The INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY (IUPAC)
/ˈaɪjuːpæk/ or /ˈjuːpæk/ is an international federation of
National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual
countries. It is a member of the
IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International
Congress of Applied
IUPAC is best known for its works standardizing nomenclature in chemistry and other fields of science, but IUPAC has publications in many fields including chemistry, biology and physics. Some important work IUPAC has done in these fields includes standardizing nucleotide base sequence code names; publishing books for environmental scientists, chemists, and physicists; and improving education in science. IUPAC is also known for standardizing the atomic weights of the elements through one of its oldest standing committees, the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW).
* 1 Creation and history * 2 Committees and governance
* 3 Nomenclature
* 3.1 Organic nomenclature * 3.2 Inorganic nomenclature
* 5 Publications
* 5.1 Non-series books * 5.2 Experimental Thermodynamics book series * 5.3 Series of books on analytical and physical chemistry of environmental systems * 5.4 Colored cover book and website series (nomenclature)
CREATION AND HISTORY
The need for an international standard for chemistry was first
addressed in 1860 by a committee headed by German scientist Friedrich
August Kekulé von Stradonitz . This committee was the first
international conference to create an international naming system for
organic compounds . The ideas that were formulated in that conference
evolved into the official
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry .
IUPAC stands as a legacy of this meeting, making it one of the most
important historical international collaborations of chemistry
societies . Since this time, IUPAC has been the official organization
held with the responsibility of updating and maintaining official
organic nomenclature . IUPAC as such was established in 1919. One
notable country excluded from this early IUPAC is Germany. Germany's
exclusion was a result of prejudice towards Germans by the Allied
In 2016, IUPAC denounced the use of chlorine as a chemical weapon . The organization pointed out their concerns in a letter to Ahmet Üzümcü, the director of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), in regards to the practice of utilizing chlorine for weapon usage in Syria among other locations. The letter stated, "Our organizations deplore the use of chlorine in this manner. The indiscriminate attacks, possibly carried out by a member state of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), is of concern to chemical scientists and engineers around the globe and we stand ready to support your mission of implementing the CWC." According to the CWC, "the use, stockpiling, distribution, development or storage of any chemical weapons is forbidden by any of the 192 state party signatories."
COMMITTEES AND GOVERNANCE
IUPAC is governed by several committees that all have different
responsibilities. The committees are as follows: Bureau, CHEMRAWN
(Chem Research Applied to
The steering committee hierarchy for IUPAC is as follows:
* All committees have an allotted budget to which they must adhere. * Any committee may start a project. * If a project's spending becomes too much for a committee to continue funding, it must take the issue to the Project Committee. * The project committee either increases the budget or decides on an external funding plan. * The Bureau and Executive Committee oversee operations of the other committees.
Committees table COMMITTEE NAME (ABBREVIATION) RESPONSIBILITIES
* Discussing and making changes to which committee has authority over a specific project * Controlling finances for all other committees and IUPAC as a whole * Discussing general governance of IUPAC
PHYSICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL CHEMISTRY DIVISION (Division I)
* Organizing and promoting the international collaboration between scientists in physical and biophysical chemistry and related fields
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY DIVISION (Division II)
* Inorganic and inorganic materials chemistry, isotopes and atomic weights, periodic table
ORGANIC AND BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY DIVISION (Division III)
* Promoting the goals of IUPAC in the field of organic and biomolecular chemistry in the broadest sense
POLYMER DIVISION (Division IV)
* The science and technology of macromolecules and polymers
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY DIVISION (Division V)
* The general aspects of analytical chemistry, separation methods, spectrochemical methods, electrochemical methods, nuclear chemistry methods, and applications to human health and the environment.
CHEMISTRY AND THE ENVIRONMENT DIVISION (Division VI)
* Providing unbiased and timely authoritative reviews on the behavior of chemical compounds in food and the environment.
