IPTV
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Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is the delivery of
television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a te ...

television
content over
Internet Protocol The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing Routing is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network or between ...
(IP) networks. This is in contrast to delivery through traditional
terrestrial Terrestrial refers to things related to land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in land areas that support agriculture A ...
,
satellite File:ERS 2.jpg, alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into orbit. These objects are called artificial satellites to distingui ...
, and
cable Cable may refer to: Mechanical * Nautical cable, an assembly of three or more ropes woven against the weave of the ropes, rendering it virtually waterproof * Wire rope, a type of rope which consists of several strands of metal wire laid into a hel ...
television formats. Unlike
download In computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital signal, digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on or provided by the Node (networki ...

download
ed media, IPTV offers the ability to stream the source media continuously. As a result, a client media player can begin playing the content (such as a TV channel) almost immediately. This is known as
streaming media Streaming media is multimedia that is delivered and consumed in a continuous manner from a source, with little or no intermediate storage in network elements. ''Streaming'' refers to the delivery method of content, rather than the content itse ...
. Although IPTV uses the Internet protocol it is not limited to television streamed from the
Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''network of networks'' t ...

Internet
(
Internet television Streaming television is the digital distribution Digital distribution (also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution (ESD), among others) is the delivery or distribution of digital media Dig ...
). IPTV is widely deployed in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other
customer-premises equipment In telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of ...
. IPTV is also used for media delivery around corporate and private networks. IPTV in the telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation process (e.g.,
European Telecommunications Standards Institute ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) is an independent, not-for-profit, standardization Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A technical standard is an establi ...
). IPTV services may be classified into
live television Live television is a television production upright=1.35, A live television show set and cameras A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set A Sony Wega CRT television set A televisio ...
and live media, with or without related interactivity;
time shifting In broadcasting, time shifting is the recording of programming to a storage medium to be viewed or listened to after the live broadcasting. Typically, this refers to TV programming but can also refer to radio shows via podcasts. In recent years, t ...
of media, e.g.,
catch-up TV Video on demand (VOD) is a media distribution system that allows users to access videos without a traditional video playback device and the constraints of a typical static broadcasting schedule. In the 20th century, broadcasting in the form of ...
(replays a TV show that was broadcast hours or days ago), start-over TV (replays the current TV show from its beginning); and
video on demand Video on demand (VOD) is a media distribution system that allows users to access videos without a traditional video playback device and the constraints of a typical static broadcasting schedule. In the 20th century, broadcasting in the form of o ...
(VOD) which involves browsing and viewing items of a media catalogue.


Definition

Historically, many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams over IP networks,
MPEG transport stream MPEG transport stream (MPEG-TS, MTS) or simply transport stream (TS) is a standard digital container format for transmission and storage of audio, video, and Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) data. It is used in broadcast system ...
s over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems. One official definition approved by the
International Telecommunication Union 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the ...

International Telecommunication Union
focus group on IPTV (ITU-T FG IPTV) is:
IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security, interactivity and reliability.
Another definition of IPTV, relating to the telecommunications industry, is the one given by
Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions The Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) is a standards organization that develops technical and operational standards and solutions for the Information and communications technology, ICT industry, headquartered in Washington, D ...
(ATIS) IPTV Exploratory Group in 2005:
IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of entertainment video and related services. These services may include, for example, Live TV, Video On Demand (VOD) and Interactive TV (iTV). These services are delivered across an access agnostic, packet switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio, video and control signals. In contrast to video over the public Internet, with IPTV deployments, network security and performance are tightly managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience, resulting in a compelling business environment for content providers, advertisers and customers alike.


History

Up until the early 1990s, it was not thought possible that a
television programme Image:MDR Kripo live.jpg, upright=1.35, A live television show set and cameras A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set which can be broadcast via Terrestrial television, over-the-air, sat ...
could be squeezed into the limited
telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads or electricity Electr ...
bandwidth Bandwidth commonly refers to: * Bandwidth (signal processing) or ''analog bandwidth'', ''frequency bandwidth'', or ''radio bandwidth'', a measure of the width of a frequency range * Bandwidth (computing), the rate of data transfer, bit rate or thro ...
of a
copper Copper is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same nu ...

copper
telephone cable Image:Phone pole3.jpg, Utility pole with electric lines (top) and telephone cables. A telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit industrywide) is a single-user telecommunication circuit, circuit on a telephone telecommunication ...

telephone cable
to provide a
video-on-demand Video on demand (VOD) is a media distribution system that allows users to access videos without a traditional video playback device and the constraints of a typical static broadcasting schedule. In the 20th century, broadcasting in the form of ...
(VOD) television service of acceptable quality, as the required bandwidth of a
digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual Audiovisual (AV) is electronic media possessing both a sound and a visual component, such as slide-tape presentations, films, television programs, corporate conferencing, c ...
signal was around 200
Mbps In telecommunications, data-transfer rate is the average number of bits (bitrate), characters or symbols (baudrate), or data blocks per unit time passing through a communication link in a data-transmission system. Common data rate units are multip ...
, which was 2,000 times greater than the bandwidth of a speech signal over a copper
telephone wire Utility pole with electric lines (top) and telephone cables. A telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit industrywide) is a single-user circuit on a telephone A telephone is a telecommunications Appliance (disambig ...
. VOD services were only made possible as a result of two major technological developments:
discrete cosine transform A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a finite sequence of data points in terms of a sum of cosine In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are real functions ...
(DCT)
video compression In signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analysing, modifying, and synthesizing signals such as audio signal processing, sound, image processing, images, and scientific measurements. Signal ...
and
asymmetric digital subscriber line Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a type of digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), s ...
(ADSL)
data transmission Data transmission and data reception (or, more broadly, data communication or digital communications) is the transfer and reception of data (a Digital data, digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal) over a Point-to-point (telecommunications) ...
. DCT is a
lossy compression In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data compression, data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content. These techniques are used to re ...
technique that was first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972, and was later adapted into a motion-compensated DCT algorithm for
video coding standards A video coding format (or sometimes video compression format) is a Content format, content representation format for storage or transmission of Digital data, digital video, video content (such as in a data file or Bitstream format, bitstream). It ...
such as the
H.26x The Video Coding Experts Group or Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG, also known as Question 6) is a working group of the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) concerned with video coding standards. It is responsible for standardiza ...
formats from 1988 onwards and the
MPEG The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is an alliance of working groups established jointly by International Organization for Standardization, ISO and International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC that sets standards for media coding, includi ...

