The HYKSOS (/ˈhɪksɒs/ or /ˈhɪksoʊz/ ; Egyptian heqa khasut,
"ruler(s) of the foreign countries";
Ancient Greek : Ὑκσώς,
Ὑξώς) were a people of mixed origins from
Western Asia , who
settled in the eastern
Nile Delta , some time before 1650 BC. The
arrival of the
Hyksos led to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty of
Egypt and initiated the
Second Intermediate Period of Egypt
Second Intermediate Period of Egypt . In the
context of Ancient Egypt, the term "Asiatic" – which is often used
Hyksos – may refer to any people native to areas east of
Immigration by Canaanite populations preceded the Hyksos. Canaanites
first appeared in
Egypt towards the end of the 12th Dynasty c. 1800
BC, and either around that time or c. 1720 BC, established an
independent realm in the eastern Nile Delta. The Canaanite rulers of
the Delta, regrouped in the Fourteenth Dynasty , coexisted with the
Egyptian Thirteenth Dynasty , based in
Itjtawy . The power of the 13th
and 14th Dynasties progressively waned, perhaps due to famine and
In about 1650 BC, both dynasties were invaded by the Hyksos, who
formed the Fifteenth Dynasty . The collapse of the Thirteenth Dynasty
created a power vacuum in the south, which may have led to the rise of
the Sixteenth Dynasty , based in Thebes , and possibly of a local
Abydos Dynasty . The
Hyksos eventually conquered both, albeit for
only a short time in the case of Thebes. From then on, the 17th
Dynasty took control of Thebes and reigned for some time in peaceful
coexistence with the
Hyksos kings, perhaps as their vassals.
Seqenenre Tao ,
Kamose and Ahmose waged war against the
Hyksos and expelled
Khamudi , their last king, from
Egypt c. 1550 BC.
Hyksos practiced horse burials , and their chief deity, their
native storm god ,
Baal , became associated with the Egyptian storm
and desert god, Set . The
Hyksos were a people of mixed Asiatic
origin with mainly Semitic-speaking components. Although some
scholars have suggested that the
Hyksos contained a Hurrian component,
most other scholars have dismissed this possibility. The
Hurrians spoke an isolated language , but were under Indo-European
rule and influence, and Hurrian etymologies have been suggested for
Hyksos names while Indo-European etymologies have been suggested
for a very few names. If a Hurrian component did indeed exist among
the Hyksos, an Indo-European component becomes difficult to explain,
as Indo-European peoples only exercised a significant influence upon
Syria after the
Hyksos were well established in Egypt.
Hyksos brought several technical innovations to Egypt, as well as
cultural infusions such as new musical instruments and foreign
loanwords. The changes introduced include new techniques of bronze
working and pottery, new breeds of animals, and new crops. In
warfare, they introduced the horse and chariot , the composite bow ,
improved battle axes , and advanced fortification techniques. Because
of these cultural advances,
Hyksos rule became decisive for Egypt’s
later empire in the Middle East.
Origins of the Hyksos
Hyksos 15th Dynasty
* 3 Theoretical
* 4 Theban offensive
* 4.1 Under
* 4.2 Under
* 4.3 Under Ahmose
* 5 Later times
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 9 External links
ORIGINS OF THE HYKSOS
Origins of the Hyksos
There are various hypotheses as to the Hyksos' ethnic identity. Most
archaeologists describe the
Hyksos as multi-ethnic, to include all of
the peoples who occupied the Nile Delta.
The origin of the term "Hyksos" derives from the Egyptian expression
hekau khaswet ("rulers foreign lands"), used in Egyptian texts such
Turin King List
Turin King List to describe the rulers of neighbouring lands.
This expression begins to appear as early as the late Old Kingdom of
Egypt to refer to various Nubian chieftains and in the Middle Kingdom
to refer to the Semitic-speaking chieftains of
The German Egyptologist
Wolfgang Helck once argued that the Hyksos
were part of massive and widespread Hurrian and Indo-Aryan migrations
Near East . According to Helck, the
part of a Hurrian empire that, he claimed, extended over much of
Western Asia during this period. Most scholars have rejected this
theory, and Helck himself abandoned this hypothesis in a 1993 article.
