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ISO
ISO
259 is a series of international standards for the romanization of Hebrew characters into Latin characters , dating to 1984, with updated ISO
ISO
259-2 (a simplification, disregarding several vowel signs, 1994) and ISO
ISO
259-3 ( Phonemic
Phonemic
Conversion, 1999).

CONTENTS

* 1 ISO
ISO
259 * 2 ISO
ISO
259-2 * 3 ISO
ISO
259-3 * 4 References * 5 See also

ISO
ISO
259

ISO
ISO
259, dating to 1984, is a transliteration of the Hebrew script
Hebrew script
, including the diacritical signs (niqqud ) used for Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
.

ISO
ISO
259: Hebrew romanization HEBREW א ב ג
ג
ד ה ו ז ח ט י כ ך ל מ ם נ ן ס ע פ ף צ ץ ק ר ש שׂ שׁ ת ׳

LATIN ʾ b g d h w z ḥ ṭ y k l m n s ʿ p ṣ q r s̀ ś š t ’

HEBREW טַ טָ טֵ טֶ טִ טֹ טוֹ טֻ טוּ טְ חֲ חֳ חֱ

LATIN a å e ȩ i o ŵ u ẇ ° ă ŏ ḝ

The dagesh (dot inside the letter) is always transcribed with an overdot : ḃ, ġ, ż, etc. The apostrophe (׳‎‎) in the table above is the Hebrew sign geresh used after some letters to write down non-Hebrew sounds: ג‎׳‎‎ , ז‎׳‎‎ , צ‎׳‎‎ , etc.

ISO
ISO
259-2

ISO
ISO
259-2 simplifies the diacritical signs for vowels of ISO
ISO
259, and is designed for Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
.

ISO
ISO
259-2: Hebrew romanization – Simplified HEBREW א ב בּ ג
ג
ד ה הּ ו ז ח ט י כ ך כּ ךּ ל מ ם נ ן ס ע פ ף פּ ףּ צ ץ ק ר ש שׂ שׁ ת ׳

LATIN ʾ b ḃ g d h ḣ w z ḥ ṭ y k k̇ l m n s ʿ p ṗ ṣ q r s̀ ś š t '

HEBREW טַ ‎ טָ טֵ ‎ טֶ טִ טֹ טוֹ טֻ טוּ טְ חֲ חֳ חֱ

LATIN a e i o ŵ u ẇ none a o e

The dagesh is not transcribed excepted in the indicated cases. The apostrophe (׳‎‎) in the table above is the Hebrew sign geresh used after some letters to write down non-Hebrew sounds.

ISO
ISO
259-3

ISO
ISO
259-3 is Uzzi Ornan 's romanization, which reached the stage of an ISO
ISO
Final Draft (FDIS ) but not of a published International Standard (IS). It is designed to deliver the common structure of the Hebrew word throughout the different dialects or pronunciation styles of Hebrew, in a way that it can be reconstructed into the original Hebrew characters by both man and machine.

It is neither a character-by-character transliteration nor a phonetic transcription of one pronunciation style of Hebrew, but is instead phonemic from the view point that all the different dialects and pronunciations of Hebrew through the generations can be regarded as different realizations of the same structure, and by predefined reading rules every pronunciation style can be directly derived from it.

ISO
ISO
259-3: Hebrew romanization – Phonemic
Phonemic
HEBREW א ב בּ ג
ג
גּ ד דּ
דּ
ה ו ז ח ט י כ ך כּ ל מ ם נ ן ס ע פ ף פּ צ ץ ק ר ש ת ג ׳ ז ׳ צ ׳ שׂ

LATIN ʾ or ˀ b g d h w z ḥ ṭ y k l m n s ʿ or ˁ p c q r š t ǧ ž č ś

HEBREW חֲ ‎ טַ ‎ טָ ‎ טָ ה - חֱ ‎ טֶ ‎ טֵ ‎ טֶ ה -‎ טֵ ה - טִ ‎ טִ י חֳ ‎ טָ ‎ טֹ ‎ טוֹ טֻ ‎ טוּ טֶ י ‎ טֵ י טְ

LATIN a e i o u ei none

Each consonant character in the Hebrew script
Hebrew script
is converted into its unique Latin character. ISO
ISO
259-3 has five vowel characters, corresponding to the five vowel phonemes of Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
: a, e, i, o, u. In addition there is a sixth sign for denoting the vowel /ej/ or /e / that is written followed by ⟨ י ‎⟩ in common Hebrew spelling: ei.

The dagesh forte (gemination in Biblical Hebrew) is transcribed with a double consonant. Non-phonemic vowels are ignored, such as:

* schwa טְ‎, which is however transcribed with an underscore (_) between two identical consonants in order to distinguish it from a geminate consonant: יְלָדִים‎ "boys" = yladim, הַלְלוּיָהּ‎ " Hallelujah " = hal_luyah, * "segolate " vowel (on the second to last consonant an unaccented vowel טֶ‎, which can also be the vowel חַ‎ on some laryngeal consonants , or יִ‎, etc.) : גֹּלֶם‎ "golem " = golm, צֹהַר‎ "opening, window" = cohr, * "furtive" pataḥ חַ‎ (an unaccented sound before some final laryngeal consonants): רוּחַ‎ "breeze, spirit" = ruḥ, but ISO
ISO
259-3 also allows the transcription with a for non-linguistic purposes: ruaḥ.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B "Protokół 74. posiedzenia KSNG" (PDF). KSNG (Commission on Standardization of Geographic Names outside Poland) (in Polish). 7 November 2012. . * ^ ICCU (2009). "Appendice F: Traslitterazione o trascrizione di scritture diverse dall’alfabeto latino — 4. Ebraico". Regole italiane di catalogazione (REICAT) (PDF) (in Italian). pp. 359–360. ISBN 9788871071275 . * ^ Kuzar, Ron (2001). "Canaanite alternatives — Canaanite linguistic discourse". Hebrew and Zionism: A Discourse Analytic Cultural Study. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter
Mouton de Gruyter
. pp. 274–275. ISBN 3-11-016993-2 . * ^ Search for ISO
ISO
259 on the ISO
ISO
website. * ^