Ian Arthur Bremmer (born November 12, 1969) is an American political
scientist specializing in U.S. foreign policy, states in transition,
and global political risk. He is the president and founder of Eurasia
Group, a political risk research and consulting firm with offices in
New York City, Washington, London, Tokyo, São Paulo, San Francisco,
and Singapore. As of December 2014, he is foreign affairs columnist
and editor-at-large at Time. In 2013, he was named Global Research
Professor at New York University.
Eurasia Group provides analysis
and expertise about how political developments and national security
dynamics move markets and shape investment environments across the
1 Life and career
2 Key concepts
2.2 State capitalism
2.4 Weaponization of finance
2.5 Pivot state
3 Selected bibliography
4 Current appointments
6 External links
Life and career
Bremmer is of Armenian and German descent. His father, Arthur served
Korean War and died at age of 46 when young Bremmer was aged
4. He grew up in housing projects in Chelsea, Massachusetts,
near Boston. His mother raised him and his brother with little help
and little money. Bremmer went to St. Dominic Savio High School in
East Boston. He later earned a BA in International Relations, magna
cum laude, from
Tulane University in 1989 and a PhD in Political
Stanford University in 1994, writing "The politics of
ethnicity: Russians in the Ukraine".
He then served on the faculty of the
Hoover Institution where, at 25,
he became the Institution's youngest-ever National Fellow. He has held
research and faculty positions at
New York University
New York University (where he
currently teaches), Columbia University, the EastWest Institute, the
World Policy Institute, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and
Asia Society Policy Institute, where he has served as First Harold
J. Newman Distinguished Fellow in
Geopolitics since 2015.
Bremmer is most widely known for advances in political risk; referred
to as the "guru" in the field by The Economist and The Wall Street
Journal and, more directly, bringing political science as a
discipline to the financial markets. In 2001, Bremmer created Wall
Street's first global political risk index, now the GPRI (Global
Political Risk Index). Bremmer's definition of an emerging market as
"a country where politics matters at least as much as economics to the
market" is a standard reference in the political risk field.
Bremmer has published ten books, including the national bestsellers
Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a
(Portfolio, May 2012), which details risks and opportunities in a
world without global leadership, and The End of the Free Market: Who
Wins the War Between States and Corporations (Portfolio, May 2010),
which describes the global phenomenon of state capitalism and its
implications for economics and politics. He also wrote The J Curve: A
New Way to Understand Why Nations Rise and Fall (Simon & Schuster,
2006), selected by
The Economist as one of the best books of 2006.
His latest book is Us vs Them: The Failure of Globalism (Portfolio,
April 2018), which provides an analysis of the global implications of
rising populist nationalism and government responses.
Bremmer is a frequent writer and commentator in the media. He is the
foreign affairs columnist and editor-at-large for Time, a contributor
Financial Times A-List, and has also published articles in
The Washington Post, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal,
Harvard Business Review,
Foreign Affairs and many other publications.
He appears regularly on CNBC, CNN, Fox News Channel, Bloomberg
Television, National Public Radio, the BBC, and other networks. He has
been a regular guest and occasional host of
Charlie Rose Show
Charlie Rose Show and has
appeared frequently on Real Time with Bill Maher.
Among his professional appointments, Bremmer serves on the President's
Council of the Near East Foundation, the Leadership Council for the
Concordia Summit, and the Board of Trustees of Intelligence Squared.
In 2007, he was named as a 'Young Global Leader' of the World Economic
Forum, and in 2010, founded and was appointed Chair of the Forum's
Global Agenda Council for Geopolitical Risk. In December 2015, Bremmer
was knighted by the government of Italy.
He lives in New York City.
Bremmer's research fields include: international political economy,
geoeconomics and geopolitics, states in transition and global emerging
markets, and US foreign policy.
Main article: The J Curve: A New Way to Understand Why Nations Rise
Bremmer's J curve outlines the link between a country's openness
and its stability. While many countries are stable because they are
open (the United States, France, Japan), others are stable because
they are closed (North Korea, Cuba,
Iraq under Saddam Hussein). States
can travel both forward (right) and backwards (left) along this J
curve, so stability and openness are never secure. The J is steeper on
the left hand side, as it is easier for a leader in a failed state to
create stability by closing the country than to build a civil society
and establish accountable institutions; the curve is higher on the far
right than left because states that prevail in opening their societies
(Eastern Europe, for example) ultimately become more stable than
Ian Bremmer describes state capitalism as a system in which the state
dominates markets primarily for political gain. In his book, The End
of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations
(New York: Portfolio, 2010), Bremmer describes China as the primary
driver for the rise of state capitalism as a challenge to the free
market economies of the developed world, particularly in the aftermath
of the financial crisis.
G-Zero world refers to a breakdown in global leadership
brought about by a decline of Western influence and the inability of
other nations to fill the void. It is a reference to a
perceived shift away from the pre-eminence of the ["G7"] ("Group of
Seven") industrialized countries and the expanded Group of Twenty,
which includes major emerging powers like China, India, Brazil,
Turkey, and others. In his book, Every Nation for Itself: Winners and
Losers in a
G-Zero World (New York: Portfolio, 2012), Bremmer explains
that, in the G-Zero, no country or group of countries has the
political and economic leverage to drive an international agenda or
provide global public goods.
