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The Ibāḍī movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis (Arabic: الاباضية‎, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam
Islam
dominant in Oman.[1] It is also found in parts of Algeria, Tunisia, Libya
Libya
and East Africa. The movement is said to have been founded around the year 650 CE or about 20 years after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, predating both the Sunni
Sunni
and Shia denominations.[2] Modern historians trace back the origins of the denomination to a moderate current of the Khawarij movement;[3][4][5]:3 contemporary Ibāḍīs strongly object to being classified as Kharijites, although they recognize that their movement originated with the Kharijite secession of 657 CE.[5]:3

Contents

1 History 2 Relations with other communities 3 Views

3.1 Doctrinal differences with other denominations 3.2 Views on Islamic history and caliphate 3.3 View of hadith 3.4 View of jurisprudence

4 Demographics 5 Notable Ibadis

5.1 Individuals 5.2 Dynasties

6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] The school derives its name from ʿAbdu l-Lāh ibn Ibāḍ of the Banu Tamim.[6] Ibn Ibad was responsible for breaking off from the wider Kharijite movement roughly around the time that Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, the fifth Umayyad
Umayyad
ruler, took power.[5]:11 However, the true founder was Jābir ibn Zayd of Nizwa, Oman.[5]:12[7] Initially, Ibadi theology developed in Basra, Iraq.[8] The Ibadis opposed the rule of the third caliph in Islam, Uthman ibn Affan, but unlike the more extreme Kharijites the Ibadis rejected the murder of Uthman as well as the Kharijite belief that all Muslims holding differing viewpoints were infidels.[9] The Ibadis were among the more moderate groups opposed to the fourth caliph, Ali, and wanted to return Islam
Islam
to its form prior to the conflict between Ali
Ali
and Muawiyah I.[10][11] Due to their opposition to the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate, the Ibadis attempted an armed insurrection starting in the Hijaz
Hijaz
region in the 740s. Caliph Marwan II
Marwan II
led a 4,000 strong army and routed the Ibadis first in Mecca, then in Sana'a
Sana'a
in Yemen, and finally surrounded them in Shibam in western Hadhramaut.[9] Problems back in their heartland of Syria forced the Umayyads to sign a peace accord with the Ibadis, and the sect was allowed to retain a community in Shibam
Shibam
for the next four centuries while still paying taxes to Ibadi
Ibadi
authorities in Oman.[9] For a period after Marwan II's death, Jabir ibn Zayd maintained a friendship with Umayyad
Umayyad
general Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, who supported the Ibadis as a counterbalance to more extreme Kharijites. Ibn Zayd ordered the assassination of one of Al-Hajjaj's spies, however, and in reaction many Ibadis were imprisoned or exiled to Oman.[5]:12[dubious – discuss] It was during the 8th century that the Ibadis established an imamate in the inner region of Oman. The position was an elected one, as opposed to Sunni
Sunni
and Shi'a dynasties where rule was inherited.[2][12] These imams exerted political, spiritual and military functions.[13] By the year 900, Ibadism had spread to Sind, Khorosan, Hadhramaut, Dhofar, Oman
Oman
proper, Muscat, the Nafusa Mountains, and Qeshm; by 1200, the sect was present in Al-Andalus, Sicily, M'zab
M'zab
(the Algerian Sahara), and the western part of the Sahel
Sahel
region as well.[7] The last Ibadis of Shibam
Shibam
were expelled by the Sulayhid dynasty in the 12th century.[citation needed] In the 14th century, historian Ibn Khaldun made reference to vestiges of Ibadi
Ibadi
influence in Hadhramaut, though the sect no longer exists in the region today.[14] Relations with other communities[edit] Despite predating all Sunni
Sunni
and Shia
Shia
schools by several decades, the Ibadis and their beliefs remain largely a mystery to outsiders, both non-Muslims and even other Muslims.[5]:3 Ibadis have claimed, with justification, that while they read the works of both Sunnis and Shias, even the learned scholars of those two sects never read Ibadi works and often repeat myths and false information when they address the topic of Ibadism without performing proper research.[5]:4 The isolated nature of Oman
Oman
granted the Ibadi
Ibadi
denomination, secretive by nature, the perfect environment to develop in isolation from the Islamic mainstream.[6] Ibadis were cut off even from the Kharijite sect because of Ibn Ibaḍ's criticism of their excesses and his rejection of their more extreme beliefs.[6] The spread of Ibadism in Oman
Oman
essentially represents the triumph of theology over tribal feudalism and conflict.[8] Ibadis have been referred to[by whom?] as tolerant Puritans or as political quietists because of their preference to solve differences through dignity and reason rather than with confrontation,[2][10] as well as their tolerance for practising Christians and Jews sharing their communities.[10] Ibadism's movement from Hijaz
Hijaz
to Iraq
Iraq
and then further out made Ibadi historian al-Salimi once write that Ibadism is a bird whose egg was laid in Medina, hatched in Basra
Basra
and flew to Oman.[7] Views[edit]

