HOME
The Info List - Hydrogen Chloride


--- Advertisement ---



Hydrochloric gas Hydrochloride

Identifiers

CAS Number

7647-01-0 Y

3D model (JSmol)

Interactive image

Beilstein Reference

1098214

ChEBI

CHEBI:17883 Y

ChEMBL

ChEMBL1231821 N

ChemSpider

307 Y

ECHA InfoCard 100.028.723

EC Number 231-595-7

Gmelin Reference

322

KEGG

D02057 Y

MeSH Hydrochloric+acid

RTECS number MW4025000

UNII

QTT17582CB Y

UN number 1050

InChI

InChI=1S/HCl/h1H N Key: VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-N Y

InChI=1/HCl/h1H Key: VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYAT

SMILES

Cl

Properties

Chemical formula

HCl

Molar mass 36.46 g/mol

Appearance Colorless gas

Odor pungent; sharp and burning

Density 1.49 g L−1[2]

Melting point −114.22 °C (−173.60 °F; 158.93 K)

Boiling point −85.05 °C (−121.09 °F; 188.10 K)

Solubility
Solubility
in water

823 g/L (0 °C) 720 g/L (20 °C) 561 g/L (60 °C)

Solubility soluble in methanol, ethanol, ether

Vapor pressure 4352 kPa (at 21.1 °C)[3]

Acidity (pKa) -3.0;[4] -5.9 (±0.4) [5]

Basicity (pKb) 17.0

Refractive index
Refractive index
(nD)

1.0004456 (gas) 1.254 (liquid)

Viscosity 0.311 cP (−100 °C)

Structure

Molecular shape

linear

Dipole moment

1.05 D

Thermochemistry

Specific heat capacity (C)

0.7981 J K−1 g−1

Std molar entropy (So298)

186.902 J K−1 mol−1

Std enthalpy of formation (ΔfHo298)

 –92.31 kJ mol−1

Std enthalpy of combustion (ΔcHo298)

 –95.31 kJ mol−1

Pharmacology

ATC code

A09AB03 (WHO) B05XA13 (WHO)

Hazards

Safety data sheet JT Baker MSDS

GHS pictograms

GHS signal word Danger

GHS hazard statements

H280, H314, H331

GHS precautionary statements

P261, P280, P305+351+338, P310, P410+403

NFPA 704

0 3 1 ACID

Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):

LD50 (median dose)

238 mg/kg (rat, oral)

LC50 (median concentration)

3124 ppm (rat, 1 hr) 1108 ppm (mouse, 1 hr)[7]

LCLo (lowest published)

1300 ppm (human, 30 min) 4416 ppm (rabbit, 30 min) 4416 ppm (guinea pig, 30 min) 3000 ppm (human, 5 min)[7]

US health exposure limits (NIOSH):

PEL (Permissible)

C 5 ppm (7 mg/m3)[6]

REL (Recommended)

C 5 ppm (7 mg/m3)[6]

IDLH
IDLH
(Immediate danger)

50 ppm[6]

Related compounds

Related compounds

Hydrogen
Hydrogen
fluoride Hydrogen
Hydrogen
bromide Hydrogen
Hydrogen
iodide Hydrogen
Hydrogen
astatide

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

N verify (what is YN ?)

Infobox references

The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula HCl and as such is a hydrogen halide. At room temperature, it is a colorless gas, which forms white fumes of hydrochloric acid upon contact with atmospheric water vapor. Hydrogen
Hydrogen
chloride gas and hydrochloric acid are important in technology and industry. Hydrochloric acid, the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride, is also commonly given the formula HCl.