MPEG
formats from 1991 onwards. Motion-compensated DCT video compression significantly reduced the amount of bandwidth required for a television signal, while at the same time ADSL increased the bandwidth of data that could be sent over a copper telephone wire. ADSL increased the bandwidth of a telephone line from around 100 kbps to 2Mbps, while DCT compression reduced the required bandwidth of a digital television signal from around 200Mbps down to about 2Mbps. The combination of DCT and ADSL technologies made it possible to practically implement VOD services at around 2Mbps bandwidth in the 1990s. The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept developed an Internet video product named ''IP/TV''. IP/TV was an
Mbone Mbone (short for "multicast 250px In computer networking, multicast is group communication where data transmission is addressed to a group of destination computers simultaneously. Multicast can be one-to-many or many-to-many distribution. Mul ...

Mbone
compatible Windows and Unix-based application that transmitted single and multi-source audio and video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both
unicast image:unicast.svg, Unicast is data transmission from a single sender (red) to a single receiver (green). Other devices on the network (yellow) do not participate in the communication. In computer networking, unicast is a One-to-one (communication ...

unicast
and
IP multicast IP multicast is a method of sending Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams to a group of interested receivers in a single transmission. It is the IP-specific form of multicast and is used for streaming media and other network applications. It uses specia ...
Real-time Transport Protocol The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks. RTP is used in communication and entertainment systems that involve streaming media, such as telephony, video teleconference applications ...
(RTP) and Real time control protocol (RTCP). The software was written primarily by Steve Casner,
Karl Auerbach Karl George Auerbach (born December 27, 1949 in Los Angeles, California) is a California attorney and internet protocol engineer who made many significant contributions to the development of the Internet, Internet governance and the commercializat ...
, and Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the IP/TV trademark. Telecommunications company
US West US West, Inc. (stylized as U S WEST) was one of seven Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs, also referred to as "Baby Bells"), created in 1983 under the Modification of Final Judgement (''United States v. Western Electric Co., Inc.'' 552 ...
(later
Qwest Qwest Communications International, Inc. was a large United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America ...
) launched an IPTV service called TeleChoice in
Phoenix, Arizona Phoenix ( ; nv, Hoozdo; es, Fénix or ) is the List of capitals in the United States, capital and List of cities and towns in Arizona#List of cities and towns, most populous city in the American state of Arizona, with 1,608,139 residents as of ...

Phoenix, Arizona
in 1998 using
VDSL Very high-speed digital subscriber line (VDSL) and very high-speed digital subscriber line 2 (VDSL2) are digital subscriber line Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to tran ...
technology, becoming the first company in the United States to provide digital television over telephone lines. The service was shut down in 2008.
Internet radio Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, online radio) is a digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In ...
company AudioNet started the first continuous
live Live may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Live!'' (2007 film), 2007 American film * ''Live'' (2014 film), a 2014 Japanese film *'' ''Live'' (Apocalyptica DVD) Music *Live (band), American alternative rock band * List of albums ...
webcast A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media Streaming media is multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or ...
s with content from
WFAA WFAA, virtual channel, virtual and Very high frequency, VHF digital terrestrial television, digital channel 8, is an American Broadcasting Company, ABC-network affiliate, affiliated television station city of license, licensed to Dallas, Dallas, ...
-TV in January 1998 and KCTU-LP on 10 January 1998.
Kingston Communications KCOM Group (formerly known as Kingston Communications and latterly KC) is a UK communications and IT services provider. Its headquarters are in the city of Kingston upon Hull, a unitary authority in the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yo ...
, a regional telecommunications operator in the UK, launched Kingston Interactive Television (KIT), an IPTV over
digital subscriber line Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines. In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is widely understood to mean asymmetric digi ...
(DSL) service in September 1999. The operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with Yes TV, a VoD content provider. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VoD over
ADSL Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a type of digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide. A ...
as a commercial service. The service became the reference for various changes to UK Government regulations and policy on IPTV. In 2006, the KIT service was discontinued, subscribers having declined from a peak of 10,000 to 4,000. In 1999,
NBTel NBTel was founded as the New Brunswick Telephone Company in 1888 after Bell Telephone Company of Canada's attempt to establish telephone service in the Maritimes The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces, is a region In geography, reg ...
(now known as
Bell Aliant Bell Aliant is a brand name used by Bell Canada for telecommunications services in Atlantic Canada. Prior to 2015, Bell Aliant Inc. (formerly Aliant Inc.) was a separate company providing telecom services in the Atlantic provinces and a few ot ...
) was the first to commercially deploy Internet protocol television over DSL in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocea ...

Canada
using the Alcatel 7350
DSLAM A digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM, often pronounced ''DEE-slam'') is a network device, often located in telephone exchange manually connecting calls with cord pairs at a telephone switchboard A telephone exchange, telephone ...
and middleware created by iMagic TV (owned by NBTel's parent company
Bruncor Bruncor, based in Saint John, New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick was a Canada, Canadian telecommunications holding company and the parent company of NBTel. Bruncor merged in 1999 with 3 other telecommunication companies in Atlantic Canada to ...
). The service was marketed under the brand VibeVision in
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital of the Provinces and territor ...

New Brunswick
, and later expanded into
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
in early 2000 after the formation of
Aliant Bell Aliant is a brand name used by Bell Canada for Telecommunications in Canada, telecommunications services in Atlantic Canada. Prior to 2015, Bell Aliant Inc. (formerly Aliant Inc.) was a separate company providing telecom services in the Atla ...
. iMagic TV was later sold to Alcatel. In 2002,
Sasktel Saskatchewan Telecommunications Holding Corporation, operating as SaskTel, is a Telecommunications in Canada, Canadian Crown corporations of Canada, crown-owned telecommunications firm based in the province of Saskatchewan. Owned by the provincial ...
was the second in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocea ...