Part of a series on Islam Aqidah

Five Pillars of Islam

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

Sunni Six articles of belief

God Prophets Holy books Angels The Last Judgement Predestination

Sunni
Sunni
theological traditions

Ilm al-Kalam

Ash'ari1 Maturidi

Sunni
Sunni
Murji'ah Traditionalist2

Shi'a Twelver3

Principles

Tawhid Adalah Prophecy Imamah Qiyamah

Practices

Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj Khums Jihad Commanding what is just Forbidding what is evil Tawalla Tabarra

Seven pillars of Ismailism4

Walayah Tawhid Salah Zakat Sawm Hajj Jihad

Other Shia
Shia
concepts of Aqidah

Imamate Batin Sixth Pillar of Islam

Other schools of theology

Khawarij5 Ibadi6 Murji'ah

Qadariyah Muʿtazila7 Sufism8

Including: 1Jahmi; 2Karramiyya; 3 Alawites
Alawites
& Qizilbash 4Sevener-Qarmatians, Assassins
Assassins
& Druzes 5Ajardi, Azariqa, Bayhasiyya, Najdat
Najdat
& Sūfrī 6Nūkkārī; 7 Bahshamiyya
Bahshamiyya
& Ikhshîdiyya 8Alevism, Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
& Qalandariyya Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Ibadis state, with reason, that their school predates that of mainstream Islamic schools, and Ibadism is thus considered to be an early and highly orthodox interpretation of Islam.[2] Doctrinal differences with other denominations[edit] Ibāḍīs have several doctrinal differences with other denominations of Islam, chief among them:

God
God
will not show himself to Muslims on the Day of Judgment, a belief shared with Shias. Sunnis believe that Muslims will see God
God
on the Day of Judgment.[15] The Quran
Quran
was created by God
God
at a certain point in time. This belief is shared with the Mutazila,[16] whereas Sunnīs hold the Quran
Quran
to be co-eternal with God, as exemplified by the suffering of Ahmad ibn Hanbal during the miḥnah.[17] Like the Mutazila
Mutazila
and Shias, they interpret anthropomorphic references to God
God
in the Qur'an symbolically rather than literally.[16] Their views on predestination are like the Ashari
Ashari
Sunnis (i.e. occasionalism).[16] It is unnecessary to have one leader for the entire Muslim world, and if no single leader is fit for the job, Muslim communities can rule themselves.[9][11] That is different from both the Sunni
Sunni
belief of Caliphate
Caliphate
and the Shia
Shia
belief of Imamah.[10][18][19] It is not necessary for the ruler of the Muslims to be descended from the Quraysh tribe, which was the tribe of the Muslim prophet Muhammad.[10][11] That is different from Shias[5]:7 They believe it is acceptable to conceal one's beliefs under certain circumstances (kitman), analogous to the Shia
Shia
taqiyya.[16]

