Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is the delivery of television
Internet Protocol (IP) networks. This is in contrast to
delivery through traditional terrestrial, satellite, and cable
television formats. Unlike downloaded media,
IPTV offers the ability
to stream the source media continuously. As a result, a client media
player can begin playing the content (such as a TV channel) almost
immediately. This is known as streaming media.
IPTV uses the
Internet protocol it is not limited to
television streamed from the Internet, (
widely deployed in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with
high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or
other customer-premises equipment.
IPTV is also used for media
delivery around corporate and private networks.
IPTV in the
telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation
process (e.g., European Telecommunications Standards Institute).
IPTV services may be classified into three main groups:
Live television and live media, with or without related interactivity;
Time-shifted media: e.g. catch-up TV (replays a TV show that was
broadcast hours or days ago), start-over TV (replays the current TV
show from its beginning);
Video on demand
Video on demand (VOD): browse and view items in a stored media
3.2 Commercial and corporate
4.2 Architecture of a video server network
IPTV home networks
4.4 Telecomms IMS architecture
6 Via satellite
7 Hybrid IPTV
8.4 IPTV-based converged services
10 Bandwidth requirements
11 Privacy implications
13 Service bundling
15 See also
17 External links
Historically, many different definitions of
IPTV have appeared,
including elementary streams[clarification needed] over IP networks,
MPEG transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary
systems. One official definition approved by the International
Telecommunication Union focus group on
ITU-T FG IPTV) is:
IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as
television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based
networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service
and experience, security, interactivity and reliability.
Another definition of IPTV, relating to the telecommunications
industry, is the one given by Alliance for Telecommunications Industry
IPTV Exploratory Group on 2005:
IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of
entertainment video and related services. These services may include,
for example, Live TV, Video On Demand (VOD) and Interactive TV (iTV).
These services are delivered across an access agnostic, packet
switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio,
video and control signals. In contrast to video over the public
IPTV deployments, network security and performance are
tightly managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience,
resulting in a compelling business environment for content providers,
advertisers and customers alike.
IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept
Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept developed an
Internet video product named IP/TV. IP/TV was a multicast backbone
(MBONE) compatible Windows and Unix-based application that transmitted
single and multi-source audio and video traffic, ranging from low to
DVD quality, using both unicast and
IP multicast Real-time Transport
Protocol (RTP) and
Real time control protocol (RTCP). The software was
written primarily by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, and Cha Chee Kuan.
Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the
Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live
webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January 1998 and KCTU-LP on 10
Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in the
UK, launched KIT (Kingston Interactive Television) the brainchild of
Matt Child, an
IPTV over digital subscriber line (DSL) broadband
interactive TV service in September 1999 after conducting various TV
and video on demand (VoD) trials. The operator added additional VoD
service in October 2001 with Yes TV, a VoD content provider. Kingston
was one of the first companies in the world to introduce
IPTV and IP
ADSL as a commercial service. The service became the
reference for various changes to UK Government regulations and policy
on IPTV. In 2006, the KIT service was discontinued, subscribers having
declined from a peak of 10,000 to 4,000.
NBTel (now known as Bell Aliant) was the first to
Internet protocol television over DSL in
Canada using the Alcatel 7350
DSLAM and middleware created by
iMagic TV (owned by NBTel's parent company Bruncor). The service
was marketed under the brand VibeVision in New Brunswick, and later
Nova Scotia in early 2000 after the formation of
Aliant. iMagic TV was later sold to Alcatel.
Sasktel was the second in
Canada to commercially deploy
Internet Protocol (IP) video over DSL, using the Lucent Stinger DSL
In 2005, SureWest Communications was the first North American company
to offer high-definition television (HDTV) channels over an IPTV
Bredbandsbolaget launched its
IPTV service as the first
service provider in Sweden. As of January 2009, they are not the
biggest supplier any longer; TeliaSonera, who launched their service
later now has more customers.
In 2007, TPG became the first internet service provider in Australia
to launch IPTV. Complementary to its ADSL2+ package this was, and
still is,[when?] free of charge to customers on eligible plans and
now[when?] offers over 45 local free to air channels and international
channels. By 2010, iiNet and Telstra launched IPTV
services in conjunction to internet plans but with extra fees.
In 2008, PTCL (
Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited) launched
IPTV under the brand name of
PTCL Smart TV in Pakistan. This service
is available in 150 major cities of the country offering 140 live
channels and more than 500 titles for VOD with key features such as:
EPG (electronic programme guide)
VOD (video on demand)
CenturyLink – after acquiring
Embarq (2009) and Qwest
(2010) – entered five U.S. markets with an
IPTV service called
Prism. This was after successful test marketing in Florida. During
2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
Shortest path bridging
Shortest path bridging (IEEE 802.1aq) was
used to deliver 36
IPTV HD Olympic channels.
In 2016, KCTV (Korean Central Television) introduced the Set-top box
called "Manbang" (meaning ‘everywhere’ or ‘every direction’),
claiming to provide video-on-demand services in
North Korea via
quasi-internet protocol television (IPTV). With "Manbang", viewers are
able to watch five different TV channels in real-time, find
information related to the leader’s activities and
and read articles from the newspaper
Rodong Sinmun and the Korean
Central News Agency (KCNA). According to KCTV, viewers can use the
service not only in Pyongyang, but also in
Sinuiju and Sariwon.
Stating that the demands for the equipment are "particularly" high in
Sinuiju, with several hundred users in the region.
The technology was hindered by low broadband penetration and by the
relatively high cost of installing wiring capable of transporting IPTV
content reliably in the customer's home. However,
IPTV was expected to grow[original research?] as broadband
was available to more than 200 million households worldwide in
In December 2009, the FCC began looking into using set-top boxes to
make TVs with cable or similar services into network video players.