Canada
to commercially deploy IPTV over DSL, using the Lucent Stinger DSL platform. In 2005, SureWest Communications was the first North American company to offer
high-definition television High-definition television (HD or HDTV) describes a television system providing a substantially higher image resolution than the previous generation of technologies. The term has been used since 1936, but in modern times refers to the generation fol ...
(HDTV) channels over an IPTV service. In 2005, Bredbandsbolaget launched its IPTV service as the first service provider in
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's for ...

Sweden
. As of January 2009, they are not the biggest supplier any longer;
TeliaSonera Telia Company AB is a Swedish multinational telecommunications company and mobile network operator A mobile network operator (MNO), also known as a wireless service provider, wireless carrier, cellular company, or mobile network carrier, is a ...
, who launched their service later, now has more customers. By 2010, iiNet and Telstra launched IPTV services in conjunction to internet plans. In 2008, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) launched IPTV under the brand name of
PTCL Smart TV PTCL Smart TV is an IPTV, Internet Protocol TV service in Pakistan owned by Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL). It entered the Pay TV industry on 14 August 2008, by launching a Digital television, Digital Interactive Television servi ...
in
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
. This service is available in 150 major cities of the country offering 140 live channels. In 2010,
CenturyLink Lumen Technologies (formerly CenturyLink) is an American telecommunications company A telephone company, also known as a telco, telephone service provider, or telecommunications operator, is a kind of communications service provider (CSP), mor ...
– after acquiring
Embarq Embarq Corporation (stylized as EMBARQ) was the largest independent local exchange carrier in the United States (below the Regional Bell Operating Company, Baby Bells), serving customers in 18 states and providing local, long-distance, high-speed ...
(2009) and
Qwest Qwest Communications International, Inc. was a large United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America ...
(2010) – entered five U.S. markets with an IPTV service called Prism. This was after successful test marketing in Florida. In Brazil, since at least 2012, Vivo has been offering the service Vivo TV Fibra in 200+ cities where it has FTTH coverage (4Q 2020 data) . Since at least 2018, Oi has also been offering IPTV under its FTTH service "Oi Fibra". Also, several regional FTTH providers also offer IPTV along with FTTH internet services. In 2016,
Korean Central Television Korean Central Television (KCTV; ) is a television service operated by the Korean Central Broadcasting Committee, a state-owned broadcaster in North Korea. History KCTV was established on 1 September 1953 as Pyongyang Television after th ...
(KCTV) introduced the set-top box called Manbang, reportedly providing video-on-demand services in
North Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. It borders China and Russia to the north, at the Yalu River, Yalu (Amnok) and Tum ...

North Korea
via quasi-internet protocol television (IPTV). Manbang allows viewers to watch five different TV channels in real-time, and find political information regarding the Supreme Leader and
Juche ''Juche'' ( McCune–Reischauer: ''Chuch'e'') (; ; ko, 주체/主體, lit= subject; ; usually left untranslated or translated as " self-reliance") is the official ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a per ...

Juche
ideology, and read articles from state-run news organizations.


Markets


Residential

The global IPTV market was expected to grow from 28 million subscribers at US$12 billion revenue in 2009 to 83 million and US$38 billion in 2013. Europe and Asia are the leading territories in terms of the overall number of subscribers. But in terms of service revenues, Europe and North America generate a larger share of global revenue, due to very low average revenue per user (ARPU) in China and India, the fastest growing (and ultimately, the biggest markets) is Asia. Services also launched in
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and Pars pro toto#Geography, often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, South and Southeast Europe, located within the Balkans. Sar ...
,
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia ...
,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocea ...

Canada
,
Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it, Repubblica di Croazia :* rue, Републіка Хорватія :* sr, Република Хрватска :* sk, Chorvátska republika :* sl, Republika H ...

Croatia
,
Lithuania Lithuania (; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countri ...
,
Moldova Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to a ...

Moldova
,
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Црна Гора, Crna Gora, lit. "Black Mountain", ) is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is o ...

Montenegro
,
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A con ...

Morocco
,
North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe ...
,
Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and ha ...

Poland
,
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Traditional Mongolian: '; lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body ...

Mongolia
,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to t ...

Romania
,
Serbia Serbia (, ; sr, Србија, Srbija, ),, * cs, Srbsko, * ro, Serbia * rue, Сербия *german: Serbien *french: Serbie * uk, Сербія * hu, Szerbia * bg, Сърбия * sq, Serbia * bs, Srbija * officially the Republic of Serbia,, ...

Serbia
,
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes ...

Slovenia
, the
Netherlands The Netherlands ( nl, Nederland ), informally referred to as Holland, is a country primarily located in Western Europe and partly in the Dutch Caribbean, Caribbean. It is the largest of four Kingdom of the Netherlands#Constituent countries, cons ...

Netherlands
,
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
,
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A contin ...

Greece
,
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe. It is the most populous and politically central Constituent state, constituent of the Danish Realm, Kingdom of Denmark, da, Kongeriget Danmark, a constitution ...
,
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of Bo ...

Finland
,
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Swe ...

Estonia
,
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It i ...
,
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the ...

Slovakia
,
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence ...
,
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk. Bokmål is the preferred ...

Norway
,
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's for ...

Sweden
,
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#No ...

Iceland
,
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic reg ...

Latvia
,
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkans in Southeast Europe. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; the B ...

Turkey
,
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning South America and an Insular region of Colombia, insular region in North America. It is bordered by the Caribb ...

Colombia
,
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention ra ...
and
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a landlocked country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land ...

Uzbekistan
. The
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
launched IPTV early and after a slow initial growth, in February 2009 BT announced that it had reached 398,000 subscribers to its
BT Vision BT TV is a subscription IPTV Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is the delivery of television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrom ...
service. Claro has launched their own IPTV service called "Claro TV". This service is available in several countries in which they operate, such as
Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with ...
,
El Salvador , national_anthem = '' Himno Nacional de El Salvador''( en, "National Anthem of El Salvador") , image_map = El Salvador (orthographic projection).svg , image_map2 = , capital = San Salvador , coordinates = , largest_city = San Salvador ...