Hyksos were likely Semites who came from the Eastern
Kamose , the last king of the Theban 17th Dynasty,
refers to Apepi as a "Chieftain of
Retjenu " in a stela that implies a
Canaanite background for this
Hyksos king: this is the strongest
evidence for a Canaanite background for the Hyksos.
Khyan 's name "has
generally been interpreted as Amorite "Hayanu" (reading h-ya-a-n)
which the Egyptian form represents perfectly, and this is in all
likelihood the correct interpretation."
Kim Ryholt furthermore
observes the name Hayanu is recorded in the Assyrian king-lists for a
"remote ancestor" of
Shamshi-Adad I (c. 1813 BC) of
Assyria , which
suggests that it had been used for centuries prior to Khyan's own
The issue of
Sakir-Har 's name, one of the three earliest Fifteenth
Dynasty kings, also leans towards a West Semitic or Canaanite origin
Hyksos rulers—if not the
Hyksos peoples themselves. As
Ryholt notes, the name SAKIR-HAR:
is evidently a theophorous name compounded with hr, Canaanite harru,
'mountain.' This sacred or deified mountain is attested in at least
two other names, both West Semitic (
Anat-her ), and so
there is reason to suspect that the present name also may be West
Semitic. The element skr seems identical to śkr, 'to hire, to
reward,' which occurs in several Amorite names. Assuming that śkr
takes a nominal form as in the names sa-ki-ru-um and sa-ka-ŕu-um, the
name should be transliterated as either
Sakir-Har or Sakar-Har. The
former two names presumably mean 'the Reward.' Accordingly, the name
here under consideration would mean 'Reward of Har.' —
As to a
Hyksos "conquest", some archaeologists depict the
“northern hordes . . . sweeping through
Egypt in swift
chariots”. Yet, others refer to a "creeping conquest", that is, a
gradual infiltration of migrating nomads or semi-nomads who either
slowly took over control of the country piecemeal or by a swift coup
d'état put themselves at the head of the existing government. In The
World of the Past (1963, p. 444), archeologist Jacquetta Hawkes
stated: “It is no longer thought that the
Hyksos rulers... represent
the invasion of a conquering horde of Asiatics... they were wandering
groups of Semites who had long come to
Egypt for trade and other
peaceful purposes.” However, since then, it has been acknowledged by
Egyptologists that the 14th Dynasty came for trade purposes while the
15th (the Hyksos) came in war.
Against Apion , the first-century AD historian Josephus
debates the synchronism between the Biblical account of the Exodus of
Egypt and two Exodus-like events that the Egyptian
Manetho apparently mentions. It is difficult to distinguish
Manetho himself recounted, and how
Josephus or Apion
Josephus identifies the Israelite Exodus with the first
exodus mentioned by Manetho, when some 480,000
Hyksos "shepherd kings"
(also referred to as just 'shepherds', as 'kings' and as 'captive
shepherds' in his discussion of Manetho) left
Egypt for Jerusalem.
The mention of "Hyksos" identifies this first exodus with the Hyksos
period (16th century BC).
Josephus provides the earliest recorded instance of the much repeated
false etymology of the term Hyksos, as a Hellenised form of the
Egyptian phrase Hekw
Shasu , meaning "Shepherd Kings". Scholars have
only recently shown that the term derives from heqa-khase, a phrase
meaning "rulers of foreign lands".
HYKSOS 15TH DYNASTY
Traditionally, only the Fifteenth Dynasty rulers are called Hyksos.
The Greek name "Hyksos" was coined by
Manetho to identify the
Fifteenth Dynasty of Asiatic rulers of northern Egypt. In Egyptian
Hyksos means "ruler(s) of foreign countries", however, Josephus
Hyksos as "Shepherd Kings".
Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt had also been West Asian and
Semitic-speaking ; however, its pharaohs did not style themselves
"Hyksos", and they seem to have been vassals of the Thirteenth Dynasty
who oversaw a community of Asiatic merchants and shepherds who had
been granted land in the Nile Delta. The Hyksos, by contrast, were
largely Amoritic invaders who, capitalizing on a weak moment in
Egypt's history, managed to conquer the entire country briefly as far
south as Thebes (under Khyan, ca. 1582 BC).
Hyksos had Canaanite names, as seen in those with names from
ancient Semitic religion such as
Baal . Several of their
pharaohs did in fact adopt the Egyptian title hekw chasut (foreign
overlords) for themselves, along with Egyptian throne names. They
introduced new tools of warfare into Egypt, most notably the composite
bow and the horse-drawn chariot .
The known rulers for the Fifteenth Dynasty are:
Named as an early
Hyksos king on a doorjamb found at
Regnal order uncertain.
c. 1620 BC
c. 1595 BC to 1555 BC?
c. 1555 BC to 1545 BC?
Hyksos kingdom was centered in the eastern
Nile Delta and Middle
Egypt and was limited in size, never extending south into Upper Egypt
, which was under the control of Theban -based rulers, except briefly,
for about three years, at the end of Khyan's reign and the beginning
of Aphophis'. The
Hyksos Fifteenth Dynasty rulers established their
capital and seat of government at
Avaris . An earlier group of
Asiatic peoples depicted entering
Egypt c. 1900 BC, from the tomb of a
Twelfth Dynasty official
Khnumhotep II under pharaoh
Senusret II at
Beni Hasan .
The rule of these kings overlaps with that of the native Egyptian
pharaohs of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Dynasties, better known as
the Second Intermediate Period . The first pharaoh of the Eighteenth
Ahmose I , finally expelled the
Hyksos from their last
Sharuhen in Gaza by the sixteenth year of his reign.
Scholars have taken the increasing use of scarabs and the adoption of
some Egyptian forms of art by the Fifteenth Dynasty
Hyksos kings and
their wide distribution as an indication of their becoming
progressively Egyptianized. The
Hyksos used Egyptian titles
associated with traditional Egyptian kingship, and took the Egyptian
god Set to represent their own titulary deity. The native Egyptians
Hyksos as non-Egyptian "invaders". When they were
eventually driven out of Egypt, all traces of their occupation were
erased. No accounts survive recording the history of the period from
Hyksos perspective, only that of the native
Egyptians who evicted
the occupiers, in this case the rulers of the Eighteenth Dynasty who
were the direct successor of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. It was
the latter who started and led a sustained war against the Hyksos.
Some think that the native kings from Thebes had an incentive to
demonize the Asiatic rulers in the North, thus accounting for the
destruction of their monuments. Scholars such as John A. Wilson found
that the description of the
Hyksos as overpowering, irreligious
foreign rulers had support from other sources.
The independent native rulers in Thebes do seem, however, to have
reached a practical modus vivendi with the later
Hyksos rulers. This
included transit rights through Hyksos-controlled Middle and Lower
Egypt and pasturage rights in the fertile Delta. One text, the
Carnarvon Tablet I, relates the misgivings of the Theban ruler’s
council of advisors when
Kamose proposed moving against the Hyksos,
whom he claimed were a humiliating stain upon the holy land of Egypt.
The councilors clearly did not wish to disturb the status quo:
e are at ease in our (part of) Egypt.
Elephantine (at the First
Cataract) is strong, and the middle (of the land) is with us as far as
Cusae . The sleekest of their fields are plowed for us, and our cattle
are pastured in the Delta. Emmer is sent for our pigs. Our cattle have
not been taken away… He holds the land of the Asiatics; we hold
THEORETICAL HYKSOS INVASION
Hyksos invasion as imagined in the 19th century, by Hermann
Manetho's account, as recorded by Josephus, describes the appearance
Egypt as an armed invasion by a horde of foreign
barbarians who met little resistance, and who subdued the country by
military force. He records that the
Hyksos burnt their cities,
destroyed temples, and led women and children into slavery.