FCC Media Bureau Chief Bill Lake had said earlier that TV and the
Internet would soon be the same, but only 75 percent of homes had
computers, while 99 percent had TV. A 2009 Nielsen survey found 99
percent of video viewing was done on TV.
The number of global
IPTV subscribers was expected to grow from 28
million in 2009 to 83 million in 2013. Europe and Asia are the leading
territories in terms of the over-all number of subscribers. But in
terms of service revenues, Europe and North America generate a larger
share of global revenue, due to very low average revenue per user
(ARPU) in China and India, the fastest growing (and ultimately, the
biggest markets) is Asia. The global
IPTV market revenues are forecast
to grow from US$12 billion in 2009 to US$38 billion in 2013.
Services also launched in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Pakistan,
Canada, Croatia, Lithuania, Moldova, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland,
Mongolia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, the Netherlands, Georgia,
Greece, Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Czech Republic, Slovakia,
Hungary, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Latvia, Turkey, Colombia,
Chile and Uzbekistan. The
United Kingdom launched
IPTV early and
after a slow initial growth, in February 2009 BT announced that it had
reached 398,000 subscribers to its
BT Vision service. Claro has
launched their own
IPTV service called "Claro TV". This service is
available in several countries in which they operate, such as
Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua. IPTV
is just beginning to grow in Central and Eastern Europe and Latin
America, and now it is growing in South Asian countries such as Sri
Pakistan and India. but significant plans exist in
countries such as Russia.
Kazakhstan introduced its own IPTV
services by the national provider
Kazakhtelecom JSC and content
integrator Alacast under the "iD TV" brand in two major cities Astana
and Almaty in 2009 and is about to go nationwide starting 2010.[needs
update] Australian ISP iiNet launched Australia's first
IPTV service to launch on the Chinese mainland sells under
the "BesTV" brand and is currently available in the cities of Shanghai
and Harbin. In India,
IPTV was launched by Airtel and the
government service provider MTNL and BSNL through tie up with AKSH and
is available in most of the major cities of the country. Meanwhile, UF
Group which is the franchise owner for UFO movies in Southern India
plans to offer multiple host of services such as customer's movies on
demand, shopping online, video conferencing, media player, e-learning
on their single
IPTV set top box branded as Emagine.
In Sri Lanka,
IPTV was launched by
Sri Lanka Telecom (operated by SLT
VisionCom) in 2008, under the brand name of PEO TV. This service is
available in whole country.
IPTV was launched by PTCL in 2008, under the brand name
of PTCL Smart TV. This service is available in 150 major cities of the
In the Philippines, PLDT offers
IPTV services as an add-on in
ADSL and fiber optic plans.
In Malaysia, various companies have attempted to launch
since 2005. Failed PayTV provider
MiTV attempted to use an
IPTV-over-UHF service but the service failed to take off.
supposed to use an IPTV-based system, but not true
IPTV as it does not
provide a set-top box and requires users to view channels using a
IPTV providers available in the country at the moment
are Fine TV and DETV. In Q2 2010, Telekom
Malaysia launched IPTV
services through their fibre to the home product
UniFi in select
areas. In April 2010, Astro began testing
IPTV services on TIME dotCom
Berhad's high-speed fibre to the home optical fibre network. In
December 2010, Astro began trials with customers in high-rise
condominium buildings around the Mont Kiara area. In April 2011, Astro
commercially launched its
IPTV services under the tag line "The One
and Only Line You'll Ever Need", a triple play offering in conjunction
with TIME dotCom Berhad that provides all the Astro programming via
IPTV, together with voice telephone services and broadband Internet
access all through the same fibre optic connection into the customer's
IPTV services under the name IPtivibu in
2010. It was available in pilot areas in the cities of Istanbul,
İzmir and Ankara. As of 2011,
IPTV service is launched as a
large-scale commercial service and widely available across the country
under the trademark "
Tivibu EV". Superonline plans to provide
IPTV under the different name "WebTV" in 2011.
Türk Telekom started
building the fibre optic substructure for
IPTV in late 2007.
Commercial and corporate
IPTV has been widely used since around 2002 to distribute television
and audio-visual (AV) media around businesses and commercial sites,
whether as live TV channels or Video on Demand (VOD). Examples of
types of commercial users include airports, schools, offices, hotels,
and sports stadiums, to name just a few.
A simplified network diagram for IPTV
IPTV head-end: where live TV channels and AV sources are encoded,
encrypted and delivered in the form of
IP multicast streams.
Video on Demand (VOD) platform: where on-demand video assets are
stored and served as IP unicast streams when a user makes a request.
The VOD platform may sometimes be located with, and considered part
Interactive portal: allows the user to navigate within the different
IPTV services, such as the VOD catalogue.
Delivery network: the packet switched network that carries IP packets
(unicast and multicast).
Endpoints: User equipment that can request, decode and deliver IPTV
streams for display to the user. This can include computers and mobile
devices as well as set-top boxes.
Home TV gateway: the piece of equipment at a residential
home that terminates the access link from the delivery network.
User set-top box: the piece of endpoint equipment that decodes and
decrypts TV and VOD streams for display on the TV screen.
Architecture of a video server network
Depending on the network architecture of the service provider, there
are two main types of video server architecture that can be considered
IPTV deployment: centralised and distributed.
The centralised architecture model is a relatively simple and easy to
manage solution. Because all media content is stored in centralised
servers, it does not require a comprehensive content distribution
system. Centralised architecture is generally good for a network that
provides relatively small VOD service deployment, has adequate core
and edge bandwidth and has an efficient content delivery network
Distributed architecture is just as scalable as the centralised model,
however it has bandwidth usage advantages and inherent system
management features that are essential for managing a larger server
network. Operators who plan to deploy a relatively large system should
therefore consider implementing a distributed architecture model right
from the start. Distributed architecture requires intelligent and
sophisticated content distribution technologies to augment effective
delivery of multimedia contents over service provider's network.
