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The IBāḍī MOVEMENT, IBADISM or IBāḍIYYA, also known as the IBADIS (Arabic : الاباضية‎‎, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam
Islam
dominant in Oman
Oman
. It is also found in Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, Libya
Libya
and East Africa
East Africa
. The movement is said to have been founded 20 years after the death of the Muslim prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
, predating both the Sunni and Shia denominations. Some historians believe that the denomination is a reformed sect of the Khawarij movement; :3 Ibāḍīs, however, deny anything more than a passing relation to the Khawarij and point out that they merely developed out of the same precursor group called Muhakkima . :3

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Relations with other communities

* 3 Views

* 3.1 Doctrinal differences with other denominations * 3.2 Views on Islamic history and caliphate * 3.3 View of hadith * 3.4 View of jurisprudence

* 4 Demographics

* 5 Notable Ibadis

* 5.1 Individuals * 5.2 Dynasties

* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

HISTORY

The school derives its name from ʿAbdu l-Lāh ibn Ibāḍ of the Banu Tamim . Ibn Ibad was responsible for breaking off from the wider Kharijite movement roughly around the time that Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan , the fifth Umayyad
Umayyad
ruler, took power. :11 However, the true founder was Jābir ibn Zayd of Nizwa
Nizwa
, Oman. :12 Initially, Ibadi theology developed in Basra
Basra
, Iraq
Iraq
. The Ibadis opposed the rule of the third caliph in Islam, Uthman ibn Affan , but unlike the more extreme Kharijites the Ibadis rejected the murder of Uthman as well as the Kharijite belief that all Muslims holding differing viewpoints were infidels. The Ibadis were among the more moderate groups opposed to the fourth caliph, Ali
Ali
, and wanted to return Islam
Islam
to its form prior to the conflict between Ali
Ali
and Muawiyah I .

Due to their opposition to the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate
Caliphate
, the Ibadis attempted an armed insurrection starting in the Hijaz region in the 740s. Caliph
Caliph
Marwan II led a 4,000 strong army and routed the Ibadis first in Mecca
Mecca
, then in Sana\'a in Yemen
Yemen
, and finally surrounded them in Shibam in western Hadhramaut . Problems back in their heartland of Syria forced the Umayyads to sign a peace accord with the Ibadis, and the sect was allowed to retain a community in Shibam for the next four centuries while still paying taxes to Ibadi
Ibadi
authorities in Oman. For a period after Marwan II's death, Jabir ibn Zayd maintained a friendship with Umayyad
Umayyad
general Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf , who supported the Ibadis as a counterbalance to more extreme Kharijites. Ibn Zayd ordered the assassination of one of Al-Hajjaj's spies, however, and in reaction many Ibadis were imprisoned or exiled to Oman. :12

It was during the 8th century that the Ibadis established an imamate in the inner region of Oman. The position was an elected one, as opposed to Sunni and Shi'a dynasties where rule was inherited. These imams exerted political, spiritual and military functions.

By the year 900, Ibadism had spread to Sind , Khorosan , Hadhramaut, Dhofar , Oman
Oman
proper , Muscat , the Nafusa Mountains , and Qeshm ; by 1200, the sect was present in Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
, Sicily
Sicily
, M\'zab (the Algerian Sahara), and the western part of the Sahel region as well. The last Ibadis of Shibam were expelled by the Sulayhid dynasty in the 12th century. In the 14th century, historian Ibn Khaldun made reference to vestiges of Ibadi
Ibadi
influence in Hadhramaut, though the sect no longer exists in the region today.

RELATIONS WITH OTHER COMMUNITIES

Despite predating all Sunni and Shia schools by several decades, the Ibadis and their beliefs remain largely a mystery to outsiders, both non-Muslims and even other Muslims. :3 Ibadis have claimed, with justification, that while they read the works of both Sunnis and Shias, even the learned scholars of those two sects never read Ibadi works and often repeat myths and false information when they address the topic of Ibadism without performing proper research. :4 The isolated nature of Oman
Oman
granted the Ibadi
Ibadi
denomination, secretive by nature, the perfect environment to develop in isolation from the Islamic mainstream. Ibadis were cut off even from the Kharijite sect because of Ibn Ibaḍ's criticism of their excesses and his rejection of their more extreme beliefs. The spread of Ibadism in Oman essentially represents the triumph of theology over tribal feudalism and conflict.