It has been claimed that new revolutionary methods of warfare
Hyksos the ascendancy in their influx into the new emporia
being established in Egypt's delta and at Thebes in support of the Red
Herbert Eustis Winlock describes new military hardware,
such as the composite bow, as well as the improved recurve bow , and
most importantly the horse-drawn war chariot , as well as improved
arrowheads, various kinds of swords and daggers, a new type of shield,
mailed shirts , and the metal helmet.
In recent years the idea of a simple
Hyksos migration, with little or
no war, has gained support. According to this theory, the Egyptian
rulers of the Thirteenth Dynasty were preoccupied with domestic famine
and plague, and they were too weak to stop the new migrants from
entering and settling in Egypt. Even before the migration, Amenemhat
III carried out extensive building works and mining, and Gae Callender
notes that "the large intake of Asiatics, which seems to have occurred
partly in order to subsidize the extensive building work, may have
encouraged the so-called
Hyksos to settle in the delta, thus leading
eventually to the collapse of native Egyptian rule."
By around 1700 BC (just over a hundred years later),
fragmenting politically, with local kingdoms springing up in the
northeastern delta area. One of these was that of King Nehesy, whose
capital was at Avaris; he ruled over a population consisting largely
of Syro-Canaanites who had settled in the area during the 12th
Dynasty, and who were probably mainly soldiers, sailors, shipbuilders
and workmen. His dynasty was probably replaced by a
West-Semitic-speaking Syro-Canaanite dynasty that formed the basis of
Hyksos kingdom, able to spread southwards because of the
unstable political situation while aided by "an army, ships, and
Josephus, quoting from the work of the historian Manetho, described
more of an Egyptian assimilation to the corrupt ways of the emporia,
followed by a rebellion of those who wished to perpetuate native
Egyptian centered culture, rather than any kind of military struggle.
By main force they easily seized it without striking a blow; and
having overpowered the rulers of the land, they then burned our cities
ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of gods… Finally, they
appointed as king one of their number whose name was
Salitis . He had
his seat at Memphis, levying tribute from Upper and
Lower Egypt and
always leaving garrisons behind in the most advantageous positions.
Recent archaeological finds at
Edfu could perhaps establish that the
Hyksos 15th Dynasty was already in existence at least by the mid-13th
Dynasty reign of king
Sobekhotep IV . In a 2011 paper by Nadine
Moeller, Gregory Marouard and N. Ayers, these three scholars discuss
the discovery of an important early-12th Dynasty (Middle Kingdom)
administrative building in the eastern Tell
Edfu area of
Upper Egypt ,
which was in continual use into the early Second Intermediate Period
until the Seventeenth Dynasty, when its remains were sealed up by a
large silo court. Fieldwork by these Egyptologists in 2010 and 2011
led to the discovery of a large adjoining hall which proved to contain
41 sealings showing the cartouche of the
with 9 sealings naming the 13th Dynasty king Sobekhotep IV. The
secure and sealed contexts of these seals likely demonstrate that
Sobekhotep IV and
Khyan were contemporaries. This would mean that the
13th Dynasty did not control all of
Sobekhotep IV acceded
to power and that there was a significant overlap between the 13th and
15th Dynasties since
Sobekhotep IV was only a mid-Thirteenth Dynasty
ruler – although one of its most powerful kings. Therefore,
Manetho's statement that the
Hyksos Fifteenth Dynasty violently
replaced the Thirteenth Dynasty would appear as a piece of later
Egyptian propaganda. This analysis of the discoveries in
Edfu as well
as the conclusions drawn from it are rejected by Robert Porter
however, who argues that
Khyan ruled much later than
Sobekhotep IV and
that the seals of a pharaoh were used even long after his death.
