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The IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species
Species
(also known as the IUCN
IUCN
Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit. The IUCN
IUCN
Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. The aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction. According to IUCN
IUCN
(1996), the formally stated goals of the Red List are (1) to provide scientifically based information on the status of species and subspecies at a global level, (2) to draw attention to the magnitude and importance of threatened biodiversity, (3) to influence national and international policy and decision-making, and (4) to provide information to guide actions to conserve biological diversity.[1] Major species assessors include BirdLife International, the Institute of Zoology (the research division of the Zoological Society of London), the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and many Specialist Groups within the IUCN
IUCN
Species Survival Commission
Species Survival Commission
(SSC). Collectively, assessments by these organizations and groups account for nearly half the species on the Red List. The IUCN
IUCN
aims to have the category of every species re-evaluated every five years if possible, or at least every ten years. This is done in a peer reviewed manner through IUCN
IUCN
Species Survival Commission
Species Survival Commission
(SSC) Specialist Groups, which are Red List Authorities responsible for a species, group of species or specific geographic area, or in the case of BirdLife International, an entire class (Aves).[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 1964 Red List of Threatened Plants 1.2 2006 release 1.3 2007 release 1.4 2008 release 1.5 2012 release

2 IUCN
IUCN
Red List Categories

2.1 1994 categories and criteria 2.2 Possibly extinct

3 Versions 4 Criticism 5 The Red List and 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

History[edit]

The percentage of species in several groups which are listed as      critically endangered,      endangered, or      vulnerable on the 2007 IUCN
IUCN
Red List.

1964 Red List of Threatened Plants[edit] The 1964 IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Plants used the older pre-criteria Red List assessment system. Plants listed may not, therefore, appear in the current Red List. IUCN
IUCN
advise that it is best to check both the online Red List and the 1997 plants Red List publication.[3] 2006 release[edit] The 2006 Red List, released on 4 May 2006 evaluated 40,168 species as a whole, plus an additional 2,160 subspecies, varieties, aquatic stocks, and subpopulations. 2007 release[edit] On 12 September 2007, the World Conservation Union
World Conservation Union
(IUCN) released the 2007 IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. In this release, they have raised their classification of both the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and the Cross River gorilla
Cross River gorilla
(Gorilla gorilla diehli) from endangered to critically endangered, which is the last category before extinct in the wild, due to Ebola virus
Ebola virus
and poaching, along with other factors. Russ Mittermeier, chief of Swiss-based IUCN's Primate Specialist Group, stated that 16,306 species are endangered with extinction, 188 more than in 2006 (total of 41,415 species on the Red List). The Red List includes the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) in the Critically Endangered
Endangered
category and the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in the Endangered
Endangered
category.[4] 2008 release[edit] The 2008 Red List was released on 6 October 2008, at the IUCN
IUCN
World Conservation Congress in Barcelona, and "has confirmed an extinction crisis, with almost one in four [mammals] at risk of disappearing forever". The study shows at least 1,141 of the 5,487 mammals on Earth are known to be threatened with extinction, and 836 are listed as Data Deficient.[5] 2012 release[edit] The Red List of 2012 was released 19 July 2012 at Rio+20 Earth Summit; nearly 2,000 species were added, with 4 species to the extinct list, 2 to the rediscovered list. The IUCN
IUCN
assessed a total of 63,837 species which revealed 19,817 are threatened with extinction. With 3,947 described as "critically endangered" and 5,766 as "endangered", while more than 10,000 species are listed as "vulnerable". At threat are 41% of amphibian species, 33% of reef-building corals, 30% of conifers, 25% of mammals, and 13% of birds. The IUCN
IUCN
Red List has listed 132 species of plants and animals from India as "Critically Endangered".[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] IUCN
IUCN
Red List Categories[edit]

Conservation status by IUCN
IUCN
Red List category

Extinct

Extinct (EX) Extinct in the Wild (EW)

(list) (list)

Threatened

Critically Endangered
Endangered
(CR) Endangered
Endangered
(EN) Vulnerable (VU)

(list) (list) (list)

Lower Risk

Near Threatened
Near Threatened
(NT) Conservation Dependent
Conservation Dependent
(CD) Least Concern
Least Concern
(LC)

(list) (list)

Other categories

Data Deficient
Data Deficient
(DD) Not Evaluated (NE)

(list)

Related topics

International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

IUCN
IUCN
Red List Lists of organisms by population

v t e

Species
Species
are classified by the IUCN
IUCN
Red List into nine groups,[15] specified through criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, and degree of population and distribution fragmentation.