Contents

1 Chemistry

1.1 Structure and properties

2 Production

2.1 Direct synthesis 2.2 Organic synthesis 2.3 Laboratory methods

3 Applications 4 History 5 Safety 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Chemistry[edit]

Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
fumes turning pH paper red showing that the fumes are acidic

Hydrogen
Hydrogen
chloride is a diatomic molecule, consisting of a hydrogen atom H and a chlorine atom Cl connected by a polar covalent bond. The chlorine atom is much more electronegative than the hydrogen atom, which makes this bond polar. Consequently, the molecule has a large dipole moment with a negative partial charge (δ−) at the chlorine atom and a positive partial charge (δ+) at the hydrogen atom.[8] In part because of its high polarity, HCl is very soluble in water (and in other polar solvents). It is polar covalent instead of Ionic because the differences in hydrogen and chlorines electronegativity is small enough that a complete ionic bond doesn't form. Any electronegativity between .6 and 1.67 creates a polar covalent bond. Upon contact, H2O and HCl combine to form hydronium cations H3O+ and chloride anions Cl− through a reversible chemical reaction:

HCl + H2O → H3O+ + Cl−

The resulting solution is called hydrochloric acid and is a strong acid. The acid dissociation or ionization constant, Ka, is large, which means HCl dissociates or ionizes practically completely in water. Even in the absence of water, hydrogen chloride can still act as an acid. For example, hydrogen chloride can dissolve in certain other solvents such as methanol and protonate molecules or ions, and can also serve as an acid-catalyst for chemical reactions where anhydrous (water-free) conditions are desired.

HCl + CH3OH → CH3O+H2 + Cl−

Because of its acidic nature, hydrogen chloride is a corrosive substance, particularly in the presence of moisture. Structure and properties[edit]

The structure of solid DCl, as determined by neutron diffraction of DCl powder at 77 K. DCl was used instead of HCl because the deuterium nucleus is easier to detect than the hydrogen nucleus. The "infinite" chains of DCl are indicated by the dashed lines.

Frozen HCl undergoes phase transition at 98.4 K. X-ray powder diffraction of the frozen material shows that the material changes from an orthorhombic structure to a cubic one during this transition. In both structures the chlorine atoms are in a face-centered array. However, the hydrogen atoms could not be located.[9] Analysis of spectroscopic and dielectric data, and determination of the structure of DCl (deuterium chloride) indicates that HCl forms zigzag chains in the solid, as does HF (see figure on right).[10]

Solubility
Solubility
of HCl (g/L) in common solvents[11]

Temperature (°C) 0 20 30 50

Water 823 720 673 596

Methanol 513 470 430

Ethanol 454 410 381

Ether 356 249 195

Infrared (IR) absorption spectrum

One doublet in the IR spectrum resulting from the isotopic composition of chlorine

The infrared spectrum of gaseous hydrogen chloride, shown on the left, consists of a number of sharp absorption lines grouped around 2886 cm−1 (wavelength ~3.47 µm). At room temperature, almost all molecules are in the ground vibrational state v = 0. Including anharmonicity the vibrational energy can be written as.

E

v i b

= h

ν

e

(

v +

1 2

)

+ h

x

e

ν

e

(

v +

1 2

)

2

displaystyle E_ mathrm vib =hnu _ e cdot left(v+ tfrac 1 2 right)+hx_ e nu _ e cdot left(v+ tfrac 1 2 right)^ 2

To promote an HCl molecule from the v = 0 to the v = 1 state, we would expect to see an infrared absorption about νo = νe + 2xeνe = 2880 cm−1. However, this absorption corresponding to the Q-branch is not observed due to it being forbidden by symmetry. Instead, two sets of signals (P- and R-branches) are seen owing to a simultaneous change in the rotational state of the molecules. Because of quantum mechanical selection rules, only certain rotational transitions are permitted. The states are characterized by the rotational quantum number J = 0, 1, 2, 3, ... selection rules state that ΔJ is only able to take values of ±1.

E ( J

)

r o t

= h ⋅ B ⋅ J ( J + 1 )

displaystyle E(J)_ mathrm rot =hcdot Bcdot J(J+1)

The value of the rotational constant B is much smaller than the vibrational one νo, such that a much smaller amount of energy is required to rotate the molecule; for a typical molecule, this lies within the microwave region. However, the vibrational energy of HCl molecule places its absorptions within the infrared region, allowing a spectrum showing the rovibrational transitions of this molecule to be easily collected using an infrared spectrometer with a gas cell. The latter can even be made of quartz as the HCl absorption lies in a window of transparency for this material. Naturally abundant chlorine consists of two isotopes, 35Cl and 37Cl, in a ratio of approximately 3:1. While the spring constants are identical within experimental error, the reduced masses are different causing measurable differences in the rotational energy, thus doublets are observed on close inspection of each absorption line, weighted in the same ratio of 3:1.