Ibadis have been referred to as tolerant Puritans or as political quietists because of their preference to solve differences through dignity and reason rather than with confrontation, as well as their tolerance for practising Christians and Jews sharing their communities.

Ibadism's movement from Hijaz to Iraq
Iraq
and then further out made Ibadi historian al-Salimi once write that Ibadism is a bird whose egg was laid in Medina
Medina
, hatched in Basra
Basra
and flew to Oman.

VIEWS

Part of a series on Islam
Islam
Aqidah

Five Pillars of Islam
Islam

* Shahada
Shahada
* Salah * Sawm * Zakat * Hajj
Hajj

Sunni Islam
Islam
1 SIX ARTICLES OF BELIEF

* God
God
* Prophets * Holy books * Angels * The Last Judgement * Predestination

SUNNI THEOLOGICAL TRADITIONS

* Ilm al- Kalam
Kalam

* Ash\'ari * Maturidi

* Traditionalist

Shi\'a 2 TWELVER

* PRINCIPLES

* Tawhid * Adalah * Prophecy * Imamah * Qiyamah

* PRACTICES

* Salah * Sawm * Zakat * Hajj
Hajj
* Khums * Jihad
Jihad
* Commanding what is just * Forbidding what is evil * Tawalla * Tabarra

SEVEN PILLARS OF ISMAILISM

* Walayah * Tawhid * Salah * Zakat * Sawm * Hajj
Hajj
* Jihad
Jihad

OTHER SHIA CONCEPTS OF AQIDAH

* Imamate * Batin * Sixth Pillar of Islam
Islam

Other schools of theology

* Ibadi * Jahmi * Khawarij 3 * Murji\'ah * Muʿtazila * Qadariyah * Sufism 4

Including: 1 Ahmadiyya , Qutbism top: 0.2em;">2 Alawites
Alawites
, Assassins , Druzes top: 0.2em;">3 Azariqa , Ajardi, Haruriyyah
Haruriyyah
, Najdat top: 0.2em;">4 Alevism , Bektashi Order font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;">

* v * t * e

Ibadis state, with reason, that their school predates that of mainstream Islamic schools, and Ibadism is thus considered to be an early and highly orthodox interpretation of Islam.

DOCTRINAL DIFFERENCES WITH OTHER DENOMINATIONS

Ibāḍīs have several doctrinal differences with other denominations of Islam, chief among them:

* God
God
will not show himself to Muslims on the Day of Judgment , a belief shared with Shias. Sunnis believe that Muslims will see God
God
on the Day of Judgment. * The Quran was created by God
God
at a certain point in time. This belief is shared with the Mutazila , whereas Sunnīs hold the Quran to be co-eternal with God, as exemplified by the suffering of Ahmad ibn Hanbal during the miḥnah . * Like the Mutazila and Shias, they interpret anthropomorphic references to God
God
in the Qur'an symbolically rather than literally. * Their views on predestination are like the Ashari Sunnis (i.e. occasionalism ). * It is unnecessary to have one leader for the entire Muslim world, and if no single leader is fit for the job, Muslim communities can rule themselves. That is different from both the Sunni belief of Caliphate
Caliphate
and the Shia belief of Imamah . * It is not necessary for the ruler of the Muslims to be descended from the Quraysh tribe , which was the tribe of the Muslim prophet Muhammad. That is different from Shias :7 * They believe it is acceptable to conceal one's beliefs under certain circumstances (kitman ), analogous to the Shia taqiyya .

VIEWS ON ISLAMIC HISTORY AND CALIPHATE

Ibadis agree with Sunnis, regarding Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar ibn al-Khattab as rightly-guided caliphs. :7 They regard the first half of Uthman ibn Affan's rule as righteous and the second half as corrupt and affected by both nepotism and heresy. :7 They approve of the first part of Ali
Ali
's caliphate and (like Shī'a) disapprove of Aisha
Aisha
's rebellion and Muawiyah I's revolt. However, they regard Ali's acceptance of arbitration at the Battle of Ṣiffīn as rendering him unfit for leadership, and condemn him for killing the Khawarij of an-Nahr in the Battle of Nahrawan . Modern Ibadi
Ibadi
theologians defend the early Kharijite opposition to Uthman, Ali
Ali
and Muawiyah. :10

Moroccan explorer Ibn Battuta observed Ibadis praying Jumu\'ah in Oman
Oman
and said they prayed in the same manner as Zuhr prayer . He noticed that they invoked God's mercy on Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar but not Uthman and Ali.