CHEMISTRY AND HUMAN HEALTH DIVISION (Division VII)
* Medicinal and clinical chemistry
CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE AND STRUCTURE REPRESENTATION DIVISION (Division VIII)
* Maintaining and developing standard systems for designating chemical structures, including both conventional nomenclature and computer-based systems.
CHEMRAWN COMMITTEE (Chem Research Applied to
* Discussing different ways chemistry can and should be used to help the world
COMMITTEE ON CHEMISTRY EDUCATION (CCE)
* Coordinating IUPAC chemistry research with the educational systems of the world
COMMITTEE ON CHEMISTRY AND INDUSTRY (COCI)
* Coordinating IUPAC chemistry research with industrial chemistry needs
COMMITTEE ON ELECTRONIC AND PRINTED PUBLICATIONS (CPEP)
* Designing and implementing IUPAC publications * Heading the Subcommittee on Spectroscopic Data Standards
EVALUATION COMMITTEE (EvC)
* Evaluating every project * Reporting back to the Executive Committee on every project
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE (EC)
* Planning and discussing IUPAC events * Discussing IUPAC fundraising * Reviewing other committees' work
CURRENT OFFICERS OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE:
* President: Moreau, Nicole J. * Vice president: Tatsumi, Kazuyuki * Treasurer: Corish, John * Secretary general: Black, David StC.
FINANCE COMMITTEE (FC)
* Helping other committees properly manage their budgets * Advising union officers on investments
INTERDIVISIONAL COMMITTEE ON TERMINOLOGY (ICTNS)
PROJECT COMMITTEE (PC)
* Managing funds that are under the jurisdiction of multiple projects * Judging if a project is too large for its funding * Recommending sources of external funding for projects * Deciding how to fund meetings in developing countries and countries in crisis
PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD (PAC-EAB)
* Helping to plan, implement, and publish Pure and Applied Chemistry
Main article: Preferred IUPAC name
IUPAC committee has a long history of officially naming organic and
inorganic compounds .
IUPAC organic nomenclature has three basic parts: the substituents , carbon chain length and chemical ending. The substituents are any functional groups attached to the main carbon chain. The main carbon chain is the longest possible continuous chain. The chemical ending denotes what type of molecule it is. For example, the ending ane denotes a single bonded carbon chain, as in "hexane" (C 6H 14).
Another example of IUPAC organic nomenclature is cyclohexanol : Cyclohexanol
* The substituent name for a ring compound is cyclo. * The indication (substituent name) for a six carbon chain is hex. * The chemical ending for a single bonded carbon chain is ane * The chemical ending for an alcohol is ol * The two chemical endings are combined for an ending of anol indicating a single bonded carbon chain with an alcohol attached to it.
Basic IUPAC inorganic nomenclature has two main parts: the cation and the anion . The cation is the name for the positively charged ion and the anion is the name for the negatively charged ion.
AMINO ACID AND NUCLEOTIDE BASE CODES
IUPAC also has a system for giving codes to identify amino acids and nucleotide bases. IUPAC needed a coding system that represented long sequences of amino acids. This would allow for these sequences to be compared to try to find homologies . These codes can consist of either a one letter code or a three letter code.
These codes make it easier and shorter to write down the amino acid
sequences that make up proteins . The nucleotide bases are made up of
purines (adenine and guanine ) and pyrimidines (cytosine and thymine
or uracil ). These nucleotide bases make up
NUCLEIC ACID CODE MEANING MNEMONIC
C C Cytosine
T T Thymine
U U Uracil
A or G
C, T or U
K G, T or U Bases which are ketones
M A or C Bases with amino groups
S C or G Strong interaction
W A, T or U Weak interaction
B Not A (i.e. C, G, T or U) B comes after A
D Not C (i.e. A, G, T or U) D comes after C
H Not G (i.e., A, C, T or U) H comes after G
V Neither T nor U (i.e. A, C or G) V comes after U
N A C G T U Nucleic acid
- Gap of indeterminate length
The codes for amino acids (24 amino acids and three special codes) are:
AMINO ACID CODE MEANING
B Aspartic acid or asparagine
D Aspartic acid
Z Glutamic acid or glutamine
* Translation stop
- Gap of indeterminate length
BOOK NAME DESCRIPTION
PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF METHOD VALIDATION
Principles and Practices of Method Validation is a book entailing methods of validating and analyzing many analytes taken from a single aliquot. Also, this book goes over techniques for analyzing many samples at once. Some methods discussed include: chromatographic methods, estimation of effects, matrix induced effects, and the effect of an equipment setup on an experiment.