Extinct (EX) – No known individuals remaining Extinct in the wild
Extinct in the wild
(EW) – Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range Critically endangered
Critically endangered
(CR) – Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild Endangered
Endangered
(EN) – High risk of extinction in the wild Vulnerable (VU) – High risk of endangerment in the wild Near threatened
Near threatened
(NT) – Likely to become endangered in the near future Least concern
Least concern
(LC) – Lowest risk (Does not qualify for a more at-risk category; widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.) Data deficient
Data deficient
(DD) – Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinction Not evaluated
Not evaluated
(NE) – Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria

In the context of the IUCN
IUCN
Red List, "threatened" embraces the three categories of Critically Endangered, Endangered, and Vulnerable. 1994 categories and criteria[edit] The older 1994 has only a single "Lower Risk" category which contained three subcategories:

Conservation Dependent
Conservation Dependent
(LR/cd) Near Threatened
Near Threatened
(LR/nt) Least Concern
Least Concern
(LR/lc)

In the 2001 system Near Threatened
Near Threatened
and Least Concern
Least Concern
have now become their own categories, while Conservation Dependent
Conservation Dependent
is no longer used and has been merged into Near Threatened. Possibly extinct[edit] The tag of "possibly extinct" (PE)[16] is used by Birdlife International, the Red List Authority for birds for the IUCN
IUCN
Red List.[17] BirdLife International has recommended PE become an official tag for Critically Endangered
Endangered
species, and this has now been adopted, along with a "Possibly Extinct in the Wild" tag for species with populations surviving in captivity but likely to be extinct in the wild (e.g. Spix's macaw). Versions[edit]

Comparing the number of species in each category of IUCN
IUCN
Red List.

There have been a number of versions, dating from 1991, including:[18][19]

Version 1.0 (1991) Version 2.0 (1992) Version 2.1 (1993) Version 2.2 (1994) Version 2.3 (1994) Version 3.0 (1999) Version 3.1 (2001) Version 4 (2015)

For plants, the 1997 Red List is the most important source.[20] Criticism[edit]

1994 IUCN
IUCN
Red List categories (version 2.3), used for species which have not been reassessed since 2001.

In 1997, the IUCN
IUCN
Red List came under criticism on the grounds of secrecy (or at least poor documentation) surrounding the sources of its data.[21] These allegations have led to efforts by the IUCN
IUCN
to improve its documentation and data quality, and to include peer reviews of taxa on the Red List. The list is also open to petitions against its classifications, on the basis of documentation or criteria.[22] A Nature editorial defended the Red List's relevance in October 2008.[23] It has been suggested that the IUCN
IUCN
Red List and similar works are prone to misuse by governments and other groups that draw possibly inappropriate conclusions on the state of the environment or to effect exploitation of natural resources.[24] The Red List and[edit] itself can provide a useful tool for identifying threatened species in certain countries; country initiatives and lists include:

Russian Federation Việt Nam

See also[edit]

CITES Conservation status EDGE of Existence Programme EDGE Species Lists of organisms by population Red List Index Regional Red List Species
Species
by IUCN
IUCN
Red List category The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History (nonfiction book) Wildlife conservation

References[edit]

^ CITES
CITES
(Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Endangered
Species
Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora), Joint Meeting of the Animals and Plants Committees, Shepherdstown (United States of America), 7–9 December 2000, retrieved Nov 14, 2012 ^ "Red List Overview". IUCN
IUCN
Red List. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Archived from the original on 30 June 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2012. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". IUCN. Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2011. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ IUCN.org news release, Extinction
Extinction
crisis escalates: Red List shows apes, corals, vultures, dolphins all in danger ^ IUCN
IUCN
Red List reveals world’s mammals in crisis ^ Red list has 132 species of plants, animals from India ^ Extinction
Extinction
threat 'a call to world leaders' at Rio Earth Summit ^ Critically Endangered
Endangered
Purring Monkey and 1,900 Other Species
Species
Added to IUCN
IUCN
Red List ^ The Red List Of Threatened Species, Annual Report Released ^ IUCN
IUCN
Red List update: Nearly 2,000 species added ^ IUCN
IUCN
2012 update - 4 species extinct – 2 rediscovered – Food security waning ^ Threat to 'web of life' imperils humans, UN summit told Archived 5 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Wildlife extinction threatens human life as well: study ^ "News". Iucnredlist.org. Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved 2013-04-22. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Guidelines for Using the IUCN
IUCN
Red List Categories and Criteria (PDF), Version 13, IUCN, March 2017, retrieved 2018-01-04  ^ S. H. M. Butchart; et al. "Going or gone: defining 'Possibly Extinct' species to give a truer picture of recent extinctions" (pdf). Bull. B.O.C. 2006 126A.  ^ "Birds on the IUCN
IUCN
Red List". BirdLife International. Retrieved 26 January 2007.  ^ "2001 Categories & Criteria (version 3.1)". IUCN. Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2013. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ "Historical IUCN
IUCN
Red Data Books and Red Lists". Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ "Which IUCN
IUCN
list should I choose?". Botanic Gardens Conservation International.  ^ N. Mrosovsky (1997). "IUCN's credibility critically endangered". Nature. 389 (6650): 436. Bibcode:1997Natur.389..436M. doi:10.1038/38873.  ^ "Information sources and quality". IUCN
IUCN
Red List website. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2008. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ "The Red List still matters". Nature. 455 (7214): 707–708. 9 October 2008. Bibcode:2008Natur.455R.707.. doi:10.1038/455707b. PMID 18843306.  ^ Hugh P. Possingham; et al. (November 2002). "Limits to the use of threatened species lists". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 17 (11): 503–507. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02614-9. 