IPTV home networks
In many cases, the residential gateway that provides connectivity with
Internet access network is not located close to the
box. This scenario becomes very common as service providers start to
offer service packages with multiple set-top boxes per subscriber.
Networking technologies that take advantage of existing home wiring
(such as power lines, phone lines or coaxial cables)
or of wireless hardware have become common solutions for this problem,
although fragmentation in the wired home networking market has limited
somewhat the growth in this market.
In December 2008,
ITU-T adopted Recommendation
G.hn (also known as
G.9960), which is a next-generation home networking standard that
specifies a common PHY/MAC that can operate over any home wiring
(power lines, phone lines or coaxial cables). During 2012 IEC will
adopt a prenorm for POF networking at Gigabit speed. This pre standard
will specify a PHY that operates at an adaptable bit rate between 100
Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s depending on the link power budget.
Groups such as the Multimedia over Coax Alliance, HomePlug Powerline
Alliance, Home Phoneline Networking Alliance, and Quasar Alliance
(Plastic Optical Fibre) each advocate their own technologies.
Telecomms IMS architecture
There is a growing standardisation effort on the use of the 3GPP IP
Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) as an architecture for supporting IPTV
services in telecomms carriers networks. Both
working on so-called "IMS-based IPTV" standards (see e.g.
ETSI TS 182
027). Carriers will be able to offer both voice and
over the same core infrastructure and the implementation of services
combining conventional TV services with telephony features (e.g.
caller ID on the TV screen) will become straightforward. The
MultiService Forum recently conducted interoperability of IMS-based
IPTV solutions during its GMI event in 2008.
IPTV covers both live TV (multicast) as well as stored
video-on-demand/VoD (unicast). Playback requires a broadband device
connected to either a fixed or wireless IP network in the form of
either a standalone personal computer or limited embedded OS device
such as a smartphone, touch screen tablet, game console, connected TV
or set-top box. Video compression is provided by either a
H.264 derived codec, audio is compressed via a
MDCT based codec and
then encapsulated in either an
MPEG transport stream
MPEG transport stream or RTP packets or
Flash Video packets for live or VoD streaming. IP multicasting allows
for live data to be sent to multiple receivers using a single
multicast group address.
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC is commonly used for
internet streaming over higher bit rate standards such as
H.263 which were more designed for
ISDN video conferencing.
H.262/MPEG-1/2 is generally not used as the bandwidth required would
quite easily saturate a network which is why they are only used in
single link broadcast or storage applications.
IPTV systems, the primary underlying protocols used
Service provider-based streaming:
IGMP for subscribing to a live multicast stream (TV channel) and for
changing from one live multicast stream to another (TV channel
IP multicast operates within LANs (including VLANs) and
across WANs also.
IP multicast is usually routed in the network core
by Protocol Independent
Multicast (PIM), setting up correct
distribution of multicast streams (TV channels) from their source all
the way to the customers who wants to view them, duplicating received
packets as needed. On-demand content uses a negotiated unicast
Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) over User Datagram
Protocol (UDP) or the lower overhead
H.222 transport stream over
Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) are generally the preferred
methods of encapsulation.
Web-based unicast only live and VoD streaming:
Adobe Flash Player
Adobe Flash Player prefers RTMP over TCP with setup and control via
either AMF or
Apple iOS uses HLS adaptive bitrate streaming over
HTTP with setup and
control via an embedded
M3U playlist file.
Microsoft Silverlight uses smooth streaming (adaptive bitrate
streaming) over HTTP.
Web-based multicast live and unicast VoD streaming:
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) recommends RTP over UDP or
TCP transports with setup and control using RTSP over TCP.
Connected TVs, game consoles, set-top boxes and network personal video
local network content uses UPnP AV for unicast via
HTTP over TCP or
for multicast live RTP over UDP.
Web-based content is provided through either inline Web plug-ins or a
television broadcast-based application that uses a middleware language
MHEG-5 that triggers an event such as loading an inline Web
browser using an
Adobe Flash Player
Adobe Flash Player plug-in.
A telecommunications company
IPTV service is usually delivered over an
investment-heavy walled garden network.
Local IPTV, as used by businesses for audio visual AV distribution on
their company networks is typically based on a mixture of:
Conventional TV reception equipment and
IPTV gateways that take broadcast MPEG channels and IP wrap them to
create multicast streams.
IPTV and conventional satellite TV distribution have been
seen as complementary technologies, they are likely to be increasingly
used together in hybrid
IPTV networks that deliver the highest levels
of performance and reliability.
IPTV is largely neutral to the
transmission medium, and IP traffic is already routinely carried by
Internet backbone trunking and corporate VSAT
networks. The use of satellite to carry IP is fundamental to
overcoming the greatest shortcoming of
IPTV over terrestrial cables
– the speed/bandwidth of the connection, as well as availability.
The copper twisted pair cabling that forms the last mile of the
telephone and broadband network in many countries is not able to
provide a sizeable proportion of the population with an
that matches even existing terrestrial or satellite digital TV
distribution. For a competitive multi-channel TV service, a connection
speed of 20 Mbit/s is likely to be required, but unavailable to
most potential customers. The increasing popularity of
high-definition television (with twice the data rate of SD video)
increases connection speed requirements, or limits
quality and connection eligibility even further.
However, satellites are capable of delivering in excess of
100 Gbit/s via multi-spot beam technologies, making satellite a
clear emerging technology for implementing
IPTV networks. Satellite
distribution can be included in an
IPTV network architecture in
several ways. The simplest to implement is an IPTV-direct to home
(DTH) architecture, in which hybrid DVB-broadband set-top boxes in
subscriber homes integrate satellite and IP reception to give
near-infinite bandwidth with return channel capabilities. In such a
system, many live TV channels may be multicast via satellite
(IP-encapsulated or as conventional DVB digital TV) with stored
video-on-demand transmission via the broadband connection. Arqiva’s
Satellite Media Solutions Division suggests “
IPTV works best in a
hybrid format. For example, you would use broadband to receive some
content and satellite to receive other, such as live channels”.
