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HYPOSTASIS (Greek : ὑπόστασις) is the underlying state or underlying substance and is the fundamental reality that supports all else. In Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
the hypostasis of the soul , the intellect (nous ) and the One was addressed by Plotinus
Plotinus
.

In Christian theology, a hypostasis or person is one of the three persons of the Trinity
Trinity
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Hellenic philosophy

* 2 Christian theology

* 2.1 Trinitarian definitions

* 3 See also * 4 References

HELLENIC PHILOSOPHY

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Aristotle
Aristotle
used hypostasis in reference to a material substratum underlying change in the unqualified sense of generation and corruption, and otherwise in reference to ousia or substance in a secondary sense for genera and species understood as hylomorphic forms . Primarily, however, he used it with regard to his category of substance , the specimen ("this person" or "this ox") or individual , qua individual, who survives accidental change and in whom the essential properties inhere that define those universals . In contrast, Plato
Plato
spoke of the objective reality of a thing or its inner reality as opposed to its outer appearance in the Allegory of the Cave .

Neoplatonists argue that beneath the surface phenomena that present themselves to our senses are three higher spiritual principles or hypostases, each one more sublime than the preceding. For Plotinus
Plotinus
, these are the soul or World- Soul
Soul
, being/intellect or Divine Mind ( Nous
Nous
), and the One.

CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY

See also: Trinity
Trinity
and Hypostatic union
Hypostatic union

In Early Christian
Early Christian
writings, hypostasis is used to denote "being" or "substantive reality" and is not always distinguished in meaning from ousia ('essence' or 'substance'). It was used in this way by Tatian and Origen
Origen
, and also in the anathemas appended to the Nicene Creed of 325.

TRINITARIAN DEFINITIONS

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It was mainly under the influence of the Cappadocian Fathers
Cappadocian Fathers
that the terminology was clarified and standardized, so that the formula "Three Hypostases in one Ousia" came to be accepted as an epitome of the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity. Specifically, Basil of Caesarea argues that the two terms are not synonymous and that they therefore are not to be used indiscriminately in referring to the Godhead. He writes:

The distinction between ousia and hypostases is the same as that between the general and the particular; as, for instance, between the animal and the particular man. Wherefore, in the case of the Godhead, we confess one essence or substance so as not to give variant definition of existence, but we confess a particular hypostasis, in order that our conception of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit may be without confusion and clear.

This consensus, however, was not achieved without some confusion at first in the minds of Western theologians since in the West the vocabulary was different. Many Latin-speaking theologians understood hypo-stasis as "sub-stantia" (substance); thus when speaking of three "hypostases" in the godhead , they might suspect three "substances" or tritheism . However, from the middle of the fifth century onwards, marked by Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
, the word came to be contrasted with ousia and used to mean "individual reality," especially in the trinitarian and Christological contexts. The Christian view of the Trinity
Trinity
is often described as a view of one God
God
existing in three distinct hypostases/personae/persons.

SEE ALSO

Look up HYPOSTASIS in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Christianity portal

* Haecceity - a term used by the followers of Duns Scotus
Duns Scotus
to refer to that which formally distinguishes one thing from another with a common nature * Hypokeimenon * Hypostatic union
Hypostatic union
* Instantiation principle * Noema – a similar term used by Edmund Husserl
Edmund Husserl
* Prakṛti
Prakṛti
– a similar term found in Hinduism
Hinduism
* Principle of individuation * Prosopon or persona * Reification (fallacy) * Substance theory

REFERENCES

* ^ The Encyclopedia Of Christianity Volume 5 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Jan Milic Lochman and John Mbiti (February 1, 2008) ISBN 080282417X page 543 * ^ Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
(Ancient Philosophies) by Pauliina Remes (Nov 4, 2008) Univ California Press ISBN 0520258347 pages 48-52 * ^ A B González, Justo L. (1987). A History of Christian Thought: From the Beginnings to the Council of Chalcedon. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press. p. 307. ISBN 0-687-17182-2 . * ^ González, Justo L (2005), "Hypostasis", Essential Theological Terms, Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, pp. 80–81, ISBN 978-0-664-22810-1

* v * t * e

Theology
Theology
: Outline

CONCEPTIONS OF GOD

THEISM

FORMS

* * Deism
Deism
* Dystheism * Henotheism * Hermeticism
Hermeticism
* Kathenotheism * Nontheism * Monolatrism
Monolatrism
* Monotheism
Monotheism
* Mysticism
Mysticism
* Panentheism * Pandeism
Pandeism
* Pantheism
Pantheism
* Polydeism * Polytheism
Polytheism
* Spiritualism
Spiritualism
* Theopanism