Views on Islamic history and caliphate[edit] Ibadis agree with Sunnis, regarding Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar ibn al-Khattab as rightly-guided caliphs.[5]:7[11] They regard the first half of Uthman ibn Affan's rule as righteous and the second half as corrupt and affected by both nepotism and heresy.[5]:7 They approve of the first part of Ali's caliphate and (like Shī'a) disapprove of Aisha's rebellion and Muawiyah I's revolt. However, they regard Ali's acceptance of arbitration at the Battle of Ṣiffīn as rendering him unfit for leadership, and condemn him for killing the Khawarij
Khawarij
of an-Nahr in the Battle of Nahrawan. Modern Ibadi
Ibadi
theologians defend the early Kharijite opposition to Uthman, Ali
Ali
and Muawiyah.[5]:10 Moroccan explorer Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
observed Ibadis praying Jumu'ah
Jumu'ah
in Oman and said they prayed in the same manner as Zuhr prayer. He noticed that they invoked God's mercy on Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar but not Uthman and Ali.[2] In their belief, the next legitimate caliph was Abdullah ibn Wahb al-Rasibi, the leader of the Kharijites who turned against Ali
Ali
for his acceptance of arbitration with Muawiyah.[5]:10 All Caliphs from Mu'āwīyah onward are considered tyrants except Umar ibn Abdul Aziz, on whom opinions differ.[citation needed] Numerous Ibāḍī leaders are recognized as true imams, including Abdullah ibn Yahya al-Kindi of South Arabia and the imams of the Rustamid
Rustamid
dynasty in North Africa. Traditionally, conservative Omani Ibadism rejected monarchy and hereditary rule,[20] and Ibadhi leaders were elected.[12] Despite bitter religious disputes elsewhere, the Ibadis are realists and believe that reason and political expediency must temper the ideal Islamic state.[2] View of hadith[edit] Ibadis accept as authentic far fewer hadith than do Sunnis.[citation needed] Several Ibadii founding figures were noted for their hadith research, and Jabir ibn Zayd is accepted as a reliable narrator even by Sunni
Sunni
scholars as well as by Ibadis.[citation needed] After the death of Ibn Ibad, Ibn Zayd led the Ibadis and withdrew to Oman, where his hadith, along with those of other early Ibadis formed the corpus of their interpretation of Islamic law.[11] View of jurisprudence[edit] The fiqh or jurisprudence of Ibadis is relatively simple. Absolute authority is given to the Qur'an and hadith; new innovations accepted on the basis of qiyas, or analogical reasoning, were rejected as bid‘ah by the Ibadis. That differs from the majority of Sunnis[21] but agrees with Shias[22] and the Zahiri
Zahiri
and early Hanbali
Hanbali
schools of Sunnism.[23][24][25] Demographics[edit]

Ibadi-majority countries are coloured in black.

Ibadi
Ibadi
people living in the M'zab
M'zab
valley in Algeria

Ibadis make up a majority (roughly 75%) of the population in Oman.[26] There are roughly 2.72 million Ibadis worldwide, of which 250,000 live outside Oman.[27] As a result, Oman
Oman
is the only country in the Muslim world with an Ibadi-majority population.[26] Historically, the early medieval Rustamid
Rustamid
dynasty in Algeria
Algeria
was Ibadi,[28] and refugees from its capital, Tiaret, founded the North African Ibadi
Ibadi
communities, which still exist in M'zab.[29] The Mozabites, a Berber ethnic group in M'zab, are Ibadis.[30][31][32] Ibadis are also found in East Africa
East Africa
(particularly Zanzibar), the Nafusa Mountains
Nafusa Mountains
of Libya, and Djerba
Djerba
Island in Tunisia.[citation needed] There is a group of Salafis who have converted to Ibadis in the island nation of the Maldives
Maldives
since 2016.[citation needed] They follow the Shaikhs of Oman[who?].[citation needed] Notable Ibadis[edit] Individuals[edit]

Sulaiman al-Barouni, wali of Tripolitania. Ahmed bin Hamad al-Khalili, current Grand Mufti
Grand Mufti
of Oman. Qaboos bin Said al Said, Sultan of Oman
Oman
and its dependencies. Nouri Abusahmain, president of the former General National Congress and former Libyan head of state. Moufdi Zakaria, poet, writer and nationalist militant, author of Kassaman
Kassaman
the Algerian national anthem

Dynasties[edit]

Rustamid
Rustamid
dynasty: 776–909 Nabhani dynasty: 1154–1624 Yaruba dynasty: 1624–1742 Al Said: 1744–present