This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date
information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or
newly available information. (July 2011)
IPTV refers to the combination of traditional broadcast TV
services and video delivered over either managed IP networks or the
public Internet. It is an increasing trend in both the consumer and
pay TV [operator] markets.
IPTV has grown in popularity in recent years[when?] as a result
of two major drivers. Since the emergence of online video aggregation
Vimeo in the mid-2000s, traditional pay TV
operators have come under increasing pressure to provide their
subscribers with a means of viewing Internet-based video [both
professional and user-generated] on their televisions. At the same
time, specialist IP-based operators [often telecommunications
providers] have looked for ways to offer analogue and digital
terrestrial services to their operations, without adding either
additional cost or complexity to their transmission operations.
Bandwidth is a valuable asset for operators, so many have looked for
alternative ways to deliver these new services without investing in
additional network infrastructures.
A hybrid set-top allows content from a range of sources, including
terrestrial broadcast, satellite, and cable, to be brought together
with video delivered over the
Internet via an
Ethernet connection on
the device. This enables television viewers to access a greater
variety of content on their TV sets, without the need for a separate
box for each service.
IPTV set-top boxes also enable users to access a range of
advanced interactive services, such as VOD / catch-up TV, as well as
Internet applications, including video telephony, surveillance,
gaming, shopping, e-government accessed via a television set.
From a pay-TV operator’s perspective, a hybrid
IPTV set-top box
gives them greater long-term flexibility by enabling them to deploy
new services and applications as and when consumers require, most
often without the need to upgrade equipment or for a technician to
visit and reconfigure or swap out the device. This reduces the cost of
launching new services, increases speed to market and limits
disruption for consumers.
Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV
Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV (HbbTV) consortium of industry
companies is currently[when?] promoting and establishing an open
European standard for hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of
broadcast and broadband digital TV and multimedia applications with a
single user interface. These trends led to the development of
Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV
Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV set-top boxes that included both a
broadcast tuner and an
Internet connection – usually an
Ethernet port. The first commercially available hybrid
box was developed by Advanced Digital Broadcast, a developer of
digital television hardware and software, in 2005. The platform was
developed for Spanish pay TV operator Telefonica, and used as part
Movistar TV service, launched to subscribers at the end of
An alternative approach is the
IPTV version of the Headend in the Sky
cable TV solution. Here, multiple TV channels are distributed via
satellite to the ISP or
IPTV provider’s point of presence (POP) for
IP-encapsulated distribution to individual subscribers as required by
This can provide a huge selection of channels to subscribers without
Internet trunking to the POP, and enables an IPTV
service to be offered to small or remote operators outside the reach
of terrestrial high speed broadband connection. An example is a
network combining fibre and satellite distribution via an SES New
Skies satellite of 95 channels to Latin America and the Caribbean,
While the future development of
IPTV probably lies with a number of
coexisting architectures and implementations, it is clear[according to
whom?] that broadcasting of high bandwidth applications such as IPTV
is accomplished more efficiently and cost-effectively using
satellite and it is predicted that the majority of global IPTV
growth will be fuelled by hybrid networks.
Internet protocol-based platform offers significant advantages,
including the ability to integrate television with other IP-based
services like high speed
Internet access and VoIP.
A switched IP network also allows for the delivery of significantly
more content and functionality. In a typical TV or satellite network,
using broadcast video technology, all the content constantly flows
downstream to each customer, and the customer switches the content at
the set-top box. The customer can select from as many choices as the
telecomms, cable or satellite company can stuff into the “pipe”
flowing into the home. A switched IP network works differently.
Content remains in the network, and only the content the customer
selects is sent into the customer’s home. That frees up bandwidth,
and the customer’s choice is less restricted by the size of the
“pipe” into the home. This also implies that the customer's
privacy could be compromised to a greater extent than is possible with
traditional TV or satellite networks. It may also provide a means to
hack into, or at least disrupt (see Denial of service) the private
The cable industry's expenditures of approximately $1 billion per year
are based on network updates to accommodate higher data speeds. Most
operators use 2–3 channels to support maximum data speeds of
50 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. However, because video streams
require a high bit rate for much longer periods of time, the
expenditures to support high amounts of video traffic will be much
greater. This phenomenon is called persistency. Data persistency is
routinely 5% while video persistency can easily reach 50%. As video
traffic continues to grow, this means that significantly more CMTS
downstream channels will be required to carry this video content.
Based on today's market, it is likely that industry expenditures for
CMTS expansion could exceed $2 billion a year, virtually all of that
expenditure being driven by video traffic. Adoption of
carrying the majority of this traffic could save the industry
approximately 75% of this capital expenditure.
An IP-based platform also allows significant opportunities to make the
TV viewing experience more interactive and personalised. The supplier
may, for example, include an interactive programme guide that allows
viewers to search for content by title or actor’s name, or a
picture-in-picture functionality that allows them to “channel
surf” without leaving the programme they’re watching. Viewers may
be able to look up a player’s stats while watching a sports game, or
control the camera angle. They also may be able to access photos or
music from their PC on their television, use a wireless phone to
schedule a recording of their favourite show, or even adjust parental
controls so their child can watch a documentary for a school report,
while they’re away from home.
In order that there can take place an interaction between the receiver
and the transmitter, a feedback channel is needed. Due to this,
terrestrial, satellite, and cable networks for television do not allow
interactivity. However, interactivity with those networks can be
possible by combining TV networks with data networks such as the
Internet or a mobile communication network.
