The IBāḍī MOVEMENT, IBADISM or IBāḍIYYA, also known as the
IBADIS (Arabic : الاباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school
Islam dominant in
Oman . It is also found in
East Africa . The movement is said to have been founded 20
years after the death of the Muslim prophet
Muhammad , predating both
Shia denominations. Some historians believe that the
denomination is a reformed sect of the
Khawarij movement; :3
Ibāḍīs, however, deny anything more than a passing relation to the
Khawarij and point out that they merely developed out of the same
precursor group called
Muhakkima . :3
* 1 History
* 2 Relations with other communities
* 3 Views
* 3.1 Doctrinal differences with other denominations
* 3.2 Views on Islamic history and caliphate
* 3.3 View of hadith
* 3.4 View of jurisprudence
* 4 Demographics
* 5 Notable Ibadis
* 5.1 Individuals
* 5.2 Dynasties
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links
The school derives its name from ʿAbdu l-Lāh ibn Ibāḍ of the
Banu Tamim . Ibn Ibad was responsible for breaking off from the wider
Kharijite movement roughly around the time that Abd al-Malik ibn
Marwan , the fifth
Umayyad ruler, took power. :11 However, the true
Jābir ibn Zayd of
Nizwa , Oman. :12 Initially, Ibadi
theology developed in
Iraq . The Ibadis opposed the rule of
the third caliph in Islam,
Uthman ibn Affan , but unlike the more
extreme Kharijites the Ibadis rejected the murder of Uthman as well as
the Kharijite belief that all Muslims holding differing viewpoints
were infidels. The Ibadis were among the more moderate groups opposed
to the fourth caliph,
Ali , and wanted to return
Islam to its form
prior to the conflict between
Muawiyah I .
Due to their opposition to the
Caliphate , the Ibadis
attempted an armed insurrection starting in the
Hijaz region in the
Marwan II led a 4,000 strong army and routed the Ibadis
Mecca , then in Sana\'a in
Yemen , and finally surrounded
Shibam in western
Hadhramaut . Problems back in their
heartland of Syria forced the Umayyads to sign a peace accord with the
Ibadis, and the sect was allowed to retain a community in
the next four centuries while still paying taxes to
in Oman. For a period after Marwan II's death, Jabir ibn Zayd
maintained a friendship with
Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf , who
supported the Ibadis as a counterbalance to more extreme Kharijites.
Ibn Zayd ordered the assassination of one of Al-Hajjaj's spies,
however, and in reaction many Ibadis were imprisoned or exiled to
It was during the 8th century that the Ibadis established an imamate
in the inner region of Oman. The position was an elected one, as
Sunni and Shi'a dynasties where rule was inherited. These
imams exerted political, spiritual and military functions.
By the year 900, Ibadism had spread to
Sind , Khorosan , Hadhramaut,
Oman proper , Muscat , the
Nafusa Mountains , and Qeshm ; by
1200, the sect was present in
Sicily , M\'zab (the
Algerian Sahara), and the western part of the
Sahel region as well.
The last Ibadis of
Shibam were expelled by the
Sulayhid dynasty in the
12th century. In the 14th century, historian
Ibn Khaldun made
reference to vestiges of
Ibadi influence in Hadhramaut, though the
sect no longer exists in the region today.
RELATIONS WITH OTHER COMMUNITIES
Despite predating all
Shia schools by several decades, the
Ibadis and their beliefs remain largely a mystery to outsiders, both
non-Muslims and even other Muslims. :3 Ibadis have claimed, with
justification, that while they read the works of both Sunnis and
Shias, even the learned scholars of those two sects never read Ibadi
works and often repeat myths and false information when they address
the topic of Ibadism without performing proper research. :4 The
isolated nature of
Oman granted the
Ibadi denomination, secretive by
nature, the perfect environment to develop in isolation from the
Islamic mainstream. Ibadis were cut off even from the Kharijite sect
because of Ibn Ibaḍ's criticism of their excesses and his rejection
of their more extreme beliefs. The spread of Ibadism in Oman
essentially represents the triumph of theology over tribal feudalism
Ibadis have been referred to as tolerant Puritans or as political
quietists because of their preference to solve differences through
dignity and reason rather than with confrontation, as well as their
tolerance for practising Christians and Jews sharing their
Ibadism's movement from
Iraq and then further out made Ibadi
historian al-Salimi once write that Ibadism is a bird whose egg was
Medina , hatched in
Basra and flew to Oman.
Part of a series on
Five Pillars of
Islam 1 SIX ARTICLES OF BELIEF
* Holy books
* The Last Judgement
SUNNI THEOLOGICAL TRADITIONS
* Ilm al-
Shi\'a 2 TWELVER
Commanding what is just
* Forbidding what is evil
SEVEN PILLARS OF ISMAILISM
OTHER SHIA CONCEPTS OF AQIDAH
* Sixth Pillar of
Other schools of theology
Qutbism top: 0.2em;">2
Alawites , Assassins
, Druzes top: 0.2em;">3
Azariqa , Ajardi,
Bektashi Order font-size:115%;padding-top:
Ibadis state, with reason, that their school predates that of
mainstream Islamic schools, and Ibadism is thus considered to be an
early and highly orthodox interpretation of Islam.