Fundamental Toxicology is a textbook that proposes a curriculum for toxicology courses. Fundamental Toxicology is based on the book Fundamental Toxicology for Chemists. Fundamental Toxicology is enhanced through many revisions and updates. New information added in the revisions includes: risk assessment and management; reproductive toxicology; behavioral toxicology; and ecotoxicology . This book is relatively well received as being useful for reviewing chemical toxicology.
Macromolecular Symposia is a journal that publishes fourteen issues a
year. This journal includes contributions to the macromolecular
chemistry and physics field. The meetings of IUPAC are included in
this journal along with the
European Polymer Federation , the American
Chemical Society , and the
Society of Polymer Science
EXPERIMENTAL THERMODYNAMICS BOOK SERIES
The Experimental Thermodynamics books series covers many topics in the fields of thermodynamics.
MEASUREMENT OF THE TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
Measurement of the Transport Properties of Fluids is a book that is published by Blackwell Science . The topics that are included in this book are low and high temperature measurements, secondary coefficients, diffusion coefficients , light scattering , transient methods for thermal conductivity , methods for thermal conductivity, falling-body viscometers, and vibrating viscometers .
EQUATIONS OF STATE FOR FLUIDS AND FLUID MIXTURES PART I
Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures Part I is a book that gives up to date equations of state for fluids and fluid mixtures. This book covers all ways to develop equations of state. It gives the strengths and weaknesses of each equation. Some equations discussed include: virial equation of state cubic equations; generalized Van der Waals equations ; integral equations; perturbation theory; and stating and mixing rules. Other things that Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures Part I goes over are: associating fluids, polymer systems, polydisperse fluids, self-assembled systems, ionic fluids, and fluids near their critical points.
MEASUREMENT OF THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SINGLE PHASES
Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases is a book that gives an overview of techniques for measuring the thermodynamic quantities of single phases. It also goes into experimental techniques to test many different thermodynamic states precisely and accurately. Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases was written for people interested in measuring thermodynamic properties.
MEASUREMENT OF THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF MULTIPLE PHASES
Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases is a book that includes multiple techniques that are used to study multiple phases of pure component systems. Also included in this book are the measurement techniques to obtain activity coefficients , interfacial tension , and critical parameters . This book was written for researchers and graduate students as a reference source.
SERIES OF BOOKS ON ANALYTICAL AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS
BOOK NAME DESCRIPTION
Atmospheric Particles is a book that delves into aerosol science. This book is aimed as a reference for graduate students and atmospheric researchers. Atmospheric Particles goes into depth on the properties of aerosols in the atmosphere and their effect. Topics covered in this book are: acid rain ; heavy metal pollution; global warming ; and photochemical smog. Atmospheric Particles also covers techniques to analyze the atmosphere and ways to take atmospheric samples.
ENVIRONMENTAL COLLOIDS AND PARTICLES: BEHAVIOUR, SEPARATION AND CHARACTERISATION
Environmental Colloids and Particles: Behaviour, Separation and Characterisation is a book that discusses environmental colloids and current information available on them. This book focuses on environmental colloids and particles in aquatic systems and soils. It also goes over techniques such as: techniques for sampling environmental colloids, size fractionation, and how to characterize of colloids and particles. Environmental Colloids and Particles: Behaviour, Separation and Characterisation also delves into how these colloids and particles interact.
BIOPHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF FRACTAL STRUCTURES AND PROCESSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL PARTICLES AND MICROORGANISMS: IMPACT ON THE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM
Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem is meant to be read by chemists and biologists that study environmental systems. Also, this book should be used as a reference for earth scientists, environmental geologists, environmental engineers, and professionals in microbiology and ecology. Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem is about how minerals, microorganisms, and organic components work together to affect terrestrial systems . This book identifies that there are many different techniques and theories about minerals, microorganisms, and organic components individually, but they are not often associated with each other. It further goes on to discuss how these components of soil work together to affect terrestrial life. Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem gives techniques to analyze minerals, microorganisms, and organic components together. This book also has a large section positing why environmental scientists working in the specific fields of minerals, microorganisms, and organic components of soil should work together and how they should do so.
THE BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF IRON IN SEAWATER
The Biogeochemistry of Iron in Seawater is a book that describes how
low concentrations of iron in
IN SITU MONITORING OF AQUATIC SYSTEMS: CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND SPECIATION
In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation is a book that discusses techniques and devices to monitor aquatic systems and how new devices and techniques can be developed. This book emphasizes the future use of micro-analytical monitoring techniques and microtechnology . In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation is aimed at researchers and laboratories that analyze aquatic systems such as rivers, lakes, and oceans.
STRUCTURE AND SURFACE REACTIONS OF SOIL PARTICLES
Structure and Surface Reactions of Soil Particles is a book about soil structures and the molecular processes that occur in soil. Structure and Surface Reactions of Soil Particles is aimed at any researcher researching soil or in the field of anthropology . It goes into depth on topics such as: fractal analysis of particle dimensions; computer modeling of the structure; reactivity of humics; applications of atomic force microscopy; and advanced instrumentation for analysis of soil particles.
METAL SPECIATION AND BIOAVAILABILITY IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS, SERIES ON ANALYTICAL AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS VOL. 3
PHYSICOCHEMICAL KINETICS AND TRANSPORT AT BIOINTERFACES
Physicochemical Kinetics and Transport at Biointerfaces is a book created to aid environmental scientists in field work. The book gives an overview of chemical mechanisms, transport, kinetics, and interactions that occur in environmental systems . Physicochemical Kinetics and Transport at Biointerfaces continues from where Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems leaves off.
COLORED COVER BOOK AND WEBSITE SERIES (NOMENCLATURE)
Main article: IUPAC book
IUPAC color code their books in order to make each publication distinguishable.
COMPENDIUM OF ANALYTICAL NOMENCLATURE
One extensive book on almost all nomenclature written (IUPAC
nomenclature of organic chemistry and
PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY (JOURNAL)
Pure and Applied
Pure and Applied
Its creation was first suggested at the Paris IUPAC Meeting of 1957. During this meeting the commercial publisher of the journal was discussed and decided on. In 1959, IUPAC Pure and Applied Chemistry Editorial Advisory Board was created and put in charge of the journal. The idea of one journal being a definitive place for a vast amount of chemistry was difficult for the committee to grasp at first. However, it was decided that the journal would reprint old journal editions to keep all chemistry knowledge available.
COMPENDIUM OF CHEMICAL TERMINOLOGY
The Compendium of Chemical Terminology , also known as the "Gold Book", was originally worked on by Victor Gold . This book is a collection of names and terms already discussed in Pure and Applied Chemistry. The Compendium of Chemical Terminology was first published in 1987. The first edition of this book contains no original material, but is meant to be a compilation of other IUPAC works.
The second edition of this book was published in 1997. This book
made large changes to the first edition of the Compendium of Chemical
Terminology. These changes included updated material and an expansion
of the book to include over seven thousand terms. The second edition
was the topic of an IUPAC
IUPAC NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (ONLINE PUBLICATION)
Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, also known as the "Blue
Book", is a website published by the Advanced
INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF CHEMISTRY
CAS registry number
* ^ "Our Leadership: Professor Natalia Tarasova (Russia),
President". 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
* ^ A B C "IUPAC National Adhering Organizations". Iupac.org. 2
June 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
* ^ "IUPAC Council Agenda