The ceramic evidence in the Memphis-
Faiyum region of
Lower Egypt also
argues against the presence of new invading foreigners. Janine
Bourriau's excavation in Memphis of ceramic material retrieved from
Dahshur during the Second Intermediate Period shows a
continuity of Middle Kingdom ceramic type wares throughout this era.
She finds in them no evidence of intrusion of Hyksos-style wares.
Bourriau's evidence strongly suggests that the traditional Egyptian
teaching, long espoused by Manetho, that the
Hyksos invaded and sacked
the Memphite region and imposed their authority there, is fictitious.
Not until the beginning of the Theban wars of liberation during the
Seventeenth Dynasty are Theban wares again found in the Faiyum. Some
texts indicate that while the
Hyksos controlled the delta region
administratively, the Thebans were too busy mining gold and making
money off the Red Sea trade to care.
Lower Egypt and Thebes functioned
autonomously, and shared limited contact with each other.
Bourriau argues that Manetho's description of
Hyksos rule is
confirmed by the evidence in the
Kamose texts: Kamose's rejection of
vassal status, the strict control of the border at Cusae, the
imposition of taxes on all Nile traffic, and the existence of
garrisons of Asiatics led by Egyptian commanders.
By the Thirteenth Dynasty, the "foreign warlords" had taken the title
pharaoh for themselves and had begun to fight over it. Some argued
there was no need to pay tribute, homage or obedience to a weak king,
and that began to cause problems.
Supporters of the peaceful takeover of
Egypt claim there is little
evidence of battles or wars in general in this period. They also
maintain that the chariot didn't play any relevant role, e.g. no
traces of chariots have been found at the
Hyksos capital of Avaris,
despite extensive excavation.
As the chariot became an important weapon of the nobles and kings of
that period, it became a symbol of power throughout
Mycenaean Greece ,
Eastern Europe and
Kings were portrayed on chariots, went to war in chariots, and were
buried in chariots.
UNDER SEQENENRE TAO
Mummified head of
Seqenenre Tao , bearing axe wounds. The common
theory is that he died in a battle against the Hyksos.
The revolt which drove the
Upper Egypt began in the
closing years of the Seventeenth Dynasty at Thebes. Later New Kingdom
literary tradition has brought one of these Theban kings, Seqenenre
Tao , into contact with his
Hyksos contemporary in the north, Apepi
(also known as Apophis). The tradition took the form of a tale in
Hyksos king Apepi sent a messenger to Seqenenre in Thebes to
demand that the Theban sport of harpooning hippopotami be done away
with; his excuse was that the noise of these beasts was such that he
was unable to sleep in faraway Avaris. The real reason was probably
that their main god was Set, who was represented as part man, part
Jan Assmann argues that because the Ancient Egyptians
could never conceive of a "lonely" god lacking personality, Set the
desert god, who was worshipped exclusively according to the tale,
represented a manifestation of evil. Perhaps the only historical
information that can be gleaned from the tale is that
Egypt was a
divided land, the area of direct
Hyksos control being in the north,
but the whole of
Egypt possibly paying tribute to the
Seqenenre participated in active diplomatic posturing, which probably
consisted of more than simply exchanging insults with the Asiatic
ruler in the North. He seems to have led military skirmishes against
the Hyksos, and judging by the vicious head wounds on his mummy in the
Egyptian Museum in Cairo, he may have died during one of them. His son
Kamose , the last ruler of the Seventeenth Dynasty at
Thebes, is credited with the first significant victories in the
Theban-led war against the Hyksos.
Scarab bearing the name of the
Hyksos King Apepi, now at the
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Kamose sailed north from Thebes at the head of his army in his third
regnal year. He surprised and overran the southernmost garrison of the
Hyksos at Nefrusy, just north of Cusae (near modern
Asyut ), and
Kamose then led his army as far north as the neighborhood of Avaris
itself. Though the city was not taken, the fields around it were
devastated by the Thebans. A second stele discovered at Thebes
continues the account of the war broken off on the
Carnarvon Tablet I,
and mentions the interception and capture of a courier bearing a
message from Apepi at
Avaris to his ally, the ruler of the Kingdom of
Kush (modern Sudan), requesting the latter's urgent support against
the threat posed by Kamose's activities against both their kingdoms.