DOCTRINAL DIFFERENCES WITH OTHER DENOMINATIONS
Ibāḍīs have several doctrinal differences with other
denominations of Islam, chief among them:
God will not show himself to Muslims on the Day of Judgment , a
belief shared with Shias. Sunnis believe that Muslims will see
the Day of Judgment.
Quran was created by
God at a certain point in time. This
belief is shared with the
Mutazila , whereas Sunnīs hold the Quran
to be co-eternal with God, as exemplified by the suffering of Ahmad
ibn Hanbal during the miḥnah .
* Like the
Mutazila and Shias, they interpret anthropomorphic
God in the Qur'an symbolically rather than literally.
* Their views on predestination are like the
Ashari Sunnis (i.e.
* It is unnecessary to have one leader for the entire Muslim world,
and if no single leader is fit for the job, Muslim communities can
rule themselves. That is different from both the
Sunni belief of
Caliphate and the
Shia belief of Imamah .
* It is not necessary for the ruler of the Muslims to be descended
Quraysh tribe , which was the tribe of the Muslim prophet
Muhammad. That is different from Shias :7
* They believe it is acceptable to conceal one's beliefs under
certain circumstances (kitman ), analogous to the
Shia taqiyya .
VIEWS ON ISLAMIC HISTORY AND CALIPHATE
Ibadis agree with Sunnis, regarding
Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab
as rightly-guided caliphs. :7 They regard the first half of Uthman
ibn Affan's rule as righteous and the second half as corrupt and
affected by both nepotism and heresy. :7 They approve of the first
Ali 's caliphate and (like Shī'a) disapprove of
rebellion and Muawiyah I's revolt. However, they regard Ali's
acceptance of arbitration at the Battle of Ṣiffīn as rendering him
unfit for leadership, and condemn him for killing the
an-Nahr in the
Battle of Nahrawan . Modern
Ibadi theologians defend
the early Kharijite opposition to Uthman,
Ali and Muawiyah. :10
Ibn Battuta observed Ibadis praying Jumu\'ah in
Oman and said they prayed in the same manner as
Zuhr prayer . He
noticed that they invoked God's mercy on
Abu Bakr and Umar but not
Uthman and Ali.
In their belief, the next legitimate caliph was Abdullah ibn Wahb
al-Rasibi, the leader of the Kharijites who turned against
Ali for his
acceptance of arbitration with Muawiyah. :10 All Caliphs from
Mu'āwīyah onward are considered tyrants except
Umar ibn Abdul Aziz ,
on whom opinions differ. Numerous Ibāḍī leaders are recognized as
true imams , including Abdullah ibn Yahya al-Kindi of South Arabia and
the imams of the
Rustamid dynasty in North Africa. Traditionally,
conservative Omani Ibadism rejected monarchy and hereditary rule, and
Ibadhi leaders were elected.
Despite bitter religious disputes elsewhere, the Ibadis are realists
and believe that reason and political expediency must temper the ideal
VIEW OF HADITH
Ibadis accept as authentic far fewer hadith than do Sunnis. Several
Ibadii founding figures were noted for their hadith research, and
Jabir ibn Zayd is accepted as a reliable narrator even by Sunni
scholars as well as by Ibadis. After the death of Ibn Ibad, Ibn Zayd
led the Ibadis and withdrew to Oman, where his hadith, along with
those of other early Ibadis formed the corpus of their interpretation
of Islamic law.
VIEW OF JURISPRUDENCE
The fiqh or jurisprudence of Ibadis is relatively simple. Absolute
authority is given to the Qur'an and hadith; new innovations accepted
on the basis of qiyas , or analogical reasoning, were rejected as
bid‘ah by the Ibadis. That differs from the majority of Sunnis but
agrees with Shias and the
Zahiri and early
Hanbali schools of
Ibadi-majority countries are coloured in black. Ibadi
people living in the M\'zab valley in
Ibadis make up a majority (roughly 75%) of the population in Oman.
There are roughly 2.72 million Ibadis worldwide, of which 250,000 live
outside Oman. As a result,
Oman is the only country in the Muslim
world with an Ibadi-majority population.
Historically, the early medieval
Rustamid dynasty in
Ibadi, and refugees from its capital,
Tiaret , founded the North
Ibadi communities, which still exist in M'zab. The Mozabites
, a Berber ethnic group in M'zab, are Ibadis. Ibadis are also found
East Africa (particularly
Zanzibar ), the
Nafusa Mountains of
Djerba Island in Tunisia. There is a group of Salafis who
have converted to Ibadis in the island nation of the
2016. They follow the Shaikhs of Oman.
Sulaiman al-Barouni , wali of
Ahmed bin Hamad al-Khalili , current
Grand Mufti of Oman.
Qaboos bin Said al Said , Sultan of
Oman and its dependencies.
Nouri Abusahmain , president of the former General National
Congress and former Libyan head of state .
Moufdi Zakaria , poet, writer and nationalist militant, author of
Kassaman the Algerian national anthem
Rustamid dynasty : 776–909
Nabhani dynasty : 1154–1624
Yaruba dynasty : 1624–1742
Al Said : 1744–present
* Sultanate of
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