El Salvador
,
Guatemala Guatemala ( ; ), officially the Republic of Guatemala ( es, República de Guatemala, links=no), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean Sea, Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to th ...

Guatemala
,
Honduras Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras, is a country in Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Americas. It is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the south, the ...

Honduras
,
Nicaragua Nicaragua (; ), officially the Republic of Nicaragua (), is the largest Sovereign state, country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean Sea, Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the ...

Nicaragua
. IPTV is just beginning to grow in Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America, and now it is growing in South Asian countries such as
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
,
Nepal Nepal (; ne, :ne:नेपाल, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in S ...

Nepal
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
and
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
. but significant plans exist in countries such as
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russia
.
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
introduced its own IPTV services by the national provider Kazakhtelecom JSC and content integrator Alacast under the "iD TV" brand in two major cities Astana and Almaty in 2009 and is about to go nationwide starting 2010. Australian ISP iiNet launched Australia's first IPTV with fetchtv. In
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
, IPTV was launched by MTNL,
BSNL Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited d/b/a BSNL is an Indian government enterprise and a telecommunications service provider headquartered in New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the Capital city, capital of India and an administrativ ...
and
Jio Reliance Jio Infocomm Limited, doing business as Jio, is an Indian telecommunications company and a subsidiary of Jio Platforms, headquartered in Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay , List of renamed Indian cities and states#Ma ...

Jio
in New Delhi, Mumbai and Punjab.
APSFL Overview Andhra Pradesh State FiberNet Limited, AP State FiberNet Limited, or APSFL is a fully-owned entity of the Government of Andhra Pradesh, India, started in October 2015. The project aims to provide affordable end-to-end broadband,wifi conn ...
is another IPTV provider in the state of
Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh (English: ; Telugu: ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
. In
Nepal Nepal (; ne, :ne:नेपाल, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in S ...

Nepal
, IPTV was first launched by NEW IT VENTURE CORPORATION called Net TV Nepal, the service can be accessed through its app, web app and Set top boxes provided by local ISPs, another IPTV was started by
Nepal Telecom Nepal Doorsanchar Company Ltd. ( ne, नेपाल दूरसञ्चार कम्पनी लिमिटेड), popularly known as Nepal Telecom ( ne, नेपाल टेलिकम) or NTC is a state-owned telecommunication servi ...
called WOW Time in 2016 which can be accessed through its app. In
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
, IPTV was launched by
Sri Lanka Telecom SLTMobitel (formerly known as Sri Lanka Telecom, si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා ටෙලිකොම්, Śrī Laṃkā Ṭelikom, ta, ஸ்ரீலங்கா டெலிகொம்) is the national telecommunications Telecommunicat ...
(operated by SLT VisionCom) in 2008, under the brand name of
PEO TV PEO TV is an IPTV service operated by SLT VisionCom which is a fully owned subsidiary of Sri Lanka Telecom. Its main competitors in the Pay TV market in Sri Lanka are Lanka Broadband Networks (LBN) providing Cable Television services in Analog ...
. This service is available in whole country.
Dialog TV Dialog TV (DTV) is a direct broadcast satellite pay TV service provider based in Sri Lanka. A fully owned subsidiary of Dialog Axiata PLC, Dialog TV was launched in July 2005 under the name "CBNsat". It was later renamed to Dialog TV in February ...
has been available through the service since 2018. In
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
, IPTV was launched by Pakistan Telecommunication Company Ltd, PTCL in 2008, under the brand name of
PTCL Smart TV PTCL Smart TV is an IPTV, Internet Protocol TV service in Pakistan owned by Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL). It entered the Pay TV industry on 14 August 2008, by launching a Digital television, Digital Interactive Television servi ...
. This service is available in 150 major cities of the country. In the Philippines, PLDT Incorporated, PLDT offers Cignal IPTV services as an add-on in certain ADSL and fiber optic plans. In Malaysia, various companies have attempted to launch IPTV services since 2005. Failed PayTV provider MiTV attempted to use an IPTV-over-UHF service but the service failed to take off. Hypp.TV was supposed to use an IPTV-based system, but not true IPTV as it does not provide a set-top box and requires users to view channels using a computer. True IPTV providers available in the country at the moment are Fine TV and DETV. In Q2 2010, Telekom Malaysia launched IPTV services through their Fiber to the x, fibre to the home product Unifi (internet service provider), Unifi in select areas. In April 2010, Astro (satellite TV), Astro began testing IPTV services on TIME dotCom Berhad's high-speed fiber to the home, fibre to the home optical fibre network. In December 2010, Astro (satellite TV), Astro began trials with customers in high-rise condominium buildings around the Mont Kiara area. In April 2011, Astro (satellite TV), Astro commercially launched its IPTV services under the tag line "The One and Only Line You'll Ever Need", a triple play offering in conjunction with TIME dotCom Berhad that provides all the Astro programming via IPTV, together with voice telephone services and broadband Internet access all through the same fibre optic connection into the customer's home. In
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkans in Southeast Europe. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; the B ...

Turkey
, TTNET launched IPTV services under the name IPtivibu in 2010. It was available in pilot areas in the cities of Istanbul, İzmir and Ankara. As of 2011, IPTV service is launched as a large-scale commercial service and widely available across the country under the trademark "Tivibu EV". Superonline plans to provide IPTV under the different name "WebTV" in 2011. Türk Telekom started building the fibre optic substructure for IPTV in late 2007.


Commercial and corporate

IPTV has been widely used since around 2002 to distribute television and audio-visual (AV) media around businesses and commercial sites, whether as live TV channels or Video on Demand (VOD). Examples of types of commercial users include airports, schools, offices, hotels, and sports stadiums, to name just a few.


