubbe yayya.. Nakakain sana kami kung dumating siya. We would have eaten I if he had arrived.
Natturukí y gattó. Sumirit ang gatas. The milk shot out.
Ari ka nga kuman. Huwag kang kumain. Don't eat.
kumak ka ngana! Kumain ka na! Eat now!
Kukwa' yatun! Akin yan! That's mine!
Iddu taka/ ay-ayatat taka Mahal kita I love you
^ Ibanag at
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
^ Benji De Yro (2012-10-16). "DepEd indigenous culture revival in upswing". Philippine Information Agency. Retrieved 2012-10-20.
^ Keesing, Felix Maxwell. (1962). The Ethnohistory of Northern Luzon. Stanford University Press.
^ Salgado, Pedro V. (2002).
^ Da Ayong Anni Dagga. https://archive.org/stream/rosettaproject_ibg_vertxt-1/rosettaproject_ibg_vertxt-1_djvu.txt
^ Bugarin, Jose (1854). Diccionario ybanag-español. los Amigos del Pais
^ Fernández, Miguel (1867). Diccionario españól-ibanág : ó sea, Tesauro hispánocagayán. Manila, Imp. de Ramirez y Giraudier
^ Nolasco De Medio, Pedro, O.P. (1892) Agguiguiammuan tac Cagui Gasila = Grammatica Ibanag-Castellana. Manila : Estab. tipog. del Colegio de Santo Tomas
^ Dita, S. N. (2013). The Orthography of Ibanag. Manila: Ibanag Heritage Foundation, Inc.
^ Cabalza, Chester (2013). Ibanag Language and Culture. http://cbclawmatters.blogspot.com/2013/07/ibanag-language-anc-culture.html
^ Ibanag to be a medium of instruction in DepEd's multi-lingual education program - VP Binay.https://www.philstar.com/headlines/duterte-100-days/2012/05/10/805202/ibanag-be-medium-instruction-depeds-multi-lingual-education-program-vp-binay
^ ayya itta
Moses Esteban. Editing Ibanag–Tagalog–English
Ibanag–Tagalog–English Survey. Ibanag people's fo Benguet and the
City Hall of Benguet(Ifugao)
Keesing, Felix Maxwell. (1962). The Ethnohistory of Northern Luzon.
Stanford University Press.
Nepomuceno, Vicente Siriban. (1919). Historia nac Cagayán. Colegio de
Salgado, Pedro V. (2002).
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