Weaponization of finance
Main article: Weaponization of finance
The term weaponization of finance refers to the foreign policy
strategy of using incentives (access to capital markets) and penalties
(varied types of sanctions) as tools of coercive diplomacy. In his
Eurasia Group Top Risks 2015 report, Bremmer coins the term
weaponization of finance to describe the ways in which the United
States is using its influence to affect global outcomes. Rather than
rely on traditional elements of America’s security advantage –
including US-led alliances such as
NATO and multi-lateral institutions
such as the
World Bank and the
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund – Bremmer
argues that the US is now ‘weaponizing finance’ by limiting access
to the American marketplace and to US banks as an instrument of its
foreign and security policy.
Bremmer uses 'pivot state' to describe a nation that is able to build
profitable relationships with multiple other major powers without
becoming overly reliant on any one of them. This ability to hedge
allows a pivot state to avoid capture—in terms of security or
economy—at the hands of a single country. In his book, Every Nation
for Itself: Winners and Losers in a
G-Zero World (New York: Portfolio,
2012), Bremmer explains how, in a volatile
G-Zero world, the
ability to pivot will take on increased importance. At the opposite
end of the spectrum are shadow states that are frozen within the
influence of a single power. The United States' neighbors illustrate
the terms very well. With significant trade ties with both the United
States and Asia and formal security ties with NATO, Canada is a good
example of a pivot state that is hedged against a slowdown in or
conflict with any single major power. Mexico, on the other hand, is a
shadow state due to its overwhelming reliance on the US economy.
Soviet Nationalities Problems. (edited with Norman Naimark),
(Stanford: Stanford Center for Russian and East European Studies:
1990). ISBN 0-87725-195-9
Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successor States. (edited with
Raymond Taras), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
New States, New Politics: Building the Post-Soviet Nations. (edited
with Raymond Taras), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
The J Curve: A New Way to Understand Why Nations Rise and Fall. (Simon
& Schuster, 2006; revised paperback, 2007).
Managing Strategic Surprise: Lessons from Risk Management & Risk
Assessment[permanent dead link]. (edited with Paul Bracken and David
Gordon), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
The Fat Tail: The Power of Political Knowledge for Strategic
Investing. (with Preston Keat), (New York: Oxford University Press,
2009; revised paperback, 2010). ISBN 0-19-532855-8
The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and
Corporations. (New York: Portfolio, 2010; revised paperback 2011).
Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a
G-Zero World. (New
York: Portfolio, May 2012; revised paperback 2013).
Superpower: Three Choices for America's Role in the World. (New York:
Portfolio, May 2015). ISBN 978-1591847472
Us vs Them: The Failure of Globalism. (New York: Portfolio, April
2018). ISBN 978-0525533184
Foreign Affairs Columnist and Editor-at-Large, Time
Professor, New York University
Harold J. Newman Distinguished Fellow in Geopolitics, Asia Society
Presidents Council, Near East Foundation
Leadership Council, Concordia
Board of Directors, Intelligence Squared
Member, Council on Foreign Relations
Member, International Institute for Strategic Studies
Ian Bremmer Joins Time". Mediabistro.com. Retrieved
^ "Ian Bremmer, President of Eurasia Group, Named NYU Global Research
Professor". Nyu.edu. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ "ianbremmer@Twitter". Twitter. 11 November 2016.
^ "Ian Bremmer@Facebook". Facebook. 11 November 2016.
^ Thompson, Damian (September 30, 2006). "Here's how the world works".
The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2008-08-01.
^ ""Superpower" Excerpt by Ian Bremmer". MSNBC. 19 May 2015.
Ian Bremmer World Policy Institute". Worldpolicy.org. Retrieved
^ "The politics of ethnicity : Russians in the Ukraine". Stanford
University. Archived from the original on March 27, 2017. Retrieved
March 27, 2017.
^ "Beyond Economics". The Economist. February 10, 2011.
^ "Japan's Nikko Asset Adds Political-Risk Analysis With Eurasia
Deal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Quinn, James (July 10, 2010). "The West Should Fear the Growth of
State Capitalism". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved
^ "Managing Risk in an Unstable World" (PDF). Jcurvebook.com. Archived
from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 19,
^ "Fighting to be tops". The Economist. December 7, 2006.
^ "The A-List". The Financial Times. June 2011.
^ "Ian Bremmer; Biography: (Own site)". Retrieved 28 October
^ Bremmer, Ian. 2006. The J Curve: A New Way to Understand Why Nations
Rise and Fall. Simon and Schuster.
^ "State capitalism: China's 'market-Leninism' has yet to face biggest
test". Ft.com. Retrieved 2017-07-19. (subscription required)
Eurasia Group Top 10 Risks of 2011". Eurasiagroup.net. Archived
from the original on January 31, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Gregory Scoblete. Will Free Markets Give Way to State Capitalism?,
RealClearPolitics, May 28, 2010.
Ian Bremmer and David Gordon.
G-Zero Archived September 12, 2011, at
the Wayback Machine., Foreign Policy, January 7, 2011.
Ian Bremmer and Nouriel Roubini. A
G-Zero World, Foreign Affairs,
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January
28, 2015. Retrieved April 27, 2015.
^ "The Future Belongs to the Flexible". The Wall Street Journal.
^ Bremmer, Ian. Every Nation for Itself, New York: Portfolio, 2012,
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ian Bremmer
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ian Bremmer.
Profile at Eurasia Group
Appearances on C-SPAN
Ian Bremmer on Charlie Rose
Ian Bremmer on IMDb
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