Production[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Most hydrogen chloride produced on an industrial scale is used for hydrochloric acid production. Direct synthesis[edit]

Play media

Flame inside HCl oven

In the chlor-alkali industry, brine (mixture of sodium chloride and water) solution is electrolyzed producing chlorine (Cl2), sodium hydroxide, and hydrogen (H2):

2 NaCl + 2 H2O → Cl2 + 2 NaOH + H2

The pure chlorine gas can be combined with hydrogen to produce hydrogen chloride in the presence of UV light:

Cl2(g) + H2(g) → 2 HCl(g)

As the reaction is exothermic, the installation is called an HCl oven or HCl burner. The resulting hydrogen chloride gas is absorbed in deionized water, resulting in chemically pure hydrochloric acid. This reaction can give a very pure product, e.g. for use in the food industry. Organic synthesis[edit] The largest production of hydrochloric acid is integrated with the formation of chlorinated and fluorinated organic compounds, e.g., Teflon, Freon, and other CFCs, as well as chloroacetic acid and PVC. Often this production of hydrochloric acid is integrated with captive use of it on-site. In the chemical reactions, hydrogen atoms on the hydrocarbon are replaced by chlorine atoms, whereupon the released hydrogen atom recombines with the spare atom from the chlorine molecule, forming hydrogen chloride. Fluorination is a subsequent chlorine-replacement reaction, producing again hydrogen chloride:

R−H + Cl2 → R−Cl + HCl R−Cl + HF → R−F + HCl

The resulting hydrogen chloride gas is either reused directly or absorbed in water, resulting in hydrochloric acid of technical or industrial grade. Laboratory methods[edit] Small amounts of HCl gas for laboratory use can be generated in an HCl generator by dehydrating hydrochloric acid with either sulfuric acid or anhydrous calcium chloride. Alternatively, HCl can be generated by the reaction of sulfuric acid with sodium chloride:[12]

NaCl + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + HCl

This reaction occurs at room temperature. Provided there is NaCl remaining in the generator and it is heated above 200 °C, the reaction proceeds further:

NaCl + NaHSO4 → HCl + Na2SO4

For such generators to function, the reagents should be dry. HCl can also be prepared by the hydrolysis of certain reactive chloride compounds such as phosphorus chlorides, thionyl chloride (SOCl2), and acyl chlorides. For example, cold water can be gradually dripped onto phosphorus pentachloride (PCl5) to give HCl:

PCl5 + H2O → POCl3 + 2 HCl

High-purity streams of the gas require lecture bottles or cylinders, both of which can be expensive. In comparison, the use of a generator requires only apparatus and materials commonly available in a laboratory. Applications[edit] Most hydrogen chloride is used in the production of hydrochloric acid. It is also an important reagent in other industrial chemical transformations, e.g.:

