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IBM
IBM
RESEARCH is IBM
IBM
's research and development division. It is the largest industrial research organization in the world, with twelve labs on six continents.

The roots of today's IBM
IBM
Research began with the 1945 opening of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University
Columbia University
. This was the first IBM
IBM
laboratory devoted to pure science and later expanded into additional IBM
IBM
Research locations in Westchester County, New York starting in the 1950s, including the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in 1961.

IBM
IBM
employees have garnered six Nobel Prizes , six Turing Awards , 20 inductees into the U.S. National Inventors Hall of Fame, 19 National Medals of Technology , five National Medals of Science and three Kavli Prizes.

As of 2016, the company held the record for most patents generated by a business for 24 consecutive years.

CONTENTS

* 1 Advances * 2 Applications

* 3 Notable IBM
IBM
Research computer scientists

* 3.1 Other notable developments

* 4 Laboratories

* 4.1 Historic research centers

* 5 Publications * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

ADVANCES

Notable company inventions include the floppy disk , the hard disk drive , the magnetic stripe card , the relational database , the Universal Product Code (UPC) , the financial swap , the Fortran programming language, SABRE airline reservation system , DRAM
DRAM
, copper wiring in semiconductors , the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) semiconductor manufacturing process, Watson artificial intelligence and the Quantum Experience .

Advances in nanotechnology include IBM
IBM
in atoms , where a scanning tunneling microscope was used to arrange 35 individual xenon atoms on a substrate of chilled crystal of nickel to spell out the three letter company acronym . It was the first time atoms had been precisely positioned on a flat surface.

APPLICATIONS

Major undertakings at IBM
IBM
Research have included the invention of innovative materials and structures, high-performance microprocessors and computers , analytical methods and tools, algorithms , software architectures , methods for managing, searching and deriving meaning from data and in turning IBM's advanced services methodologies into reusable assets.

IBM
IBM
Research's numerous contributions to physical and computer sciences include the Scanning Tunneling Microscope and high temperature superconductivity , both of which were awarded the Nobel Prize . IBM
IBM
Research was behind the inventions of the SABRE travel reservation system, the technology of laser eye surgery , magnetic storage, the relational database , UPC barcodes and Watson , the question-answering computing system that won a match against human champions on the Jeopardy! television quiz show. The Watson technology is now being commercialized as part of a project with healthcare company Anthem Inc. .

NOTABLE IBM
IBM
RESEARCH COMPUTER SCIENTISTS

There are a number of computer scientists "who made IBM
IBM
Research famous." These include Frances E. Allen
Frances E. Allen
, Marc Auslander, John Backus , Charles H. Bennett (computer scientist) , Erich Bloch , Grady Booch , Fred Brooks
Fred Brooks
(known for his book The Mythical Man-Month ), Peter Brown, Larry Carter, Gregory Chaitin , John Cocke , Alan Cobham, Edgar F. Codd , Don Coppersmith , Ronald Fagin , Horst Feistel , Jeanne Ferrante , Zvi Galil , Ralph E. Gomory , Jim Gray , Joseph Halpern , Kenneth E. Iverson , Frederick Jelinek , Reynold B. Johnson , Benoit Mandelbrot , Robert Mercer (businessman) , C. Mohan , Michael O. Rabin , Arthur Samuel , Alfred Spector , Moshe Vardi , John Vlissides , Mark N. Wegman and Shmuel Winograd .

OTHER NOTABLE DEVELOPMENTS

* Data Encryption Standard (DES) * Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) * Benoît B. Mandelbrot\'s introduction of Fractals * Magnetic disk storage (hard disks ) * One-transistor dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) * Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture * Relational databases * Deep Blue , a grandmaster -level chess -playing computer

LABORATORIES

NAME LOCATION FOUNDED

IBM
IBM
Research – Africa Nairobi
Nairobi
, Kenya
Kenya
2013

Johannesburg
Johannesburg
, South Africa
South Africa
2015

IBM
IBM
Research – Almaden Almaden Valley , San Jose, California 1986

IBM
IBM
Research – Austin Austin, Texas 1995

IBM
IBM
Research – Australia
Australia
Melbourne
Melbourne
, Australia
Australia
2011

IBM
IBM
Research – Brazil
Brazil
São Paulo
São Paulo
, Brazil
Brazil
2010

Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
, Brazil 2010

IBM
IBM
Research – China
China
Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
1995

Shanghai
Shanghai
, China 2008

IBM
IBM
Research – Haifa
Haifa
Haifa
Haifa
, Israel
Israel
1972

IBM
IBM
Research – India
India
Delhi , India
India
1998

Bangalore , India
India
1998

IBM
IBM
Research – Ireland
Ireland
Damastown , Ireland
Ireland
2011

IBM
IBM
Research – Thomas J. Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights , New York 1945

Albany , New York 2001

IBM
IBM
Research – Tokyo
Tokyo
Tokyo
Tokyo
, Japan
Japan
1982

IBM
IBM
Research – Zurich Rüschlikon , Switzerland
Switzerland
1956

HISTORIC RESEARCH CENTERS

* IBM
IBM
La Gaude , near Nice
Nice
, France * Cambridge Scientific Center * IBM
IBM
New York Scientific Center * 330 North Wabash in Chicago
Chicago
* IBM
IBM
Laboratory Vienna

PUBLICATIONS

* IBM
IBM
Journal of Research and Development

REFERENCES

* ^ "Labs and locations". IBM
IBM
Research. Retrieved 28 December 2016.

* ^ " IBM
IBM
Watson Laboratory at Columbia University". Columbia.edu. Retrieved 2010-05-05. * ^ A B Beatty, Jack, (editor) Colussus: how the corporation changed America, New York : Random House, 2001. ISBN 978-0-7679-0352-3 . Cf. chapter "Making the 'R' Yield 'D': The IBM
IBM
Labs" by Robert Buderi. * ^ A B IBM, "Watson Research Center: Watson Facility History" * ^ "Awards & Achievements". IBM. Retrieved 2012-05-23. * ^ " IBM
IBM
Inventors Receive Record-Breaking 8,000+ U.S. Patents
Patents
in 2016". IBM
IBM
(Press release). 9 January 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017. * ^ "History of progress". IBM
IBM
Research. Retrieved 28 December 2016. * ^ Browne, Malcolm W. (April 5, 1990). "2 Researchers Spell \'I.B.M.,\' Atom by Atom". New York Times. Archived from the original on 2009-08-03. * ^ "Computer scientists who made IBM
IBM
Research famous", IBM, 17 December 2012, retrieved 16 January 2016 * ^ Biography and oral history * ^ IBM
IBM
Archives * ^ Stanford Archives * ^ NNDB profile * ^ Columbia University
Columbia University
page * ^ New York Times obituary * ^ John Backus Memorial * ^ IBM
IBM
Archives * ^ Researcher personal page * ^ My developer Works blog * ^ Handbook of software architecture * ^ IEEE Software: On Architecture * ^ The Promise, The Limits, The Beauty of Software * ^ Master Planner: Fred Brooks
Fred Brooks
Shows How to Design Anything * ^ NNDB profile * ^ Innovator: Fred Brooks * ^ The Grill: Fred Brooks
Fred Brooks
(Computerworld) * ^ Business Insider (thumbnail) * ^ University of California, San Diego * ^ SIAM short course * ^ Recursivity (Blogspot) * ^ IBM
IBM
Corporation. "Some key dates in IBM\'s operations in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA)" (PDF). IBM
IBM
History. Retrieved July 24, 2016.

FURTHER READING

* Brennan, Jean Ford (1971). The IBM
IBM
Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History. IBM.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* IBM