IPTV technology is bringing video on demand (VoD) to television,
which permits a customer to browse an online programme or film
catalogue, to watch trailers and to then select a selected recording.
The playout of the selected item starts nearly instantaneously on the
customer's TV or PC.
Technically, when the customer selects the movie, a point-to-point
unicast connection is set up between the customer's decoder (set-top
box or PC) and the delivering streaming server. The signalling for the
trick play functionality (pause, slow-motion, wind/rewind etc.) is
assured by RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol).
The most common codecs used for VoD are MPEG-2,
MPEG-4 and VC-1.
In an attempt to avoid content piracy, the VoD content is usually
encrypted. Whilst encryption of satellite and cable TV broadcasts is
an old practice, with
IPTV technology it can effectively be thought of
as a form of Digital rights management. A film that is chosen, for
example, may be playable for 24 hours following payment, after which
time it becomes unavailable.
IPTV-based converged services
Another advantage is the opportunity for integration and convergence.
This opportunity is amplified when using IMS-based solutions.
Converged services implies interaction of existing services in a
seamless manner to create new value added services. One example is
on-screen Caller ID, getting Caller ID on a TV and the ability to
handle it (send it to voice mail, etc.). IP-based services will help
to enable efforts to provide consumers anytime-anywhere access to
content over their televisions, PCs and cell phones, and to integrate
services and content to tie them together. Within businesses and
IPTV eliminates the need to run a parallel
infrastructure to deliver live and stored video services.
IPTV is sensitive to packet loss and delays if the streamed data is
IPTV has strict minimum speed requirements in order to
facilitate the right number of frames per second to deliver moving
pictures. This means that the limited connection speed and bandwidth
available for a large
IPTV customer base can reduce the service
Although a few countries have very high-speed broadband-enabled
populations, such as
South Korea with 6 million homes benefiting from
a minimum connection speed of 100 Mbit/s, in other countries
(such as the UK) legacy networks struggle to provide
3–5 Mbit/s[needs update] and so simultaneous provision to
the home of TV channels, VOIP and
Internet access may not be viable.
The last-mile delivery for
IPTV usually has a bandwidth restriction
that only allows a small number of simultaneous TV channel
streams – typically from one to three – to be
IPTV across wireless links within the home has proved
troublesome; not due to bandwidth limitations as many[who?] assume,
but due to issues with multipath and reflections of the RF signal
carrying the IP data packets. An
IPTV stream is sensitive to packets
arriving at the right time and in the right order. Improvements in
wireless technology are now[when?] starting to provide equipment to
solve the problem.
Due to the limitations of wireless, most
IPTV service providers today
use wired home networking technologies instead of wireless
technologies like IEEE 802.11. Service providers such as AT&T
(which makes extensive use of wireline home networking as part of its
IPTV service) have expressed support for the work
done in this direction by ITU-T, which has adopted Recommendation G.hn
(also known as G.9960), which is a next-generation home networking
standard that specifies a common PHY/MAC that can operate over any
home wiring (power lines, phone lines or coaxial cables).
The latency inherent in the use of satellite
Internet is often held up
as reason why satellites cannot be successfully used for IPTV. In
practice, however, latency is not an important factor for IPTV, since
it is a service that does not require real-time transmission, as is
the case with telephony or videoconferencing services.
It is the latency of response to requests to change channel, display
an EPG, etc. that most affects customers’ perceived quality of
service, and these problems affect satellite
IPTV no more than
terrestrial IPTV. Command latency problems, faced by terrestrial IPTV
networks with insufficient bandwidth as their customer base grows, may
be solved by the high capacity of satellite distribution.
Satellite distribution does suffer from latency – the time for
the signal to travel up from the hub to the satellite and back down to
the user is around 0.25 seconds, and cannot be reduced. However, the
effects of this delay are mitigated in real-life systems using data
compression, TCP-acceleration, and
Satellite latency can be detrimental to especially time-sensitive
applications such as on-line gaming (although it only seriously
affects the likes of first-person shooters while many MMOGs can
operate well over satellite Internet), but
IPTV is typically a
simplex operation (one-way transmission) and latency is not a critical
factor for video transmission.
Existing video transmission systems of both analogue and digital
formats already introduce known quantifiable delays. Existing DVB TV
channels that simulcast by both terrestrial and satellite
transmissions experience the same 0.25-second delay difference between
the two services with no detrimental effect, and it goes unnoticed by
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Bandwidth capacity for simultaneously two HDTV streams, two SD
streams, additional to HSD and voice
Digital video is a combination of sequence of digital images, and they
are made up of pixels or picture elements. Each pixel has two values,
which are luminance and chrominance.
Luminance is representing
intensity of the pixel; chrominance represents the colour of the
pixel. Three bytes would be used to represent the colour of the high
quality image for a true colour technique. A sequence of images is
creating the digital video, in that case, images are called as frames.
Movies use 24 frames per second; however, the rate of the frames can
change according to territories' electrical systems so that there are
different kinds of frame rates, for instance, North America is using
approximately 30 frames per second where the Europe television frame
rate is 25 frames per second. Each digital video has dimensions width
and height; when referred to analogue television, the dimension for
SDTV is 720×480 pixels, on the other hand, numerous HDTV requires
1920×1080 pixels. Moreover, whilst for SDTV, two bytes (16 bits) is
enough to create the colour depth, HDTV requires three bytes (24 bits)
to create the colour depth.
Thereby, with a rate of 30 frames/second, the uncompressed data rate
for SDTV becomes 30×720×480×16,[vague] in other words, 147,456,000
bits per second. Moreover, for HDTV, at the same frame rate,
uncompressed date rate becomes 30×1920×1080×24 or 1,492,992,000
bits per second. With that simple calculation, it is obvious that
without using a lossy compression method a service provider’s
service delivery to the subscribers is limited.