Kamose promptly ordered a detachment of his troops to occupy the
Bahariya Oasis in the
Libyan Desert to control and block the desert
route to the south. Kamose, called "the Strong," then sailed back up
the Nile to Thebes for a joyous victory celebration, after what was
probably not much more than a surprise spoiling raid in force that
Hyksos off guard. His Year Three is the only date attested
Kamose and he may have died shortly after the battle from wounds.
By the end of the reign of Apepi, perhaps the second-to-last Hyksos
king of the Fifteenth Dynasty, the
Hyksos had been routed from Middle
Egypt and had retreated northward and regrouped in the vicinity of the
entrance of the
Atfih . This Fifteenth Dynasty pharaoh had
outlived his first Egyptian contemporary, Seqenenra Tao II, and was
still on the throne (albeit of a much reduced kingdom) at the end of
Kamose's reign. The last
Hyksos ruler of the Fifteenth Dynasty,
Khamudi, undoubtedly had a relatively short reign that fell within the
first half of the reign of
Ahmose I , Kamose's successor and the
founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
Close-up of a drawing of axe blade depicting
Ahmose I striking
Hyksos Warrior, part of the burial equipment of Queen Ahhotep I
Ahmose I, who is regarded as the first pharaoh of the Eighteenth
Egypt may have been on the Theban throne for some time
before he resumed the war against the Hyksos.
The details of his military campaigns are taken from the account on
the walls of the tomb of
Ahmose, son of Ebana , a soldier from El-Kab
, a town in southern Upper Egypt, whose father had served under
Seqenenra Tao, and whose family had long been nomarchs of the
districts. It seems that several campaigns against the stronghold at
Avaris were needed before the
Hyksos were finally dislodged and driven
from Lower Egypt. When this occurred is not known with certainty. Some
authorities place the expulsion as early as Ahmose's fourth year,
Donald B. Redford , whose chronological structure has been
adopted here, places it as late as the king's fifteenth year. The
Ahmose who left the inscription states that he followed on foot as his
King Ahmose rode to war in his chariot (the first mention of the use
of the horse and chariot by the Egyptians); in the fighting around
Avaris he captured prisoners and carried off several hands (as proof
of slain enemies), which when reported to the royal herald resulted in
his being awarded the "Gold of Valor" on three separate occasions. The
actual fall of
Avaris is only briefly mentioned: "Then
despoiled. Then I carried off spoil from there: one man, three women,
a total of four persons. Then his majesty gave them to me to be
After the fall of Avaris, the fleeing
Hyksos were pursued by the
Egyptian army across northern
Sinai Peninsula and into the southern
Levant. Here, in the
Negev desert between
Rafah and Gaza , the
fortified town of
Sharuhen was reduced after, according to the soldier
from El-Kab, a long three-year siege operation. How soon after the
Avaris this Asiatic campaign took place is uncertain. One can
reasonably conclude that the thrust into southern
followed the Hyksos’ eviction from
Avaris fairly closely, but, given
a period of protracted struggle before
Avaris fell and possibly more
than one season of campaigning before the
Hyksos were shut up in
Sharuhen , the chronological sequence must remain uncertain.