Architecture


Elements

* IPTV head-end: where live TV channels and AV sources are encoded, encrypted and delivered in the form of
IP multicast IP multicast is a method of sending Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams to a group of interested receivers in a single transmission. It is the IP-specific form of multicast and is used for streaming media and other network applications. It uses specia ...
streams. * Video on Demand (VOD) platform: where on-demand video assets are stored and served as IP unicast streams when a user makes a request. The VOD platform may sometimes be located with, and considered part of, the IPTV headend. * Interactive portal: allows the user to navigate within the different IPTV services, such as the VOD catalogue. * Delivery network: the packet-switched network that carries IP packets (unicast and multicast). * Endpoints: User equipment that can request, decode and deliver IPTV streams for display to the user. This can include computers and mobile devices as well as set-top boxes. * Home TV gateway: the piece of equipment at a residential IPTV user's home that terminates the access link from the delivery network. * User set-top box: the piece of endpoint equipment that decodes and decrypts TV and VOD streams for display on the TV screen.


Architecture of a video server network

Depending on the network architecture of the service provider, there are two main types of video server architecture that can be considered for IPTV deployment: centralised and distributed. The centralised architecture model is a relatively simple and easy to manage solution. Because all media content is stored in centralised servers, it does not require a comprehensive content distribution system. Centralised architecture is generally good for a network that provides relatively small VOD service deployment, has adequate core and edge bandwidth or has an efficient content delivery network (CDN). A distributed architecture has bandwidth usage advantages and inherent system management features that are essential for managing a larger server network. Distributed architecture requires intelligent and sophisticated content distribution technologies to augment effective delivery of multimedia contents over the service provider's network.


Residential IPTV home networks

In many cases, the residential gateway that provides connectivity with the Internet access network is not located close to the IPTV set-top box. This scenario becomes very common as service providers start to offer service packages with multiple set-top boxes per subscriber. Networking technologies that take advantage of existing home wiring (such as power lines, phone lines or coaxial cables) or of wireless hardware have become common solutions for this problem, although fragmentation in the wired home networking market has limited somewhat the growth in this market. In December 2008, ITU-T adopted Recommendation G.hn (also known as G.9960), which is a next-generation home networking standard that specifies a common PHY/MAC that can operate over any home wiring (power lines, phone lines or coaxial cables). Groups such as the Multimedia over Coax Alliance, HomePlug Powerline Alliance, Home Phoneline Networking Alliance, and Quasar Alliance (Plastic Optical Fiber, Plastic Optical Fibre) each advocate their own technologies.


Telecomms IMS architecture

There is a growing standardisation effort on the use of the 3GPP IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) as an architecture for supporting IPTV services in telecommunications carrier networks. Both ITU-T and ETSI are working on so-called "IMS-based IPTV" standards (see e.g. ETSI TS 182 027). Carriers will be able to offer both voice and IPTV services over the same core infrastructure and the implementation of services combining conventional TV services with telephony features (e.g. caller ID on the TV screen) will become straightforward.


Protocols

IPTV supports both live TV as well as stored
video-on-demand Video on demand (VOD) is a media distribution system that allows users to access videos without a traditional video playback device and the constraints of a typical static broadcasting schedule. In the 20th century, broadcasting in the form of ...
. Playback requires a device connected to either a fixed or wireless IP network in the form of a standalone personal computer, smartphone, Internet tablet, touch screen tablet, game console, connected TV or Set-top box#IPTV receiver, set-top box. Content is compressed by Video codec, Video and audio codecs and then encapsulated in
MPEG transport stream MPEG transport stream (MPEG-TS, MTS) or simply transport stream (TS) is a standard digital container format for transmission and storage of audio, video, and Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) data. It is used in broadcast system ...
or
Real-time Transport Protocol The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks. RTP is used in communication and entertainment systems that involve streaming media, such as telephony, video teleconference applications ...
or other packets. IP multicasting allows for live data to be sent to multiple receivers using a single multicast group address. In standards-based IPTV systems, the primary underlying protocols used are: * Service-provider-based streaming: ** IGMP for subscribing to a live multicast stream (TV channel) and for changing from one live multicast stream to another (TV channel change). IP multicast operates within LANs (including VLANs) and across WANs also. IP multicast is usually routed in the network core by Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM), setting up correct distribution of multicast streams (TV channels) from their source all the way to the customers who wants to view them, duplicating received packets as needed. On-demand content uses a negotiated unicast connection.
Real-time Transport Protocol The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks. RTP is used in communication and entertainment systems that involve streaming media, such as telephony, video teleconference applications ...
(RTP) over User Datagram Protocol (UDP) or the lower overhead H.222 transport stream over Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) are generally the preferred methods of encapsulation. * World Wide Web, Web-based
unicast image:unicast.svg, Unicast is data transmission from a single sender (red) to a single receiver (green). Other devices on the network (yellow) do not participate in the communication. In computer networking, unicast is a One-to-one (communication ...

unicast
only live and VoD streaming: ** Adobe Flash Player prefers Real Time Messaging Protocol, RTMP over TCP with setup and control via either Action Message Format, AMF or XML or JSON transactions. ** Apple iOS uses HTTP Live Streaming, HLS adaptive bitrate streaming over HTTP with setup and control via an embedded M3U playlist file. ** Microsoft Silverlight uses Smooth Streaming, smooth streaming (adaptive bitrate streaming) over HTTP. * Web-based multicast live and unicast VoD streaming: ** The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) recommends RTP over UDP or Transmission Control Protocol, TCP transports with setup and control using Real Time Streaming Protocol, RTSP over TCP. * Connected TVs, game consoles, Set-top box#IPTV receiver, set-top boxes and network personal video recorders: ** Local network content uses Universal Plug and Play#UPnP AV standards, UPnP AV for
unicast image:unicast.svg, Unicast is data transmission from a single sender (red) to a single receiver (green). Other devices on the network (yellow) do not participate in the communication. In computer networking, unicast is a One-to-one (communication ...

unicast
via HTTP over TCP or for multicast live RTP over UDP. ** Web-based content is provided through either inline Web plug-ins or a television broadcast-based application that uses a middleware language such as MHEG-5 that triggers an event such as loading an inline Web browser using an Adobe Flash Player plug-in. Local IPTV, as used by businesses for audio visual AV distribution on their company networks is typically based on a mixture of: # Conventional TV reception equipment and IPTV encoders # TV gateways that receive live Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB)
MPEG transport stream MPEG transport stream (MPEG-TS, MTS) or simply transport stream (TS) is a standard digital container format for transmission and storage of audio, video, and Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) data. It is used in broadcast system ...
s (channels) from terrestrial aerials, satellite dishes, or cable feeds and convert them into IP streams