Bibliography[edit]

Hilton-Taylor, C. A history of the IUCN
IUCN
DATA Book and Redlist [1].Retrieved 2012-5-11. Walter, Kerry S.; Gillett, Harriet J., eds. (1998). 1997 IUCN
IUCN
red list of threatened plants. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Species
Species
Survival Commission. ISBN 9782831703282.  IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species, 2009. Summary Statistics. Retrieved 2009-12-19. IUCN. 1994 IUCN
IUCN
Red List Categories and Criteria version 2.3. Retrieved 2009-12-19. IUCN. 2001 IUCN
IUCN
Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1. Retrieved 2009-12-19. Rodrigues, A.S.L., Pilgrim, J.D., Lamoreux, J.F., Hoffmann, M. & Brooks, T.M. 2006. The value of the IUCN
IUCN
Red List for conservation Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21(2): 71–76. Sharrock, S. and Jones, M. 2009. Conserving Europe's threatened plants – Report on the lack of a European Red List and the creation of a consolidated list of the threatened plants of Europe. Retrieved 2011-03-23.

External links[edit]

Official website

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Species
Species
by IUCN
IUCN
Red List category.

v t e

Threatened species

Template:  Threatened species
Threatened species
by region

IUCN
IUCN
Red List

Categories1

Extinct

Extinct (EX) Extinct in the Wild (EW)

Threatened

Critically Endangered
Endangered
(CR) Endangered
Endangered
(EN) Vulnerable (VU)

Lower risk

Near Threatened
Near Threatened
(NT) Least Concern
Least Concern
(LC) Lower Risk (LR) Conservation Dependent
Conservation Dependent
(LR/cd)

Not fully assessed

Data Deficient
Data Deficient
(DD) Not Evaluated (NE)

Species

Lists

Extinct Extinct in the Wild Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened Least Concern Data Deficient

WP categories

Extinct Extinct in the Wild Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened Least Concern Data Deficient

CITES

Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III

By taxa

Endangered
Endangered
arthropods / spiders Threatened Banksia / rays / sharks / Fungi / Chromista The World's 25 Most Endangered
Endangered
Primates The world's 100 most threatened species

Conservation

Biodiversity action plan Biodiversity threats Conservation biology CITES ARKive Bird
Bird
conservation Conservation status Conservation-reliant species Ecoregion conservation status Habitat destruction Latent extinction risk Rare species Vulnerability and susceptibility

1 Pre-2001 categories and subcategories shown in italics.

v t e

Threatened species
Threatened species
by region

By region

Blue-listed Environmental Vulnerability Index Regional Red List

Australasia

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 ROTAP Threatened Species
Species
Protection Act 1995 Threatened ecological community Trade in Endangered
Endangered
Species
Species
Act 1989

Canada

Species
Species
at Risk Act Committee on the Status of Endangered
Endangered
Wildlife in Canada

Europe

European Endangered
Endangered
Species
Species
Programme Funds for Endangered
Endangered
Parrots

South Africa

Endangered
Endangered
Wildlife Trust

United States

Distinct population segment Endangered
Endangered
Species
Species
Act of 1973 Endangered
Endangered
Species
Species
Act Amendments of 1978 Endangered
Endangered
species recovery plan Endangered
Endangered
Wolf Center National Wildlife Refuge NatureServe conservation status The Nature Conservancy

Lists

Asia

List of endangered and protected species of China Endangered
Endangered
mammals of India List of endangered animals in India List of endangered species in Pakistan List of threatened species of the Philippines List of endangered species in Vietnam

Europe

Threatened mammals of Europe Endangered
Endangered
plants of Europe List of United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan species List of extinct and endangered species of Italy List of extinct and endangered species of Lithuania

North America

List of endangered plants in North America List of endangered species in North America Endangered
Endangered
mammals and birds of the United States List of threatened mammals of the United States List of threatened birds of the United States List of threatened reptiles and amphibians of the United States

Elsewhere

Threatened fauna of Australia List of threatened flora of Australia List of endangered flora of Brazil List of threatened mammals of Brazil List of threatened birds of Brazil

Ecology portal Extinct and endangered species portal

Authority control

.