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IAN ARTHUR BREMMER (born November 12, 1969) is an American political scientist specializing in U.S. foreign policy, states in transition, and global political risk . He is the president and founder of Eurasia Group , a political risk research and consulting firm with offices in New York City
New York City
, Washington , London
London
, Tokyo
Tokyo
, São Paulo
São Paulo
, San Francisco , and Singapore
Singapore
. As of December 2014, he is foreign affairs columnist and editor-at-large at Time . In 2013, he was named Global Research Professor at New York University . Eurasia Group provides analysis and expertise about how political developments and national security dynamics move markets and shape investment environments across the globe.

CONTENTS

* 1 Life and career

* 2 Key concepts

* 2.1 J-Curve * 2.2 State capitalism * 2.3 G-Zero * 2.4 Weaponization of finance * 2.5 Pivot state

* 3 Selected bibliography * 4 Current appointments * 5 References * 6 External links

LIFE AND CAREER

Bremmer is of Armenian and German descent. His father, Arthur served in the Korean War and died at age of 46 when young Bremmer was aged 4. He grew up in housing projects in Chelsea, Massachusetts
Chelsea, Massachusetts
, near Boston
Boston
. His mother raised him and his brother with little help and little money. Bremmer went to an Italian high school. He later earned a BA in International Relations, magna cum laude , from Tulane University in 1989 and a PhD in Political Science from Stanford University in 1994, writing "The politics of ethnicity: Russians in the Ukraine".

He then served on the faculty of the Hoover Institution where, at 25, he became the Institution's youngest-ever National Fellow. He has held research and faculty positions at New York University (where he currently teaches), Columbia University
Columbia University
, the EastWest Institute , the World Policy Institute , Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory , and the Asia Society Policy Institute, where he has served as First Harold J. Newman Distinguished Fellow in Geopolitics since 2015.

Bremmer is most widely known for advances in political risk; referred to as the "guru" in the field by The Economist and The Wall Street Journal and, more directly, bringing political science as a discipline to the financial markets. In 2001, Bremmer created Wall Street's first global political risk index, now the GPRI (Global Political Risk Index). Bremmer's definition of an emerging market as "a country where politics matters at least as much as economics to the market" is a standard reference in the political risk field.

Bremmer has published ten books, including the national bestsellers Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World (Portfolio , May 2012), which details risks and opportunities in a world without global leadership, and The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations (Portfolio, May 2010), which describes the global phenomenon of state capitalism and its implications for economics and politics. He also wrote The J Curve: A New Way to Understand Why Nations Rise and Fall (Simon the curve is higher on the far right than left because states that prevail in opening their societies (Eastern Europe, for example) ultimately become more stable than authoritarian regimes .

STATE CAPITALISM

Ian Bremmer
Ian Bremmer
describes state capitalism as a system in which the state dominates markets primarily for political gain. In his book, The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations (New York: Portfolio, 2010), Bremmer describes China as the primary driver for the rise of state capitalism as a challenge to the free market economies of the developed world , particularly in the aftermath of the financial crisis .

G-ZERO

Main article: G-Zero world

The term G-Zero world refers to a breakdown in global leadership brought about by a decline of Western influence and the inability of other nations to fill the void. It is a reference to a perceived shift away from the pre-eminence of the ("Group of Seven ") industrialized countries and the expanded Group of Twenty , which includes major emerging powers like China, India
India
, Brazil
Brazil
, Turkey
Turkey
, and others. In his book, Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World (New York: Portfolio, 2012), Bremmer explains that, in the G-Zero, no country or group of countries has the political and economic leverage to drive an international agenda or provide global public goods .

WEAPONIZATION OF FINANCE

Main article: Weaponization of finance

The term weaponization of finance refers to the foreign policy strategy of using incentives (access to capital markets) and penalties (varied types of sanctions) as tools of coercive diplomacy. In his Eurasia Group Top Risks 2015 report, Bremmer coins the weaponization of finance to describe the ways in which the United States
United States
is using its influence to affect global outcomes. Rather than rely on traditional elements of America’s security advantage – including US-led alliances such as NATO and multi-lateral institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
– Bremmer argues that the US is now ‘weaponizing finance’ by limiting access to the American marketplace and to US banks as an instrument of its foreign and security policy.