See also[edit]

Ghardaïa Islam
Islam
in Oman Sultanate of Zanzibar

References[edit]

^ Vallely, Paul (19 February 2014). " Schism
Schism
between Sunni
Sunni
and Shia
Shia
has been poisoning Islam
Islam
for 1,400 years - and it's getting worse". The Independent.  ^ a b c d e f Donald Hawley, Oman, pg. 201. Jubilee edition. Kensington: Stacey International, 1995. ISBN 0905743636 ^ John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Ibadis". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  ^ Lewicki, T. (2012). "al-Ibāḍiyya". In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. (Subscription required (help)). CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hoffman, Valerie Jon (2012). The Essentials of Ibadi
Ibadi
Islam. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. ISBN 9780815650843.  ^ a b c Uzi Rabi, The Emergence of States in a Tribal Society: Oman Under Saʻid Bin Taymur, 1932-1970, pg. 5. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, 2006. ISBN 9781845190804 ^ a b c Donald Hawley, Oman, pg. 199. ^ a b Joseph A. Kechichian, Oman
Oman
and the World: The Emergence of an Independent Foreign Policy, pg. 24. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 1995. ISBN 9780833023322 ^ a b c d Daniel McLaughlin, Yemen
Yemen
and: The Bradt Travel Guide, pg. 203. Guilford: Brandt Travel Guides, 2007. ISBN 9781841622125 ^ a b c d e Diana Darke, Oman: The Bradt Travel Guide, pg. 27. Guilford: Brandt Travel Guides, 2010. ISBN 9781841623320 ^ a b c d e Donald Hawley, Oman, pg. 200. ^ a b J. R. C. Carter, Tribes in Oman, pg. 103. London: Peninsular Publishers, 1982. ISBN 0907151027 ^ A Country Study: Oman, chapter 6 Oman
Oman
– Government and Politics, section: Historical Patterns of Governance. US Library of Congress, 1993. Retrieved 2006-10-28 ^ Daniel McLaughlin, Yemen, pg. 204. ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Adam al-Kawthari (August 23, 2005). "Seeing God
God
in dreams, waking, and the afterlife". Retrieved December 18, 2011.  ^ a b c d Juan Eduardo Campo (1 Jan 2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. p. 323. ISBN 9781438126968.  ^ Brill, E.J., ed. (1965–1986). The Encyclopedia of Islam, vol. 7. pp. 2–4. ^ Uzi Rabi, The Emergence of States, pg. 22. ^ Joseph A. Kechichian, Oman
Oman
and the World, pg. 25. ^ Hasan M. Al-Naboodah, "Banu Nabhan in the Omani Sources." Taken from New Arabian Studies, vol. 4, pg. 186. Eds. J. R. Smart, G. Rex Smith and B. R. Pridham. Exeter: University of Exeter
Exeter
Press, 1997. ISBN 9780859895521 ^ Uzi Rabi, The Emergence of States, pg. 21. ^ Mansoor Moaddel, Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, pg. 32. Chicago: University of Chicago
Chicago
Press, 2005. ^ Camilla Adang, This Day I have Perfected Your Religion
Religion
For You: A Zahiri
Zahiri
Conception of Religious Authority, pg. 15. Taken from Speaking for Islam: Religious Authorities in Muslim Societies. Ed. Gudrun Krämer and Sabine Schmidtke. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2006. ISBN 9789004149496 ^ Christopher Melchert, The Formation of the Sunni
Sunni
Schools of Law: 9th-10th Centuries C.E., pg. 185. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1997. ^ Chiragh Ali, The Proposed Political, Legal and Social Reforms. Taken from Modernist Islam
Islam
1840-1940: A Sourcebook, pg. 281. Edited by Charles Kurzman. New York City: Oxford University Press, 2002. ^ a b "CIA - The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2013.  ^ Robert Brenton Betts. The Sunni-Shi'a Divide: Islam's Internal Divisions and Their Global Consequences. pp. 14–15. Retrieved 7 August 2015.  ^ The Rustamid
Rustamid
state of Tāhart. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Accessed 10 April 2014. ^ "Ghardaïa, Algeria". Organization of World Heritage Sites. Retrieved 2010-11-12.  ^ "Tumzabt".  ^ Ham, Anthony; Luckham, Nana; Sattin, Anthony (2007). Algeria. Lonely Planet. p. 153. ISBN 1-74179-099-9.  ^ Cyril Glassé, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, pg. 39. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press, 2008.