Hydrochlorination of rubber Production of vinyl and alkyl chlorides

In the semiconductor industry, it is used to both etch semiconductor crystals and to purify silicon via trichlorosilane (SiHCl3). It may also be used to treat cotton to delint it, and to separate it from wool.[citation needed] In the laboratory, anhydrous forms of the gas are particularly useful for generating chloride-based Lewis acids, which must be absolutely dry for their Lewis sites to function. It can also be used to dry the corresponding hydrated forms of these materials by passing it over as they are heated; the materials would otherwise fume HCl gas themselves and decompose. Neither can these hydrates be dried using standard desiccator methods. History[edit] Alchemists of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
recognized that hydrochloric acid (then known as spirit of salt or acidum salis) released vaporous hydrogen chloride, which was called marine acid air. In the 17th century, Johann Rudolf Glauber
Johann Rudolf Glauber
used salt (sodium chloride) and sulfuric acid for the preparation of sodium sulfate, releasing hydrogen chloride gas (see production, below). In 1772, Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
also reported this reaction and is sometimes credited with its discovery. Joseph Priestley prepared hydrogen chloride in 1772, and in 1810 Humphry Davy established that it is composed of hydrogen and chlorine.[13] During the Industrial Revolution, demand for alkaline substances such as soda ash increased, and Nicolas Leblanc
Nicolas Leblanc
developed a new industrial-scale process for producing the soda ash. In the Leblanc process, salt was converted to soda ash, using sulfuric acid, limestone, and coal, giving hydrogen chloride as by-product. Initially, this gas was vented to air, but the Alkali Act of 1863 prohibited such release, so then soda ash producers absorbed the HCl waste gas in water, producing hydrochloric acid on an industrial scale. Later, the Hargreaves process was developed, which is similar to the Leblanc process
Leblanc process
except sulfur dioxide, water, and air are used instead of sulfuric acid in a reaction which is exothermic overall. In the early 20th century the Leblanc process
Leblanc process
was effectively replaced by the Solvay process, which did not produce HCl. However, hydrogen chloride production continued as a step in hydrochloric acid production. Historical uses of hydrogen chloride in the 20th century include hydrochlorinations of alkynes in producing the chlorinated monomers chloroprene and vinyl chloride, which are subsequently polymerized to make polychloroprene (Neoprene) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), respectively. In the production of vinyl chloride, acetylene (C2H2) is hydrochlorinated by adding the HCl across the triple bond of the C2H2 molecule, turning the triple into a double bond, yielding vinyl chloride. The "acetylene process", used until the 1960s for making chloroprene, starts out by joining two acetylene molecules, and then adds HCl to the joined intermediate across the triple bond to convert it to chloroprene as shown here:

This "acetylene process" has been replaced by a process which adds Cl2 to one of the double bonds in 1,3-butadiene instead, and subsequent elimination produces HCl instead, as well as chloroprene. Safety[edit] Hydrogen
Hydrogen
chloride forms corrosive hydrochloric acid on contact with water found in body tissue. Inhalation
Inhalation
of the fumes can cause coughing, choking, inflammation of the nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract, and in severe cases, pulmonary edema, circulatory system failure, and death. Skin
Skin
contact can cause redness, pain, and severe skin burns. Hydrogen
Hydrogen
chloride may cause severe burns to the eye and permanent eye damage. The gas, being strongly hydrophilic, can be easily scrubbed from the exhaust gases of a reaction by bubbling it through water, producing useful hydrochloric acid as a byproduct. Any equipment handling hydrogen chloride gas must be checked on a routine basis, particularly valve stems and regulators. The gas requires the use of specialized materials on all wetted parts of the flow path, as it will interact with or corrode numerous materials hydrochloric acid alone will not, such as stainless and regular polymers. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
have established occupational exposure limits for hydrogen chloride at a ceiling of 5 ppm (7 mg/m3),[14] and compiled extensive information on hydrogen chloride workplace safety concerns.[15] See also[edit]

Chloride, inorganic salts of hydrochloric acid Gastric acid, hydrochloric acid secreted into the stomach to aid digestion of proteins Hydrochloride, organic salts of hydrochloric acid

References[edit]