There is no absolute answer for the bandwidth requirement for the IPTV
service because the bandwidth requirement is increasing due to the
devices inside the household. Thus, currently compressed HDTV content
can be delivered at a data rate between 8 and 10 Mbit/s, but if
the home of the consumer equipped with several HDTV outputs, this rate
will be multiplied respectively.
The high-speed data transfer will increase the needed bandwidth for
the viewer, at least 2 Mbit/s is needed to use web-based
applications on the computer. Additionally to that, 64 kbit/s is
required to use landline telephone for the property. In minimal usage,
to receive an
IPTV triple-play service requires 13 Mbit/s to
process in a household.
Due to limitations in bandwidth, an
IPTV channel is delivered to the
user one at a time, as opposed to the traditional multiplexed
delivery. Changing a channel requires requesting the head-end server
to provide a different broadcast stream, much like VOD (For VOD the
stream is delivered using unicast, for the normal TV signal multicast
is used). This could enable the service provider to accurately track
each and every programme watched and the duration of watching for each
viewer; broadcasters and advertisers could then understand their
audience and programming better with accurate data and targeted
In conjunction with regulatory differences between
IPTV and cable TV,
this tracking could pose a threat to privacy according to critics.
IP multicast scenarios, since a particular multicast group (TV
channel) needs to be requested before it can be viewed, the same
privacy concerns apply.
A small number of companies supply most current
IPTV systems. Some,
such as Movistar TV, were formed by telecoms operators themselves, to
minimise external costs, a tactic also used by
PCCW of Hong Kong. Some
major telecoms vendors are also active in this space, notably
Alcatel-Lucent (sometimes working with Movistar TV), Sri Lanka
Ericsson (notably since acquiring Tandberg Television), NEC,
Accenture Video Solution), Thomson, Huawei, and ZTE, as are
some IT houses, led by Microsoft. California-based UTStarcom, Inc.,
Tennessee-based Worley Consulting, Tokyo-based The New Media Group,
Select-TV and Oslo/Norway-based SnapTV also offer
end-to-end networking infrastructure for IPTV-based services, and Hong
Kong-based BNS Ltd. provides turnkey open platform
solutions. Global sales of
IPTV systems exceeded 2 billion USD in
IPTV Ltd, having established many closed network IPTV
systems, expanded in 2013 to OTT delivery platforms for markets in New
Zealand, Australia and Asia Pacific region.
Google Fiber offers an
IPTV service in various US cities which
includes up to 1 Gigabit-speed internet and over 290 channels
depending of package via the fibre optic network being built out in
Kansas City Kansas and Kansas City Missouri.
Many of these
IPTV solution vendors participated in the biennial
Global MSF Interoperability 2008 (GMI) event which was coordinated by
MultiService Forum (MSF) at five sites worldwide from 20 to 31
October 2008. Test equipment vendors including Netrounds, Codenomicon,
Mu Dynamics and
Spirent joined solution vendors such as
the companies listed above in one of the largest
IPTV proving grounds
For residential users,
IPTV is often provided in conjunction with
video on demand and may be bundled with
Internet services such as
Internet access and Voice over
Internet Protocol (VoIP)
telecommunications services. Commercial bundling of IPTV, VoIP and
Internet access is sometimes referred to in marketing as triple play
service. When these three are offered with cellular service, the
combined service may be referred to as quadruple play.
Historically, broadcast television has been regulated differently from
IPTV allows TV and VoD to be transmitted over
IP networks, new regulatory issues arise. Professor Eli M. Noam
highlights in his report "TV or Not TV: Three Screens, One
Regulation?" some of the key challenges with sector specific
regulation that is becoming obsolete due to convergence in this
Comparison between OTT and IPTV
Comparison of streaming media systems
Comparison of video services
Content delivery network
List of music streaming services
List of streaming media systems
Protection of Broadcasts and Broadcasting Organizations Treaty
Software as a service
IPTV Standardization on Track Say Industry Experts".
27 October 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
IPTV Exploratory Group Report and Recommendation to the TOPS
Council" (PDF). Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions.
July 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
^ Cisco – Summary of Acquisitions Archived 21 August 2007 at the
^ Hart, Timothy (15 February 1998). "KCTU-TV earns a place in
^ KIT Kingston Interactive Television. Kitv.co.uk. Retrieved on 12
^ Integrated Design Tools Inc Archived 24 June 2016 at the Wayback
NBTel leading the way in North America with Aliant's new interactive
information and entertainment television service – VibeVision
Archived 22 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
Bruncor launches iMagic TV
Aliant Telecom Launches New
Television Technology in Halifax
Archived 17 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Alcatel Acquires iMagic TV". ITBusiness.ca. 2003.
^ "Lucent Technologies Introduces First Commercial IP Video Over DSL
Solution, Business Net". Business Wire. 10 April 2002. Archived from
the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
^ https://investor.aminocom.com/story-EMQ1314. Missing or empty
^ (in Northern Sami)"
Bredbandsbolaget is mobilizing for IP TV"
^ Broadband Providers Plans
CenturyLink Quietly Launches Prism
Telecompetitor.com. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
^ Ji, Dagyum (18 August 2016). "
Netflix style video-on-demand comes to
North Korea, state TV shows". NK News. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
^ Gartner – 2007 Press releases
^ Eggerton, John (14 December 2009). "Broadcasters Squeezed by
Convergence Push". Broadcasting & Cable. Archived from the
original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
IPTV Global Forecast (2008–2013) International
^ T-Home.hu Archived 17 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ InviTV.hu[permanent dead link]
BT Vision passes 398k subs in 4Q08
^ "Salad days," Chris Dziadul, Broadband TV News, 2 May 2008
IPTV System to
Kazakhtelecom Article from the IPTV
^ iD TV services for broadband subscribers in
Kazakhstan Archived 8
October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
Kazakhtelecom JSC – iD TV
service for Home users
^ iiNet's Age of Terabyte Archived 10 October 2010 at the Wayback
Machine. PDF from iiNet press release 18 August 2010
^ "BabyFirst launches on BesTV in China," Indiantelevision.com Team, 2
^ "UF Group to launch E box for movies on demand, online shopping,
e-learning " Netindian.in, 1 February 2012.