Further reading[edit]

Pessah Shinar, Modern Islam
Islam
in the Maghrib, Jerusalem: The Max Schloessinger Memorial Foundation, 2004. A collection of papers (some previously unpublished) dealing with Islam
Islam
in the Maghreb, practices, and beliefs.

External links[edit]

Ibadi
Ibadi
Islam: an introduction A Concise History of al-Ibadiyyah Ibn-Ibad and the Ibadi
Ibadi
School of Islamic Law

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East Asian

Benzhuism Bimoism Bon Cheondoism Confucianism Dongbaism Faism Hmongism Jeungsanism Luoism Meishanism Mileism Muism Neo-Confucianism Ryukyuan religion Shenism Shigongism Shinto Taoism Tenrikyo Wuism Yiguandao

Southeast Asian

Burmese Satsana Phi Malaysian Indonesian

Marapu Kaharingan Kebatinan

Philippine Vietnamese

Caodaism Đạo Mẫu Hoahaoism

African

Traditional

Akan Akamba Baluba Bantu Berber Bushongo Cushitic Dinka Efik Fon and Ewe Guanche Igbo Isoko Lotuko Lozi Lugbara Maasai Mbuti San Serer Tumbuka Waaq Yoruba Zulu

Diasporic

Candomblé Kumina Obeah Quimbanda Palo Santería Umbanda Vodou Voodoo Winti

Other groups

Bathouism Bongthingism Donyi-Polo Kiratism Sanamahism Sarnaism Aboriginal Australian Native American Mesoamerican Hawaiian Polynesian

Recent

Discordianism Eckankar Jediism New Age New Thought Pastafarianism Raëlism Satanism Scientology Thelema Unitarian Universalism Wicca

Historical religions

Prehistoric

Paleolithic

Near East

Arabian Egyptian Mesopotamian Semitic

Canaanite Yahwism

Indo-European

Asia

Proto-Indo-Iranian Armenian Ossetian Vedic Zoroastrianism

Mithraism Zurvanism

Gnosticism

Manichaeism

Europe

Celtic Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Greek

Gnosticism Neoplatonism

Manichaeism Balkan Roman Slavic

Topics

Aspects

Apostasy / Disaffiliation Behaviour Beliefs Clergy Conversion Deities Entheogens Ethnic religion Denomination Faith Fire Folk religion God Meditation Monasticism

monk nun

Mysticism Mythology Nature Ordination Orthodoxy Orthopraxy Prayer Prophesy Religious experience Ritual

liturgy sacrifice

Spirituality Supernatural Symbols Truth Water Worship

Theism

Animism Deism Dualism Henotheism Monotheism Nontheism Panentheism Pantheism Polytheism Transtheism

Religious studies

Anthropology Cognitive science Comparative Development Evolutionary origin Evolutionary psychology History Philosophy Neurotheology Psychology Sociology Theology Theories Women

Religion
Religion
and society

Agriculture Business Clergy

monasticism ordination

Conversion

evangelism missionary proselytism

Education Fanaticism Freedom

pluralism syncretism toleration universalism

Fundamentalism Growth Happiness Homosexuality Minorities National church National religiosity levels Religiocentrism Political science Populations Schism Science State Theocracy Vegetarianism Video games Violence

persecution terrorism war

Wealth

Secularism
Secularism
and irreligion

Antireligion Deism Agnosticism Atheism Criticism LaVeyan Satanism Deconstruction Humanistic Judaism Irreligion by country Objectivism Secular humanism Secular theology Secularization Separation of church and state Unaffiliated

Overviews and lists

Index Outline Timeline Abrahamic prophets Deification Deities Founders Mass gatherings New religious movements Organizations Religions and spiritual traditions Scholars

Category Portal

Authority control

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