^ "hydrogen chloride (CHEBI:17883)". Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI). UK: European Bioinformatics Institute.  ^ Haynes, William M. (2010). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (91 ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 4–67. ISBN 978-1439820773.  ^ Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Chloride. Gas
Gas
Encyclopaedia. Air Liquide ^ Tipping, E.(2002) [1]. Cambridge University Press, 2004. ^ Trummal, A.; Lipping, L.; Kaljurand, I.; Koppel, I. A.; Leito, I. "Acidity of Strong Acids in Water
Water
and Dimethyl Sulfoxide" J. Phys. Chem. A. 2016, 120, 3663-3669. doi:10.1021/acs.jpca.6b02253 ^ a b c "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0332". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).  ^ a b " Hydrogen
Hydrogen
chloride". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).  ^ Ouellette, Robert J.; Rawn, J. David (2015). Principles of Organic Chemistry. Elsevier Science. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-0-12-802634-2.  ^ Natta, G. (1933). "Struttura e polimorfismo degli acidi alogenidrici". Gazzetta Chimica Italiana (in Italian). 63: 425–439.  ^ Sándor, E.; Farrow, R. F. C. (1967). "Crystal Structure of Solid Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Chloride
Chloride
and Deuterium
Deuterium
Chloride". Nature. 213 (5072): 171–172. Bibcode:1967Natur.213..171S. doi:10.1038/213171a0.  ^ Hydrochloric Acid – Compound Summary. Pubchem ^ Francisco J. Arnsliz (1995). "A Convenient Way To Generate Hydrogen Chloride
Chloride
in the Freshman Lab". J. Chem. Educ. 72 (12): 1139. Bibcode:1995JChEd..72.1139A. doi:10.1021/ed072p1139.  ^ Hartley, Harold (1960). "The Wilkins Lecture. Sir Humphry Davy, Bt., P.R.S. 1778–1829". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 255 (1281): 153–180. Bibcode:1960RSPSA.255..153H. doi:10.1098/rspa.1960.0060.  ^ CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards ^ " Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Chloride". CDC - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic. March 5, 2012. Retrieved 2016-07-15. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hydrogen
Hydrogen
chloride.

International Chemical Safety Card 0163 Thames & Kosmos Chem C2000 Experiment Manual

v t e

Hydrogen
Hydrogen
compounds

H3AsO3 H3AsO4 HAt HSO3F HBF4 HBr HBrO HBrO2 HBrO3 HBrO4 HCl HClO HClO2 HClO3 HClO4 HCN HCNO H2CrO4/H2Cr2O7 H2CO3 H2CS3 HF HFΟ HI HIO HIO2 HIO3 HIO4 HMnO4 H2MoO4 HNC NaHCO3 HNCO HNO HNO2 HNO3 H2N2O2 HNO5S H3NSO3 H2O H2O2 H2O3 H3PO2 H3PO3 H3PO4 H4P2O7 H5P3O10 H2PtCl6 H2S H2S2 H2Se H2SeO3 H2SeO4 H4SiO4 H2SiF6 HSCN HNSC H2SO3 H2SO4 H2SO5 H2S2O3 H2S2O6 H2S2O7 H2S2O8 CF3SO3H H2Te H2TeO3 H6TeO6 H4TiO4 H2Po HCo(CO)4

v t e

Molecules detected in outer space

Molecules

Diatomic

Aluminium monochloride Aluminium monofluoride Aluminium monoxide Argonium Carbon
Carbon
monophosphide Carbon
Carbon
monosulfide Carbon
Carbon
monoxide Carborundum Cyanogen
Cyanogen
radical Diatomic carbon Fluoromethylidynium Hydrogen
Hydrogen
chloride Hydrogen
Hydrogen
fluoride Hydrogen
Hydrogen
(molecular) Hydroxyl radical Iron(II) oxide Magnesium monohydride
Magnesium monohydride
cation Methylidyne radical Nitric oxide Nitrogen
Nitrogen
(molecular) Nitrogen
Nitrogen
monohydride Nitrogen
Nitrogen
sulfide Oxygen
Oxygen
(molecular) Phosphorus monoxide Phosphorus mononitride Potassium chloride Silicon
Silicon
carbide Silicon
Silicon
mononitride Silicon
Silicon
monoxide Silicon
Silicon
monosulfide Sodium chloride Sodium iodide Sulfur monohydride Sulfur monoxide Titanium oxide

Triatomic

Aluminium hydroxide Aluminium isocyanide Amino radical Carbon
Carbon
dioxide Carbonyl sulfide CCP radical Chloronium Diazenylium Dicarbon monoxide Disilicon carbide Ethynyl radical Formyl radical Hydrogen
Hydrogen
cyanide (HCN) Hydrogen
Hydrogen
isocyanide (HNC) Hydrogen
Hydrogen
sulfide Hydroperoxyl Iron cyanide Isoformyl Magnesium cyanide Magnesium isocyanide Methylene radical N2H+ Nitrous oxide Nitroxyl Ozone Phosphaethyne Potassium cyanide Protonated molecular hydrogen Sodium cyanide Sodium hydroxide Silicon
Silicon
carbonitride c- Silicon
Silicon
dicarbide Silicon
Silicon
naphthalocyanine Sulfur dioxide Thioformyl Thioxoethenylidene Titanium dioxide Tricarbon Water