PIVOT STATE

Bremmer uses 'pivot state' to describe a nation that is able to build profitable relationships with multiple other major powers without becoming overly reliant on any one of them. This ability to hedge allows a pivot state to avoid capture—in terms of security or economy—at the hands of a single country. In his book, Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World (New York: Portfolio, 2012), Bremmer explains how, in a volatile G-Zero world, the ability to pivot will take on increased importance. At the opposite end of the spectrum are shadow states that are frozen within the influence of a single power. The United States
United States
' neighbors illustrate the terms very well. With significant trade ties with both the United States
United States
and Asia and formal security ties with NATO , Canada is a good example of a pivot state that is hedged against a slowdown in or conflict with any single major power. Mexico
Mexico
, on the other hand, is a shadow state due to its overwhelming reliance on the US economy.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Soviet Nationalities Problems. (edited with Norman Naimark), (Stanford: Stanford Center for Russian and East European Studies: 1990). ISBN 0-87725-195-9 * Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successor States. (edited with Raymond Taras), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). ISBN 0-521-43860-8 * New States, New Politics: Building the Post-Soviet Nations. (edited with Raymond Taras ), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997). ISBN 0-521-57799-3 * The J Curve: A New Way to Understand Why Nations Rise and Fall . (Simon revised paperback, 2007). ISBN 0-7432-7471-7 * Managing Strategic Surprise: Lessons from Risk Management revised paperback, 2010). ISBN 0-19-532855-8 * The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations . (New York: Portfolio, 2010; revised paperback 2011). ISBN 978-1-59184-301-6 * Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World . (New York: Portfolio, May 2012; revised paperback 2013). ISBN 978-1-59184-468-6 * Superpower: Three Choices for America\'s Role in the World . (New York: Portfolio, May 2015). ISBN 978-1591847472 * Us vs Them: The Failure of Globalism . (New York: Portfolio, April 2018). ISBN 978-0525533184

CURRENT APPOINTMENTS

* Foreign Affairs Columnist and Editor-at-Large, Time * Global Research Professor, New York University * Harold J. Newman Distinguished Fellow in Geopolitics, Asia Society Policy Institute * Presidents Council, Near East Foundation * Leadership Council, Concordia * Board of Directors, Intelligence Squared * Member, Council on Foreign Relations
Council on Foreign Relations
* Member, International Institute for Strategic Studies

REFERENCES

* ^ " Ian Bremmer
Ian Bremmer
Joins Time". Mediabistro.com. Retrieved 2017-07-19. * ^ "Ian Bremmer, President of Eurasia Group, Named NYU Global Research Professor". Nyu.edu. Retrieved 2017-07-19. * ^ "ianbremmer@Twitter". Twitter. 11 November 2016. * ^ "Ian Bremmer@Facebook". Facebook. 11 November 2016. * ^ Thompson, Damian (September 30, 2006). "Here\'s how the world works". The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
. London. Retrieved 2008-08-01. * ^ ""Superpower" Excerpt by Ian Bremmer". MSNBC. 19 May 2015. * ^ " Ian Bremmer
Ian Bremmer
World Policy Institute". Worldpolicy.org. Retrieved 2016-01-30. * ^ "The politics of ethnicity : Russians in the Ukraine". Stanford University . Archived from the original on March 27, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. * ^ "Beyond Economics". The Economist . February 10, 2011. * ^ "Japan\'s Nikko Asset Adds Political-Risk Analysis With Eurasia Deal". The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
. Retrieved 2017-07-19. * ^ Quinn, James (July 10, 2010). "The West Should Fear the Growth of State Capitalism". The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
. London. Retrieved 2010-07-10. * ^ "Managing Risk in an Unstable World" (PDF). Jcurvebook.com. Retrieved 2017-07-19. * ^ "Fighting to be tops". The Economist . December 7, 2006. * ^ "The A-List". The Financial Times . June 2011. * ^ http://www.ianbremmer.com/bio. Retrieved 28 October 2017. Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ Bremmer, Ian. 2006. The J Curve: A New Way to Understand Why Nations Rise and Fall. Simon and Schuster. * ^ "State capitalism: China\'s \'market-Leninism\' has yet to face biggest test". Ft.com. Retrieved 2017-07-19. (subscription required) * ^ " Eurasia Group Top 10 Risks of 2011". Eurasiagroup.net. Archived from the original on January 31, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2017. * ^ Gregory Scoblete. Will Free Markets Give Way to State Capitalism?, RealClearPolitics, May 28, 2010. * ^ Ian Bremmer
Ian Bremmer
and David Gordon.G-Zero, Foreign Policy , January 7, 2011. * ^ Ian Bremmer
Ian Bremmer
and Nouriel Roubini
Nouriel Roubini
. A G-Zero World, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2011. * ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 28, 2015. Retrieved April 27, 2015. * ^ "The Future Belongs to the Flexible". The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
. Retrieved 2017-07-19. * ^ Bremmer, Ian. Every Nation for Itself, New Yo