Via satellite

Although IPTV and conventional Satellite television, satellite TV distribution have been seen as complementary technologies, they are likely to be increasingly used together in hybrid IPTV networks. IPTV is largely neutral to the transmission medium, and IP traffic is already routinely carried by satellite for Internet backbone trunking and corporate Very-small-aperture terminal, VSAT networks. The copper twisted pair cabling that forms the Last mile (telecommunications), last mile of the telephone and broadband network in many countries is not able to provide a sizeable proportion of the population with an IPTV service that matches even existing terrestrial or satellite digital TV distribution. For a competitive multi-channel TV service, a connection speed of 20 Mbit/s is likely to be required, but unavailable to most potential customers. The increasing popularity of
high-definition television High-definition television (HD or HDTV) describes a television system providing a substantially higher image resolution than the previous generation of technologies. The term has been used since 1936, but in modern times refers to the generation fol ...
increases connection speed requirements or limits IPTV service quality and connection eligibility even further. However, satellites are capable of delivering in excess of 100 Gbit/s via multi-spot beam technologies, making satellite a clear emerging technology for implementing IPTV networks. Satellite distribution can be included in an IPTV network architecture in several ways. The simplest to implement is an IPTV-Direct-broadcast satellite, direct to home (DTH) architecture, in which hybrid DVB-broadband set-top boxes in subscriber homes integrate satellite and IP reception to give additional bandwidth with return channel capabilities. In such a system, many live TV channels may be multicast via satellite and supplemented with stored video-on-demand transmission via the broadband connection. Arqiva’s Satellite Media Solutions Division suggests "IPTV works best in a hybrid format. For example, you would use broadband to receive some content and satellite to receive other, such as live channels".


Hybrid IPTV

Hybrid IPTV refers to the combination of traditional broadcast TV services and video delivered over either managed IP networks or the public Internet. It is an increasing trend in both the consumer and pay TV markets. The growth of Hybrid IPTV is driven by two major factors. Since the emergence of online video aggregation sites, like YouTube and Vimeo in the mid-2000s, traditional pay TV operators have come under increasing pressure to provide their subscribers with a means of viewing
Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''network of networks'' t ...

Internet
-based video on their televisions. At the same time, specialist IP-based operators have looked for ways to offer Analog television, analogue and digital terrestrial services to their operations, without adding either additional cost or complexity to their transmission operations. Bandwidth (computing), Bandwidth is a valuable asset for operators, so many have looked for alternative ways to deliver these new services without investing in additional network infrastructures. A hybrid set-top allows content from a range of sources, including
terrestrial Terrestrial refers to things related to land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in land areas that support agriculture A ...
broadcast, satellite, and cable, to be brought together with video delivered over the Internet via an Ethernet connection on the device. This enables television viewers to access a greater variety of content on their TV sets, without the need for a separate box for each service. Hybrid IPTV set-top boxes may also enable users to access a range of advanced interactive services, such as Video on demand, VOD,
catch-up TV Video on demand (VOD) is a media distribution system that allows users to access videos without a traditional video playback device and the constraints of a typical static broadcasting schedule. In the 20th century, broadcasting in the form of ...
, as well as Internet applications, including Videotelephony, video telephony, surveillance, gaming, shopping, E-Government, e-government accessed via a television set. From a pay-TV operator's perspective, a hybrid IPTV set-top box gives them greater long-term flexibility to deploy new services and applications as and when consumers require, most often without the need to upgrade equipment or for a technician to visit and reconfigure or swap out the device. This reduces the cost of launching new services, increases speed to market and limits disruption for consumers. The Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV (HbbTV) consortium of industry companies the establishment of an open European standard for hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of broadcast and broadband digital TV and multimedia applications with a single user interface. These trends led to the development of Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV set-top boxes that included both a ATSC tuner, broadcast tuner and an Internet access, Internet connection – usually via an Ethernet port. The first commercially available hybrid IPTV set-top box was developed by Advanced Digital Broadcast, a developer of digital television hardware and software, in 2005. The platform was developed for Spanish pay TV operator Telefonica, and used as part of its Movistar TV service, launched to subscribers at the end of 2005. An alternative approach is the IPTV version of the Headend in the Sky cable TV solution. Here, multiple TV channels are distributed via satellite to the ISP or IPTV provider's point of presence (POP) for IP-encapsulated distribution to individual subscribers as required by each subscriber. This can provide a huge selection of channels to subscribers without overburdening incoming Internet to the POP, and enables an IPTV service to be offered to small or remote operators outside the reach of terrestrial high-speed WAN connection. An example is a network combining fibre and satellite distribution via an SES New Skies satellite of 95 channels to Latin America and the Caribbean, operated by IPTV Americas.


Advantages

The Internet protocol-based platform offers significant advantages, including the ability to integrate television with other IP-based services like high-speed Internet access and VoIP. A switched IP network also allows for the delivery of significantly more content and functionality. In a typical TV or satellite network, using broadcast video technology, all the content constantly flows downstream to each customer, and the customer switches the content at the set-top box. The customer can select from as many choices as the telecomms, cable or satellite company can stuff into the ''pipe'' flowing into the home. A switched IP network works differently. Content remains in the network, and only the content the customer selects is sent into the customer's home. That frees up bandwidth, and the customer's choice is less restricted by the size of the ''pipe'' into the home.


Economics

The cable industry's expenditures of approximately $1 billion per year are based on network updates to accommodate higher data speeds. Most operators use 2–3 channels to support maximum data speeds of 50 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. However, because video streams require a high bit rate for much longer periods of time, the expenditures to support high amounts of video traffic will be much greater. This phenomenon is called persistency. Data persistency is routinely 5% while video persistency can easily reach 50%. As video traffic continues to grow, this means that significantly more Cable modem termination system, CMTS downstream channels will be required to carry this video content. Based on today's market, it is likely that industry expenditures for CMTS expansion could exceed $2 billion a year, virtually all of that expenditure being driven by video traffic. Adoption of IPTV for carrying the majority of this traffic could save the industry approximately 75% of this capital expenditure.