Four atoms

Acetylene Ammonia Cyanic acid Cyanoethynyl Cyclopropynylidyne Formaldehyde Fulminic acid HCCN Hydrogen
Hydrogen
peroxide Hydromagnesium isocyanide Isocyanic acid Isothiocyanic acid Ketenyl Methylene amidogen Methyl radical Propynylidyne Protonated carbon dioxide Protonated hydrogen cyanide Silicon
Silicon
tricarbide Thioformaldehyde Tricarbon
Tricarbon
monoxide Tricarbon
Tricarbon
sulfide Thiocyanic acid

Five atoms

Ammonium
Ammonium
ion Butadiynyl Carbodiimide Cyanamide Cyanoacetylene Cyanoformaldehyde Cyanomethyl Cyclopropenylidene Formic acid Isocyanoacetylene Ketene Methane Methoxy
Methoxy
radical Methylenimine Propadienylidene Protonated formaldehyde Protonated formaldehyde Silane Silicon-carbide cluster

Six atoms

Acetonitrile Cyanobutadiynyl radical E-Cyanomethanimine Cyclopropenone Diacetylene Ethylene Formamide HC4N Ketenimine Methanethiol Methanol Methyl isocyanide Pentynylidyne Propynal Protonated cyanoacetylene

Seven atoms

Acetaldehyde Acrylonitrile

Vinyl cyanide

Cyanodiacetylene Ethylene
Ethylene
oxide Hexatriynyl radical Methylacetylene Methylamine Methyl isocyanate Vinyl alcohol

Eight atoms

Acetic acid Aminoacetonitrile Cyanoallene Ethanimine Glycolaldehyde Heptatrienyl radical Hexapentaenylidene Methylcyanoacetylene Methyl formate Propenal

Nine atoms

Acetamide Cyanohexatriyne Cyanotriacetylene Dimethyl ether Ethanol Methyldiacetylene Octatetraynyl radical Propene Propionitrile

Ten atoms or more

Acetone Benzene Benzonitrile Buckminsterfullerene
Buckminsterfullerene
(C60 fullerene, buckyball) C70 fullerene Cyanodecapentayne Cyanopentaacetylene Cyanotetra-acetylene Ethylene
Ethylene
glycol Ethyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl-cyano-diacetylene Methyltriacetylene Propanal n-Propyl cyanide Pyrimidine

Deuterated molecules

Ammonia Ammonium
Ammonium
ion Formaldehyde Formyl radical Heavy water Hydrogen
Hydrogen
cyanide Hydrogen
Hydrogen
deuteride Hydrogen
Hydrogen
isocyanide Methylacetylene N2D+ Trihydrogen cation

Unconfirmed

Anthracene Dihydroxyacetone Ethyl methyl ether Glycine Graphene H2NCO+ Linear C5 Naphthalene
Naphthalene
cation Phosphine Pyrene Silylidine

Related

Abiogenesis Astrobiology Astrochemistry Atomic and molecular astrophysics Chemical formula Circumstellar envelope Cosmic dust Cosmic ray Cosmochemistry Diffuse interstellar band Earliest known life forms Extraterrestrial life Extraterrestrial liquid water Forbidden mechanism Helium hydride ion Homochirality Intergalactic dust Interplanetary medium Interstellar medium Photodissociation region Iron–sulfur world theory Kerogen Molecules in stars Nexus for Exoplanet System Science Organic compound Outer space PAH world hypothesis Panspermia Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
(PAH) RNA world hypothesis Spectroscopy Tholin