In their belief, the next legitimate caliph was Abdullah ibn Wahb al-Rasibi, the leader of the Kharijites who turned against Ali
Ali
for his acceptance of arbitration with Muawiyah. :10 All Caliphs from Mu'āwīyah onward are considered tyrants except Umar ibn Abdul Aziz , on whom opinions differ. Numerous Ibāḍī leaders are recognized as true imams , including Abdullah ibn Yahya al-Kindi of South Arabia and the imams of the Rustamid dynasty in North Africa. Traditionally, conservative Omani Ibadism rejected monarchy and hereditary rule, and Ibadhi leaders were elected.

Despite bitter religious disputes elsewhere, the Ibadis are realists and believe that reason and political expediency must temper the ideal Islamic state.

VIEW OF HADITH

Ibadis accept as authentic far fewer hadith than do Sunnis. Several Ibadii founding figures were noted for their hadith research, and Jabir ibn Zayd is accepted as a reliable narrator even by Sunni scholars as well as by Ibadis. After the death of Ibn Ibad, Ibn Zayd led the Ibadis and withdrew to Oman, where his hadith, along with those of other early Ibadis formed the corpus of their interpretation of Islamic law.

VIEW OF JURISPRUDENCE

The fiqh or jurisprudence of Ibadis is relatively simple. Absolute authority is given to the Qur'an and hadith; new innovations accepted on the basis of qiyas , or analogical reasoning, were rejected as bid‘ah by the Ibadis. That differs from the majority of Sunnis but agrees with Shias and the Zahiri and early Hanbali schools of Sunnism.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Ibadi-majority countries are coloured in black. Ibadi people living in the M\'zab valley in Algeria
Algeria

Ibadis make up a majority (roughly 75%) of the population in Oman. There are roughly 2.72 million Ibadis worldwide, of which 250,000 live outside Oman. As a result, Oman
Oman
is the only country in the Muslim world with an Ibadi-majority population.

Historically, the early medieval Rustamid dynasty in Algeria
Algeria
was Ibadi, and refugees from its capital, Tiaret
Tiaret
, founded the North African Ibadi
Ibadi
communities, which still exist in M'zab. The Mozabites , a Berber ethnic group in M'zab, are Ibadis. Ibadis are also found in East Africa
East Africa
(particularly Zanzibar ), the Nafusa Mountains of Libya, and Djerba
Djerba
Island in Tunisia. There is a group of Salafis who have converted to Ibadis in the island nation of the Maldives
Maldives
since 2016. They follow the Shaikhs of Oman.

NOTABLE IBADIS

INDIVIDUALS

* Sulaiman al-Barouni , wali of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
. * Ahmed bin Hamad al-Khalili , current Grand Mufti
Grand Mufti
of Oman. * Qaboos bin Said al Said , Sultan of Oman
Oman
and its dependencies. * Nouri Abusahmain , president of the former General National Congress and former Libyan head of state . * Moufdi Zakaria , poet, writer and nationalist militant, author of Kassaman the Algerian national anthem

DYNASTIES

* Rustamid dynasty : 776–909 * Nabhani dynasty : 1154–1624 * Yaruba dynasty : 1624–1742 * Al Said : 1744–present