Interactivity

An IP-based platform also allows significant opportunities to make the TV viewing experience more interactive and personalised. The supplier may, for example, include an interactive programme guide that allows viewers to search for content by title or actor's name, or a picture-in-picture functionality that allows them to "channel surf" without leaving the programme they're watching. Viewers may be able to look up a player's stats while watching a sports game, or control the camera angle. They also may be able to access photos or music from their PC on their television, use a wireless phone to schedule a recording of their favourite show, or even adjust parental controls so their child can watch a documentary for a school report, while they're away from home. In order that there can take place an interaction between the receiver and the transmitter, a feedback channel is needed. Due to this, terrestrial, satellite, and cable networks for television do not allow interactivity. However, interactivity with those networks can be possible by combining TV networks with data networks such as the
Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''network of networks'' t ...

Internet
or a mobile communication network.


Video-on-demand

IPTV technology is bringing
video on demand Video on demand (VOD) is a media distribution system that allows users to access videos without a traditional video playback device and the constraints of a typical static broadcasting schedule. In the 20th century, broadcasting in the form of o ...
(VoD) to television, which permits a customer to browse an online programme or film catalogue, to watch trailers and to then select a selected recording. The playout of the selected item starts nearly instantaneously on the customer's TV or PC. Technically, when the customer selects the movie, a Point-to-Point Protocol, point-to-point unicast connection is set up between the customer's decoder (set-top box or PC) and the delivering streaming server. The signalling for the trick play functionality (pause, slow-motion, wind/rewind etc.) is assured by RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol). The most common codecs used for VoD are MPEG-2, MPEG-4 and VC-1. In an attempt to avoid content piracy, the VoD content is usually encrypted. Whilst encryption of satellite and cable TV broadcasts is an old practice, with IPTV technology it can effectively be thought of as a form of Digital rights management. A film that is chosen, for example, may be playable for 24 hours following payment, after which time it becomes unavailable.


IPTV-based converged services

Another advantage is the opportunity for integration and convergence. This opportunity is amplified when using IMS-based solutions. Converged services implies interaction of existing services in a seamless manner to create new value added services. One example is on-screen Caller ID, getting Caller ID on a TV, and the ability to handle it (send it to voice mail, etc.). IP-based services help to enable efforts to provide consumers anytime-anywhere access to content over their televisions, PCs, and mobile device, and to integrate services and content to tie them together. Within businesses and institutions, IPTV eliminates the need to run a parallel infrastructure to deliver live and stored video services.


Limitations

IPTV is sensitive to packet loss and delays if the streamed data is unreliable. IPTV has strict minimum speed requirements in order to facilitate the right number of frames per second to deliver moving pictures. This means that the limited connection speed and bandwidth available for a large IPTV customer base can reduce the service quality delivered. Although a few countries have very high-speed broadband-enabled populations, such as South Korea with 6 million homes benefiting from a minimum connection speed of 100 Mbit/s, in other countries (such as the UK) legacy networks struggle to provide 3–5 Mbit/s and so simultaneous provision to the home of TV channels, VOIP and Internet access may not be viable. The last-mile delivery for IPTV usually has a bandwidth restriction that only allows a small number of simultaneous TV channel streams – typically from one to three – to be delivered. Streaming IPTV across wireless links within the home has proved troublesome; not due to bandwidth limitations as many assume, but due to issues with multipath and reflections of the RF signal carrying the IP data packets. An IPTV stream is sensitive to packets arriving at the right time and in the right order. Improvements in wireless technology are now starting to provide equipment to solve the problem. Due to the limitations of wireless, most IPTV service providers today use wired home networking technologies instead of wireless technologies like IEEE 802.11. Service providers such as AT&T (which makes extensive use of wireline home networking as part of its AT&T U-verse IPTV service) have expressed support for the work done in this direction by ITU-T, which has adopted Recommendation G.hn (also known as G.9960), which is a next-generation home networking standard that specifies a common PHY/MAC that can operate over any home wiring (power lines, phone lines or coaxial cables).


Latency

The latency (engineering), latency inherent in the use of Satellite Internet access, satellite Internet is often held up as reason why satellites cannot be successfully used for IPTV. In practice, however, latency is not an important factor for IPTV, since it is a service that does not require real-time transmission, as is the case with telephony or videoconferencing services. It is the latency of response to requests to change channel, display an EPG, etc. that most affects customers’ perceived quality of service, and these problems affect satellite IPTV no more than terrestrial IPTV. Command latency problems, faced by terrestrial IPTV networks with insufficient bandwidth as their customer base grows, may be solved by the high capacity of satellite distribution. Satellite distribution does suffer from latency – the time for the signal to travel up from the hub to the satellite and back down to the user is around 0.25 seconds, and cannot be reduced. However, the effects of this delay are mitigated in real-life systems using data compression, TCP-acceleration, and HTTP pre-fetching. Satellite latency can be detrimental to especially time-sensitive applications such as on-line gaming (although it only seriously affects the likes of first-person shooters while many Massively multiplayer online game, MMOGs can operate well over satellite Internet), but IPTV is typically a Simplex communication, simplex operation (one-way transmission) and latency is not a critical factor for video transmission. Existing video transmission systems of both analogue and digital formats already introduce known quantifiable delays. Existing Digital Video Broadcasting, DVB TV channels that simulcast by both terrestrial and satellite transmissions experience the same 0.25-second delay difference between the two services with no detrimental effect, and it goes unnoticed by viewers.