Book:Chemistry Category:Astrochemistry Category:Molecules Portal:Astrobiology Portal:Astronomy Portal:Chemistry

v t e

Chlorine
Chlorine
compounds

ClF ClF3 ClF5 ClNO3 ClO Cl2O2 ClO2 ClO2F ClO3F Cl2O Cl2O4 Cl2O6 Cl2O7 HCl SiCl4

v t e

Binary compounds of hydrogen

Alkali metal hydrides

LiH NaH KH RbH CsH

Lithium hydride, LiH ionic metal hydride

Beryllium hydride Left (gas phase): BeH2 covalent metal hydride Right: (BeH2)n (solid phase) polymeric metal hydride

Borane
Borane
and diborane Left: BH3 (special conditions), covalent metalloid hydride Right: B2H6 (standard conditions), dimeric metalloid hydride

Methane, CH4 covalent nonmetal hydride

Ammonia, NH3 covalent nonmetal hydride

Water, H2O covalent nonmetal hydride

Hydrogen
Hydrogen
fluoride, HF covalent nonmetal hydride

Alkaline earth hydrides

Monohydrides

BeH MgH CaH SrH BaH

BeH2 MgH2 CaH2 SrH2 BaH2

Group 13 hydrides

Boranes

BH3 B2H6 B2H2 B2H4

Alanes

AlH3 Al2H6

Gallanes

GaH3 Ga2H6

Indiganes

InH3 In2H6

Thallanes

TlH3 Tl2H6

B2H2 B2H4 B4H10 B5H9 B5H11 B6H10 B6H12 B10H14 B18H22

Group 14 hydrides

Linear alkanes

CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 more...

Linear alkenes

C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 more...

Linear alkynes

C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C6H10 C7H12 C8H14 C9H16 C10H18 more...

Silanes

SiH4 Si2H6 Si3H8 Si4H10 Si5H12 Si6H14 Si7H16 Si8H18 Si9H20 Si10H22 more...

Silenes

Si2H4

Silynes

Si2H2

Germanes

GeH4 Ge2H6 Ge3H8 Ge4H10 Ge5H12

Stannanes

SnH4 Sn2H6

Plumbanes

PbH4

CH CH2 CH3 C2H Cycloalkanes Cycloalkenes Annulenes Many more

Pnictogen hydrides

Azanes

NH3 N2H4 N3H5 N4H6 N5H7 N6H8 N7H9 N8H10 N9H11 N10H12 more...

Azenes

N2H2 N3H3 N4H4

Phosphanes

PH3 P2H4 P3H5 P4H6 P5H7 P6H8 P7H9 P8H10 P9H11 P10H12 more...

Phosphenes

P2H2 P3H3 P4H4

Arsanes

AsH3 As2H4

Stibanes

SbH3

Bismuthanes

BiH3

HN3 NH

radical

Hydrogen
Hydrogen
chalcogenides

Polyoxidanes

H2O H2O2 H2O3 H2O4 H2O5 H2O6 H2O7 H2O8 H2O9 H2O10 more...

Polysulfanes

H2S H2S2 H2S3 H2S4 H2S5 H2S6 H2S7 H2S8 H2S9 H2S10 more...

Selanes

H2Se H2Se2

Tellanes

H2Te H2Te2

Polanes

PoH2

HO HO2 HO3 H2O+–O– H2S=S (HS)2S+–S– HS HDO D2O T2O

Hydrogen
Hydrogen
halides

HF HCl HBr HI HAt

Transition metal hydrides

ScH2 YH2 YH3 TiH2 ZrH2 HfH2 VH VH2 NbH NbH2 TaH CrH CrH2 CrHx NiH PdHx (x < 1) FeH FeH2 FeH5 CuH ZnH2 CdH2 HgH2

Lanthanide hydrides

LaH2 LaH3 CeH2 CeH3 PrH2 PrH3 NdH2 NdH3 SmH2 SmH3 EuH2 GdH2 GdH3 TbH2 TbH3 DyH2 DyH3 HoH2 HoH3 ErH2 ErH3 TmH2 TmH3 YbH2 YbH2.5 LuH2 LuH3

Actinide hydrides

AcH2 ThH2 Th4H15 PaH3 UH3 NpH2 NpH3 PuH2 PuH3 AmH2 AmH3 CmH2

Authority control

GND: 41478

.