Hyksos continued to play a role in Egyptian literature as a
synonym for "Asiatic" down to Hellenistic times. The term was
frequently evoked against such groups as the Semites settled in Aswan
or the delta, and this may have led the Egyptian priest and historian
Manetho to identify the coming of the
Hyksos with the sojourn in Egypt
of Joseph and his brothers, and led to some authors identifying the
expulsion of the
Hyksos with the Exodus . With the chaos at the end of
the 19th Dynasty, the first pharaohs of the 20th Dynasty in the
Elephantine Stele and the Harris Papyrus reinvigorated an anti-Hyksos
stance to strengthen their nativist reaction towards the Asiatic
settlers of the north, who may again have been expelled from the
Setnakht , the founder of the 20th Dynasty, records in a Year
2 stela from
Elephantine that he defeated and expelled a large force
of Asiatics who had invaded
Egypt during the chaos between the end of
Twosret 's reign and the beginning of the 20th Dynasty and captured
much of their stolen gold and silver booty.
The story of the
Hyksos was known to the Greeks, who attempted to
identify it within their own mythology with the expulsion from Egypt
of Belos (
Baal ? ) and the daughters of
Danaos , associated with the
origin of the Argive Dynasty.
Near East portal
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* ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt, p.193. Librairie
Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
* ^ Redford, Donald B. History and Chronology of the 18th Dynasty
of Egypt: Seven Studies, pp.46–49. University of Toronto Press,
* ^ Booth, Charlotte. The
Hyksos Period in Egypt. p.15-18. Shire
Egyptology. 2005. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1
* ^ Booth, Charlotte. The
Hyksos Period in Egypt. p.29-31. Shire
Egyptology. 2005. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1
* ^ cf. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, editor Ian Shaw, p.
186, Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-19-280293-3
* ^ The Culture of Ancient Egypt, John Albert Wilson, p. 160,
University of Chicago Press, org. pub 1956 -still in print 2009, ISBN
* ^ Pritchard (ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old
Testament (ANET), pp 232f.
* ^ History of
Egypt from the Earliest Time to the Persian
James Henry Breasted
James Henry Breasted , p. 216, republished 2003, ISBN
* ^ A B Winlock, Herbert E., The Rise and Fall of the Middle
Kingdom in Thebes.
* ^ Booth, Charlotte. The
Hyksos Period in Egypt. p.10. Shire
Egyptology, 2005. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1
* ^ Callender, Gae, "The Middle Kingdom Renaissance," in Ian Shaw,
ed. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, 2003
ISBN 978-0-19-280458-7 p. 157
* ^ A B Bietak, Manfred "Second Intermediate Period, overview" in
Kathryn Bard, ed., Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt
Routledge 1999 ISBN 0-415-18589-0 p57
* ^ Flavius Josephus, Against Apion, I:75–77
* ^ Nadine Moeller, Gregory Marouard & N. Ayers, Discussion of Late
Middle Kingdom and Early Second Intermediate Period History and
Chronology in Relation to the Khayan Sealings from Tell Edfu, in:
Egypt and the Levant 21 (2011), pp.87-121 online PDF
* ^ Moeller, Marouard & Ayers,
Egypt and the Levant 21, (2011),
* ^ Robert M. Porter: The Second Intermediate Period according to
Edfu, Goettinger Mizsellen 239 (2013), p. 75-80
* ^ The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological Perspectives, ed.
Eliezer Oren, University of Pennsylvania 1997. cf. Janine Bourriau's
chapter of the archaeological evidence covers pages 159-182
* ^ James K. Hoffmeier, Book Review of The Hyksos: New Historical
and Archaeological Perspectives, ed. Eliezer Oren, University of
Pennsylvania 1997. in JEA 90 (2004), p.27
* ^ The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, editor Ian Shaw, p. 195,
Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-19-280293-3
* ^ Booth, Charlotte. The
Hyksos Period in Egypt. p.10. Shire
Egyptology. 2005. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1
* ^ Bard, Kathryn (1999). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of
Ancient Egypt. Routledge. p. 225. ISBN 978-0-415-18589-9 .
* ^ Of God and Gods, Jan Assmann, p47-48, University of Wisconsin
Press, 2008, ISBN 0-299-22550-X
* ^ ANET, p.233f
* ^ E.g. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca ,2.1.4.
Karl Kerenyi , The Heroes of the Greeks 1959 (1974:30): "Belos,
whose name reproduces the Phoenician Ba'al, 'Lord'".