SEE ALSO

* Ghardaïa * Islam
Islam
in Oman
Oman
* Sultanate of Zanzibar

REFERENCES

* ^ Vallely, Paul (19 February 2014). " Schism between Sunni and Shia has been poisoning Islam
Islam
for 1,400 years - and it\'s getting worse". The Independent
The Independent
. * ^ A B C D E F Donald Hawley , Oman, pg. 201. Jubilee edition. Kensington
Kensington
: Stacey International , 1995. ISBN 0905743636 * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L Hoffman, Valerie Jon (2012). The Essentials of Ibadi
Ibadi
Islam. Syracuse : Syracuse University Press . ISBN 9780815650843 . * ^ A B C Uzi Rabi, The Emergence of States in a Tribal Society: Oman
Oman
Under Saʻid Bin Taymur, 1932-1970, pg. 5. Eastbourne : Sussex Academic Press , 2006. ISBN 9781845190804 * ^ A B C Donald Hawley, Oman, pg. 199. * ^ A B Joseph A. Kechichian, Oman
Oman
and the World: The Emergence of an Independent Foreign Policy, pg. 24. Santa Monica : RAND Corporation , 1995. ISBN 9780833023322 * ^ A B C D Daniel McLaughlin, Yemen
Yemen
and: The Bradt Travel Guide, pg. 203. Guilford : Brandt Travel Guides, 2007. ISBN 9781841622125 * ^ A B C D E Diana Darke, Oman: The Bradt Travel Guide, pg. 27. Guilford: Brandt Travel Guides, 2010. ISBN 9781841623320 * ^ A B C D E Donald Hawley, Oman, pg. 200. * ^ A B J. R. C. Carter, Tribes in Oman, pg. 103. London: Peninsular Publishers, 1982. ISBN 0907151027 * ^ A Country Study: Oman, chapter 6 Oman
Oman
– Government and Politics, section: Historical Patterns of Governance. US Library of Congress , 1993. Retrieved 2006-10-28 * ^ Daniel McLaughlin, Yemen, pg. 204. * ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Adam al-Kawthari (August 23, 2005). "Seeing God
God
in dreams, waking, and the afterlife.". Retrieved December 18, 2011. * ^ A B C D Juan Eduardo Campo (1 Jan 2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. p. 323. ISBN 9781438126968 . * ^ Uzi Rabi, The Emergence of States, pg. 22. * ^ Joseph A. Kechichian, Oman
Oman
and the World, pg. 25. * ^ Hasan M. Al-Naboodah, "Banu Nabhan in the Omani Sources." Taken from New Arabian Studies, vol. 4, pg. 186. Eds. J. R. Smart, G. Rex Smith and B. R. Pridham. Exeter
Exeter
: University of Exeter
Exeter
Press , 1997. ISBN 9780859895521 * ^ Uzi Rabi, The Emergence of States, pg. 21. * ^ Mansoor Moaddel, Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, pg. 32. Chicago
Chicago
: University of Chicago
Chicago
Press , 2005. * ^ Camilla Adang , This Day I have Perfected Your Religion
Religion
For You: A Zahiri Conception of Religious Authority, pg. 15. Taken from Speaking for Islam: Religious Authorities in Muslim Societies. Ed. Gudrun Krämer and Sabine Schmidtke . Leiden
Leiden
: Brill Publishers
Brill Publishers
, 2006. ISBN 9789004149496 * ^ Christopher Melchert , The Formation of the Sunni Schools of Law: 9th-10th Centuries C.E., pg. 185. Leiden
Leiden
: Brill Publishers
Brill Publishers
, 1997. * ^ Chiragh Ali
Ali
, The Proposed Political, Legal and Social Reforms. Taken from Modernist Islam
Islam
1840-1940: A Sourcebook, pg. 281. Edited by Charles Kurzman . New York City
New York City
: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
, 2002. * ^ A B "CIA - The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2013. * ^ Robert Brenton Betts. The Sunni-Shi\'a Divide: Islam\'s Internal Divisions and Their Global Consequences. pp. 14–15. Retrieved 7 August 2015. * ^ The Rustamid state of Tāhart. Encyclopædia Britannica Online . Accessed 10 April 2014. * ^ "Ghardaïa, Algeria". Organization of World Heritage Sites. Retrieved 2010-11-12. * ^ "Tumzabt". * ^ Ham, Anthony; Luckham, Nana; Sattin, Anthony (2007). Algeria. Lonely Planet. p. 153. ISBN 1-74179-099-9 . * ^ Cyril Glassé, The New Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
, pg. 39. Walnut Creek : AltaMira Press , 2008.

FURTHER READING

* Pessah Shinar, MODERN ISLAM IN THE MAGHRIB, Jerusalem: The Max Schloessinger Memorial Foundation, 2004. A collection of papers (some previously unpublished) dealing with Islam
Islam
in the Maghreb, practices, and beliefs.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Ibadi
Ibadi
Islam: an introduction * A Concise History

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