Bandwidth requirements

Digital video is a combination of sequence of digital images, and they are made up of pixels or picture elements. Each pixel has two values, which are luminance and chrominance. Luminance is representing intensity of the pixel; chrominance represents the colour of the pixel. Three bytes would be used to represent the colour of the high quality image for a true colour technique. A sequence of images is creating the digital video, in that case, images are called as frames. Movies use 24 frames per second; however, the rate of the frames can change according to territories' electrical systems so that there are different kinds of frame rates, for instance, North America is using approximately 30 frames per second where the Europe television frame rate is 25 frames per second. Each digital video has dimensions width and height; when referred to analogue television, the dimension for SDTV is 720×480 pixels, on the other hand, numerous HDTV requires 1920×1080 pixels. Moreover, whilst for SDTV, two bytes (16 bits) is enough to create the colour depth, HDTV requires three bytes (24 bits) to create the colour depth. Thereby, with a rate of 30 frames/second, the uncompressed data rate for SDTV becomes 30×720×480×16, in other words, 147,456,000 bits per second. Moreover, for HDTV, at the same frame rate, uncompressed date rate becomes 30×1920×1080×24 or 1,492,992,000 bits per second. Using that simple calculation, a service provider's service delivery to the subscribers is limited unless a lossy compression method is used. There is no absolute answer for the bandwidth requirement for the IPTV service because the bandwidth requirement is increasing due to the devices inside the household. Thus, currently compressed HDTV content can be delivered at a data rate between 8 and 10 Mbit/s, but if the home of the consumer equipped with several HDTV outputs, this rate will be multiplied respectively. The high-speed data transfer will increase the needed bandwidth for the viewer, at least 2 Mbit/s is needed to use web-based applications on the computer. Additionally to that, 64 kbit/s is required to use landline telephone for the property. In minimal usage, to receive an IPTV triple-play service requires 13 Mbit/s to process in a household.


Privacy implications

Due to limitations in bandwidth, an IPTV channel is delivered to the user one at a time, as opposed to the traditional multiplexed delivery. Changing a channel requires requesting the head-end server to provide a different broadcast stream, much like Video on demand, VOD (For VOD the stream is delivered using
unicast image:unicast.svg, Unicast is data transmission from a single sender (red) to a single receiver (green). Other devices on the network (yellow) do not participate in the communication. In computer networking, unicast is a One-to-one (communication ...

unicast
, for the normal TV signal multicast is used). This could enable the service provider to accurately track each and every programme watched and the duration of watching for each viewer; broadcasters and advertisers could then understand their audience and programming better with accurate data and targeted advertising. In conjunction with regulatory differences between IPTV and cable TV, this tracking could pose a threat to privacy according to critics. For IP multicast scenarios, since a particular multicast group (TV channel) needs to be requested before it can be viewed, the same privacy concerns apply.


Vendors

Global sales of IPTV systems exceeded US$2 billion in 2007, although only a small number of companies supply most current IPTV system solutions. Some, such as Movistar TV, was formed by telecoms operators themselves, to minimize external costs, a tactic also used by PCCW of Hong Kong. Some major telecoms vendors are also active in this space, notably Accenture (Accenture Video Solution), Alcatel-Lucent (sometimes working with Movistar TV), Ericsson (notably since acquiring Tandberg Television), Huawei, NEC,
PTCL Smart TV PTCL Smart TV is an IPTV, Internet Protocol TV service in Pakistan owned by Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL). It entered the Pay TV industry on 14 August 2008, by launching a Digital television, Digital Interactive Television servi ...
,
Sri Lanka Telecom SLTMobitel (formerly known as Sri Lanka Telecom, si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා ටෙලිකොම්, Śrī Laṃkā Ṭelikom, ta, ஸ்ரீலங்கா டெலிகொம்) is the national telecommunications Telecommunicat ...
, Thomson SA, Thomson, and ZTE, as are some IT houses, led by Microsoft. Miami-based AlphaOTT, Tokyo-based The New Media Group, Malaysian-based Select-TV, Oslo/Norway-based SnapTV, and California-based UTStarcom, Inc. also offer end-to-end networking infrastructure for IPTV-based services, and Hong Kong-based BNS Ltd. provides turnkey open platform IPTV technology solutions. Hospitality IPTV Ltd, having established many closed network IPTV systems, expanded in 2013 to OTT delivery platforms for markets in New Zealand, Australia, and the Asia Pacific region. Google Fiber offers an IPTV service in various US cities which includes up to 1 Gigabit-speed internet and over 290 channels depending on package via the fiber optic network being built out in Kansas City Kansas and Kansas City Missouri. PEAR IPTV self-declares as "the leading IPTV provider in the world". Many of these IPTV solution vendors participated in the biennial Multiservice Switching Forum Interoperability 2008 (GMI) event which was coordinated by the MultiService Forum (MSF) at five sites worldwide from 20 to 31 October 2008. Test equipment vendors including Netrounds, Codenomicon, Empirix, Ixia, Mu Dynamics, and Spirent joined solution vendors such as the companies listed above in one of the largest IPTV proving grounds ever deployed.


Service bundling

For residential users, IPTV is often provided in conjunction with
video on demand Video on demand (VOD) is a media distribution system that allows users to access videos without a traditional video playback device and the constraints of a typical static broadcasting schedule. In the 20th century, broadcasting in the form of o ...
and may be bundled with Internet services such as Internet access and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telecommunications services. Commercial bundling of IPTV, VoIP and Internet access is sometimes referred to in marketing as ''triple play (telecommunications), triple play'' service. When these three are offered with cellular service, the combined service may be referred to as ''quadruple play''.


Regulation

Historically, broadcast television has been regulated differently from telecommunications. As IPTV allows TV and VoD to be transmitted over IP networks, new regulatory issues arise. Professor Eli M. Noam highlights in his report "TV or Not TV: Three Screens, One Regulation?" some of the key challenges with sector specific regulation that is becoming obsolete due to convergence in this field.


See also

* Comparison between OTT and IPTV * Comparison of streaming media systems * Comparison of video services * Content delivery network *
Internet television Streaming television is the digital distribution Digital distribution (also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution (ESD), among others) is the delivery or distribution of digital media Dig ...
* List of music streaming services * List of streaming media systems * P2PTV * Protection of Broadcasts and Broadcasting Organizations Treaty * Sat-IP, SAT>IP * Software as a service * Streaming media * TV gateway * Web television * Webcast


References


Further reading

* {{CATV Digital television Film and video technology Internet broadcasting Internet radio Streaming television Video on demand Television technology Television terminology Computer-related introductions in 1995 Telecommunications-related introductions in 1995 1990s neologisms