* Aharoni, Yohanan and Michael Avi-Yonah, The MacMillan Bible Atlas,
Revised Edition, pp. 30–31 (1968 & 1977 by Carta Ltd.).
* von Beckerath, Jürgen . Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte
der zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten (1965) . Basic to any study of
* Bietak M., Avaris, the Capital of the Hyksos. Recent Excavations
at Tell el-Dab'a, 1996
* Bimson, John J. Redating the Exodus. Sheffield, England: Sheffield
Academic Press, 1981. ISBN 0-907459-04-8
* Bright, John (2000). "A History of Israel". Westminster John Knox
Press . Retrieved 12 July 2015.
Charlotte Booth : The
Hyksos period in Egypt. Princes Risborough,
Shire 2005. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1
* Drews, Robert (1 October 1994). "The Coming of the Greeks:
Indo-European Conquests in the Aegean and the Near East". Princeton
University Press . Retrieved 10 July 2015.
* Gardiner, Sir Alan.
Egypt of the Pharaohs (1964, 1961). Still the
classic work in English. See pp. 61–71 for his examination of
* Gibson, David J., Whence Came the Hyksos, Kings of Egypt?, 1962
* Hayes, William C. "Chronology: Egypt—To End of Twentieth
Dynasty," in Chapter 6, Volume 1 of The Cambridge Ancient History,
Revised Edition. Cambridge, 1964. With excellent bibliography up to
1964. This is CAH’s chronology volume: A basic work.
* Hayes, William C. "Egypt: From the Death of Ammenemes III to
Seqenenre II," in Chapter 2, Volume 2 of The Cambridge Ancient
History, Revised Edition (1965) (Fascicle 6).
* Helck, Wolfgang. Die Beziehungen Ägyptens zu Vorderasien im 3.
und 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr. (1962) . An important review article that
should be consulted is by William A. Ward, in Orientalia 33 (1964),
* Hornung, Erik. Untersuchungen zur Chronologie und Geschichte des
Neuen Reiches (1964) . With an excellent fold-out comparative
chronological table at the back with 18th, 19th, and 20th Dynasty
* James, T.G.H. "Egypt: From the Expulsion of the
Amenophis I," in Chapter 2, Volume 2 of The Cambridge Ancient History,
Revised Edition (1965) (Fascicle 34).
* Montet, Pierre. Eternal
Egypt (1964). Translated by Doreen
* Eliezer D. Oren (Hrsg.): The Hyksos, new historical and
archaeological perspectives. Kongressbericht. University Museum
Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 1997. ISBN
* Pritchard, James B. (Editor). Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating
to the Old Testament (ANET), 3rd edition. (1969). This edition has an
extensive supplement at the back containing additional translations.
The standard collection of excellent English translations of ancient
Near Eastern texts.
* Redford, Donald B. History and Chronology of the Eighteenth
Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studies. (1967).
* Redford, Donald B. "The
Hyksos Invasion in History and Tradition,"
Orientalia 39 (1970), 1-52.
* Redford Donald B. Egypt,
Israel in ancient times, 1992
* K. Ryholt . The Political Situation in
Egypt during the Second
Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C. (1997) by Museum Tuscalanum
* Säve-Söderbergh, T. "The
Hyksos Rule in Egypt," Journal of
Egyptian Archaeology 37 (1951), pp. 53–71.
* Van Seters, John. The Hyksos: A New Investigation (1967). Two
reviews of this volume should be consulted: Kitchen, Kenneth A.
"Further Notes on New Kingdom Chronology and History," in Chronique
d’Égypte XLIII, No. 86, 1968, pp. 313–324; and Simpson, William
J. Review, in Journal of the American Oriental Society 90 (1970), pp.
* Winlock, H. E. The Rise and Fall of the Middle Kingdom in Thebes
(1947). Still a classic with much important information.
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* The Hyksos, Kings of Egypt