CONCEPTS

* * Deity
Deity
* Divinity
Divinity

* Gender of God
Gender of God
and gods

* Male deity * Goddess
Goddess

* Numen
Numen

Singular god theologies

BY FAITH

* Abrahamic religions

* Judaism * Christianity * Islam

* the Bahá\'í Faith * Buddhism * Hinduism
Hinduism
* Jainism * Sikhism * Zoroastrianism

CONCEPTS

* Absolute * Brahman
Brahman
* Emanationism * Logos
Logos
* Supreme Being

GOD AS

* the Devil * Sustainer * Time

TRINITARIANISM

* Athanasian Creed
Athanasian Creed
* Comma Johanneum
Comma Johanneum
* Consubstantiality * Homoousian * Homoiousian * Hypostasis * Perichoresis
Perichoresis
* Shield of the Trinity
Trinity
* Trinitarian formula
Trinitarian formula
* Trinity
Trinity
* Trinity
Trinity
of the Church Fathers * Trinitarian Universalism
Trinitarian Universalism

ESCHATOLOGY

* Afterlife
Afterlife
* Apocalypticism
Apocalypticism
* Buddhist * Christian * Heaven
Heaven
* Hindu * Islamic * Jewish * Taoist * Zoroastrian

FEMINIST

* Buddhism * Christianity * Hinduism
Hinduism
* Islam * Judaism * Mormonism * Goddesses

OTHER CONCEPTS

* The All
The All
* Aristotelian view * Attributes of God
God
in Christianity / in Islam * Binitarianism * Demiurge
Demiurge
* Divine simplicity
Divine simplicity
* Divine presence
Divine presence
* Egotheism * Exotheology * Holocaust

* Godhead in Christianity

* Latter Day Saints

* Great Architect of the Universe
Great Architect of the Universe
* Great Spirit
Great Spirit
* Apophatic theology
Apophatic theology
* Olelbis * Open theism * Personal god * Phenomenological definition * Philo\'s view * Process * Tian
Tian
* Unmoved mover

NAMES OF GOD IN

* Christianity * Hinduism
Hinduism
* Islam * Jainism * Judaism

BY FAITH

CHRISTIAN

* History * Outline * Biblical canon
Biblical canon
* Glossary * Christology
Christology
* Cosmology * Ecclesiology
Ecclesiology
* Ethics * Hamartiology * Messianism * Nestorianism
Nestorianism
* Philosophy * Practical * Sophiology
Sophiology
* Soteriology

HINDU

* Ayyavazhi theology
Ayyavazhi theology
* Krishnology

ISLAMIC

* Oneness of God
God
* Prophets * Holy Scriptures * Angels * Predestination * Last Judgment

JEWISH

* Abrahamic prophecy * Aggadah
Aggadah
* Denominations * Kabbalah * Philosophy

* v * t * e

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
philosophical concepts

* Adiaphora (nonmoral) * Anamnesis (recollection) * Apatheia (equanimity) * Apeiron (the unlimited) * Aponia (pleasure) * Aporia (impasse) * Arche (first principle) * Arete (excellence) * Ataraxia (tranquility) * Becoming * Being
Being
* Cosmos
Cosmos
(order) * Demiurge
Demiurge
(creator) * Diairesis (division) * Differentia / Genus * Doxa (common opinion) * Dunamis / Energeia (potentiality / actuality) * Episteme (knowledge) * Epoché (suspension) * Ethos
Ethos
(character) * Eudaimonia
Eudaimonia
(flourishing) * Henosis
Henosis
(oneness) * Hexis (active condition) * Hyle (matter) * Hylomorphism (matter and form) * Hylozoism (matter and life) * Hypokeimenon (substratum) * Hypostasis (underpinning) * Idee (Idea) * Katalepsis (comprehension) * Kathēkon (proper function) * Logos
Logos
(reasoned discourse) * Metempsychosis
Metempsychosis
(reincarnation) * Mimesis (imitation) * Monad (unit) * Nous
Nous
(intellect) * Oikeiôsis (affinity) * Ousia
Ousia
(substance) * Pathos (emotional) * Phronesis (practical wisdom) * Physis (natural law) * Sophia (wisdom)