^ "PLDT HOME leads fixed broadband market, adds six times more
subscribers than competition". PLDT Incorporated. 25 May 2016.
Retrieved 17 February 2016.
^ "Turkey's iptv,
Tivibu Ev is on air" ntvmsnbc.com, 23 February 2011.
Tivibu Ev's Official Homepage" tivibu.com/ev, 13 March 2011.
Archived 24 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Distributed Architecture vsCentralized Architecture for IP VoD,
Annual Review of Communications, Vol. 58
^ HomePlug Alliance keeps plugging away at powerline communications
IPTV distribution using DS2 powerline networks Archived 11 July 2009
at the Wayback Machine.
^ "20 Million MoCA Nodes Have Been Shipped". Reuters. 17 February
^ LightReading: Why AT&T Likes HomePNA
^ Could MoCA/HomePlug win in-home networking wars?
^ HomeGrid Forum Blog – Why do we need a unified standard at all?
Archived 22 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ New global standard for fully networked home Archived 21 February
2009 at the Wayback Machine.,
ITU-T Press Release
^ Quasar POF alliance
ETSI TS 182 027
IPTV services – architecture and implementation
^ Berlocher, Greg and Freyer, Dan. "IP And Satellite: Communications
Worlds Merging" Via Satellite January 2009 p 24–28
^ Taga, Karim. "Hybrid delivery of content for IPTV" InterComms Issue
11 August 2008 p 13–14
^ Holmes, Mark. "Broadcast 2.0: The Changing Scene In Europe" Via
Satellite September 2008 p 20–25
^ 19.46 Europe/London (14 October 2009). "UK and France lead with
IPTV set-tops". Broadbandtvnews.com. Retrieved 15 June
^  Archived 2 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "HYBRID Set Top Boxes for
IPTV Digital Media Strategy by Jeff
Vinson". Jviptv.wordpress.com. 25 June 2009. Retrieved 15 June
^  Archived 5 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "New European initiative merges television with the power of the
Internet" (PDF) (Press release). HbbTV Consortium. 27 August 2009.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2009.
^ "ADB Delivers World's First Hybrid, Single-Chip, Advanced Video
Coding, High Definition
IPTV Set-Top Boxes To TELEFÓNICA".
Digitaltvnews.net. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012.
Retrieved 15 June 2013.
IPTV Americas Launches First
IPTV Satellite Distribution Platform
for Latin America and The Caribbean via SES NEW SKIES' NSS-806" (Press
IPTV Americas. 13 January 2009. Archived from the original
on 16 October 2011.
^ International Datacasting Corporation "Why IP Over Satellite?".
Accessed 18 January 2009. Company factsheet Archived 19 November 2008
at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Future Looks Bright For IPTV" Satellite Today. Retrieved 18 January
^ "The Economics of IPTV". 2 February 2015. Retrieved 23 July
^ Broadband Users Control What They Watch and When Archived 20 April
2010 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Session and Media Signalling for
IPTV via IMS Archived 25 June 2008
at the Wayback Machine.
^ Bulkley, Kate. "IPTV’s Eastern Promise" Digital TV Europe October
2008 p 48
^ Brown, Peter J. "Super Headends And High Expectations" Via Satellite
April 2006 p 18–30
^ Market Wire "ZyXEL Announces Industry's First ADSL2/2+ 802.11n
Gateway and New
IPTV Product Offerings" June 2008
^ HomePNA and HomeGrid Sign Liaison Agreement[dead link], Groups Work
to Promote New ITU
G.hn Global Wired Home Networking Standard
^ AT&T Participating in
G.hn Standard Development
^ Newtec Productions NV "TP210 Sat3Play Broadband Terminal" (Version
Internet Modem factsheet Archived 17 November
2010 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Tom’s Hardware "How much latency is too much for Online Gaming?".
Accessed 23 January 2009.
Internet Forum Archived 19 July 2011 at the
IPTV privacy risks Archived 5 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
Ericsson report on need for regulation"
(PDF). (217 KB)
^ TV or Not TV
Ars Technica: An Introduction to IPTV
Cable, satellite, and other specialty television providers
Cable, satellite, and other specialty television providers in Africa,
Asia, the Middle East and Oceania
Botswana Cable Network
Cable TV Hong Kong
Lanka Broadband Networks(Sri Lanka)
Montage Cable TV(Nigeria)
Orange Ivory Coast
Top TV (Indonesia)
United Communication Service
Vodafone New Zealand
Airtel digital TV
beIN(Middle East and North Africa)
BiG TV (Indonesia)
DD Free Dish
Dialog TV(Sri Lanka)
Dish TV Sri Lanka
ME Digital TV
OSN(Middle East and North Africa)
Pacific Broadcasting Services Fiji
Pearl Digital TV
Pra International Green Group India
Reliance Digital TV
Television (New Zealand)
STAR (Greater China)
StarSat, South Africa
Sky on demand
PEO TV(Sri Lanka)
Saudi Telecom Company
ABS-CBN TV Plus
Freeview (New Zealand)
Dream Satellite TV (Philippines)
Mega TV (Malaysia)
UBI World TV(Australia)
Africa, Asia, Middle East and Oceania
Central and South America
Cable, satellite, and other specialty television providers in Canada
Terrestrial and satellite
Telus Satellite TV
Cablevision for Val-d'Or, QC, MTS for Manitoba)
Cogeco (Ontario, Quebec)
EastLink (Atlantic, Northern Ontario, Western Canada)
Rogers Cable (Ontario, New Brunswick, Newfoundland)
Source (Hamilton, ON)
Shaw (Western Canada, Northwestern Ontario)
Cable Axion (Magog, QC)
CityWest (Prince Rupert, BC)
DERYtelecom (Saguenay, QC)
Novus Cable (select areas of BC Lower Mainland)
Omineca Cablevision (Prince George, BC)
Westman (Brandon, MB)
Defunct cable and DBS companies of Canada
Telus Optik TV
Tbaytel Digital TV
Africa, Asia, and Oceania
1More than 400,000 television service subscribers.
Cable, satellite, and other speciality television providers in Europe
ASK CATV (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Canal Digital (Norway)
Com Hem (Sweden)
dna Welho (Finland)
ELTA-KABEL (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Kabel Deutschland (Germany)
Meo (telecommunication service)
MISS.NET (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Orange TV (France)
RCS & RDS (Romania)
Sat Film (Poland)
Serbia Broadband (Serbia)
Tango TV (Luxembourg)
Tele Columbus (Germany)
Telemach (Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Montenegro and Slovenia)
Turksat Kablo TV (Turkey)
UPC Magyarország (Hungary)
UPC Polska (Poland)
Virgin TV (UK)
Virgin Media Ireland
Canal Digital (Denmark, Sweden,
Norway and Finland)
Canal (France, Swtizerland)
Cosmote TV (Greece)
Cyfrowy Polsat (Poland)
DIGI (Romania, Hungary)
Focus Sat (Romania)
Freesat from Sky (UK)
Magio TV (Slovakia)
NTV Plus (Russia, Ukraine)
Orange S.A. (France, Belgium)
Sky (Germany, Austria)
Skylink (Slovakia, Czech Republic)
TéléSAT Numérique (Belgium, Luxembourg)
Tivù Sat (Italy)
Total TV (Balkans)
Tricolor TV (Russia, Ukraine)
TV Vlaanderen Digitaal
TV Vlaanderen Digitaal (Belgium)
UPC Direct (Hungary)
Viasat (Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Latvia,
Vip TV (Croatia)
A1 Telekom Austria
BT TV (UK)
Cosmote TV (Greece)
HOME.TV (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Infostrada TV (Italy)
Magnet Networks (Ireland)
Moja TV (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Mts TV (Serbia)
Meo (telecommunication service)
IPTV (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Optimus Clix (Portugal)
Proximus TV (Belgium)
Smart Telecom (Ireland)
SUPER TV (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
TalkTalk TV (UK)
Telekom Entertain (Germany)
Antena PLUS (Serbia)
Boxer TV Access (Sweden)
Boxer TV A/S (Denmark)
Easy TV (Ireland)
KPN Digitenne (Netherlands)
Mediaset Premium (Italy)
Vip TV (Macedonia)
Zala TV (Belarus)
Alice Home TV
Boom TV (Romania)
On Telecoms (Greece)
Cable, satellite, and other specialty television providers in Latin
America and the Caribbean
Axtel TV (Mexico)
Airlink Communications (Trinidad and Tobago)
Digicel Play (Caribbean)
Independent Cable Network of Trinidad and Tobago (ICNTT)
Izzi Telecom (Mexico)
Massy Communications (Trinidad and Tobago)
Mayaro Cable TV (Trinidad and Tobago)
Movistar TV (Chile, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela)
Mundo Pacifico (Chile)
Oi TV (Brazil)
Red Intercable (Argentina)
RVR International (Trinidad and Tobago)
Telefónica del Sur
Tricom (Dominican Republic)
TRICO Industries Limited (Trinidad and Tobago)
CanalSat Caraïbes (Caribbean)
DirecTV (South America & Caribbean)
Green Dot (Caribbean)
Movistar TV (Chile, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela)
Oi TV (Brazil)
Dominican Republic & Central America
Vivo TV (Brazil)
bmobile (Trinidad and Tobago)
Claro República Dominicana
Vivo TV (Brazil)
Multi-Choice TV (Barbados)
GVT TV (Brazil)
Vivo TV Plus (Brazil)
Africa, Asia, and Oceania
Cable, satellite, and other specialty television providers in the
Blue Ridge Communications
Hood Canal Communications
Liberty Puerto Rico
Headend in the Sky
Fiber MVPD / IPTV
CenturyLink Prism TV
Cincinnati Bell FiOptics
NEP Datastream TV
North State Communications
Hulu with Live TV
Spectrum TV Stream
Xfinity Instant TV
Apple iTunes Store
CBS All Access
Hallmark Movies Now
Lifetime Movie Club
UFC Fight Pass
Adelphia Communications Corporation
Alameda Power and Telecom1
Bright House Networks
Community Home Entertainment
Graceba Total Communications
TelePrompTer/Group W Cable
Time Warner Cable
1 – Still in operation, but no longer offers cable or
part of its services
GlobeCast World TV
United States Satellite Broadcasting
Voom HD Networks
Virtual Digital Cable
Defunct virtual MVPD
Additional resources on North American television
List of local television stations in North America
North American TV mini-template
List of Canadian television networks
List of Canadian television channels
List of Canadian specialty channels
Local Canadian TV stations
List of United States stations available in Canada
2001 Vancouver TV realignment
Canada broadcast TV realignment
Local Mexican TV stations
List of American cable and satellite networks
List of American over-the-air networks
Local American TV stations (W)
Local American TV stations (K)
Spanish-language TV networks
1994 United States broadcast TV realignment
2006 United States broadcast TV realignment
List of Canadian television stations available in the United States
Insular Areas TV
Africa, Asia, Middle East and Ocean