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Hydrangea
Hydrangea
(/haɪˈdreɪndʒiə/;[1] common names hydrangea or hortensia) is a genus of 70–75 species of flowering plants native to southern and eastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea, the Himalayas, and Indonesia) and the Americas. By far the greatest species diversity is in eastern Asia, notably China, Japan, and Korea. Most are shrubs 1 to 3 meters tall, but some are small trees, and others lianas reaching up to 30 m (98 ft) by climbing up trees. They can be either deciduous or evergreen, though the widely cultivated temperate species are all deciduous.[2] Having been introduced to the Azores, H. macrophylla is now very common, particularly on Faial, which is known as the "blue island" due to the vast number of hydrangeas present on the island.

Contents

1 Life cycle 2 Colours and soil acidity 3 Partial list of species 4 Cultivation and uses 5 Gallery 6 Diseases 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Life cycle[edit] Hydrangea
Hydrangea
flowers are produced from early spring to late autumn; they grow in flowerheads (corymbs or panicles) most often at the ends of the stems. Typically the flowerheads contain two types of flowers: small non-showy flowers in the center or interior of the flowerhead, and large, showy flowers with large colorful sepals (tepals). These showy flowers are often extended in a ring, or to the exterior of the small flowers. Plants in wild populations typically have few to none of the showy flowers, while cultivated hydrangeas have been bred and selected to have more of the larger type flowers. There are two flower arrangements in hydrangeas with corymb style inflorescences, which includes the commonly grown "bigleaf hydrangea"— Hydrangea
Hydrangea
macrophylla. Mophead flowers are large round flowerheads resembling pom-poms or, as the name implies, the head of a mop. In contrast, lacecap flowers bear round, flat flowerheads with a center core of subdued, small flowers surrounded by outer rings of larger flowers having showy sepals or tepals. The flowers of some rhododendrons and viburnums can appear, at first glance, similar to those of some hydrangeas. Colours and soil acidity[edit] In most species the flowers are white, but in some species (notably H. macrophylla), can be blue, red, pink, light purple, or dark purple. In these species the color is affected by the presence of aluminium ions which are available or tied up depending upon the soil pH.[3][4] For H. macrophylla and H. serrata cultivars, the flower color can be determined by the relative acidity of the soil: an acidic soil (pH below 7), will have available aluminum ions and typically produce flowers that are blue to purple,[5] whereas an alkaline soil (pH above 7) will tie up aluminum ions and result in pink or red flowers. This is caused by a color change of the flower pigments in the presence of aluminium ions which can be taken up into hyperaccumulating plants.[6] Lowering the pH of potting soils or mixes usually does not change the flower color to blue, because these soils have no aluminum ions. The ability to blue or pink a hydrangea is also influenced by the cultivar. Some plants are selected for their ability to be blued, while others are bred and selected to be red, pink or white. The flower color of most other Hydrangea
Hydrangea
species is not affected by aluminum and cannot be changed or shifted. Hydrangeas also have a nickname called 'Change Rose'. Partial list of species[edit]

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
paniculata

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
alaskana a fossil species recovered from paleogene strata in Jaw Mountain Alaska.[7] Hydrangea anomala
Hydrangea anomala
(climbing hydrangea). Himalaya, southwest Mainland China. Hydrangea arborescens
Hydrangea arborescens
(smooth hydrangea). Eastern North America. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
aspera. Mainland China, Himalaya. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
bretschneideri. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
candida. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
caudatifolia. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
chinensis. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
chungii. Mainland China. Hydrangea cinerea
Hydrangea cinerea
(ashy hydrangea). Eastern United States. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
coacta. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
coenobialis. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
davidii. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
dumicola. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
gracilis. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
heteromalla. Himalaya, west and north Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
hirta. Japan. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
hypoglauca. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
integrifolia. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
involucrata. Japan, Taiwan. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
kawakamii. Taiwan. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
kwangsiensis. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
kwangtungensis. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
lingii. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
linkweiensis. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
longifolia. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
longipes. Western China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
macrocarpa. Mainland China. Hydrangea macrophylla
Hydrangea macrophylla
(bigleaf hydrangea). Southeast Japan, southern China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
mangshanensis. Mainland China. Hydrangea paniculata
Hydrangea paniculata
(panicled hydrangea). Eastern Mainland China, Japan, Korea, Sakhalin. Hydrangea petiolaris
Hydrangea petiolaris
(climbing hydrangea). Japan, Korea, Sakhalin. Hydrangea quercifolia
Hydrangea quercifolia
(oakleaf hydrangea). Southeast United States. Hydrangea radiata
Hydrangea radiata
(silverleaf hydrangea). Southeast United States. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
robusta. Mainland China, Himalaya. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
sargentiana. Western Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
scandens. Southern Japan
Japan
south to the Philippines. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
serrata. Japan, Korea. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
serratifolia. Chile, western Argentina. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
stenophylla. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
strigosa. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
stylosa. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
sungpanensis. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
xanthoneura. Mainland China. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
zhewanensis. Mainland China.

Cultivation and uses[edit] Hydrangeas are popular ornamental plants, grown for their large flowerheads, with Hydrangea macrophylla
Hydrangea macrophylla
being by far the most widely grown with over 600 named cultivars, many selected to have only large sterile flowers in the flowerheads. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
macrophylla, also known as Bigleaf Hydrangea, can be broken up into two main categories; Mophead Hydrangea
Hydrangea
& Lacecap Hydrangea.[8] Some are best pruned on an annual basis when the new leaf buds begin to appear. If not pruned regularly, the bush will become very 'leggy', growing upwards until the weight of the stems is greater than their strength, at which point the stems will sag down to the ground and possibly break. Other species only flower on 'old wood'. Thus new wood resulting from pruning will not produce flowers until the following season. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
root and rhizome are indicated for treatment of conditions of the urinary tract in the PDR for Herbal Medicine and may have diuretic properties.[9] Hydrangeas are moderately toxic if eaten, with all parts of the plant containing cyanogenic glycosides.[10] Hydrangea paniculata is reportedly sometimes smoked as an intoxicant, despite the danger of illness and/or death due to the cyanide.[11][12] In Japan, ama-cha,甘茶 meaning sweet tea, is another herbal tea made from Hydrangea
Hydrangea
serrata, whose leaves contain a substance that develops a sweet taste (phyllodulcin). For the fullest taste, fresh leaves are crumpled, steamed, and dried, yielding dark brown tea leaves. Ama-cha is mainly used for kan-butsu-e (the Buddha
Buddha
bathing ceremony) on April 8 every year—the day thought to be Buddha's birthday in Japan. During the ceremony, Ama-cha is poured over a statue of Buddha
Buddha
and served to people in attendance. A legend has it that on the day Buddha was born, nine dragons poured Amrita
Amrita
over him; ama-cha is substituted for Amrita
Amrita
in Japan. In Korean tea, Hydrangea serrata
Hydrangea serrata
(hangul:산수국 hanja:山水菊) is used for an herbal tea called sugukcha (수국차) or ilsulcha (이슬차). The pink hydrangea has risen in popularity all over the world, but especially in Asia. Pink hydrangeas have many different meanings, but generally mean, "You are the beat of my heart," as described by the celebrated Asian florist Tan Jun Yong, where he was quoted saying, "The light delicate blush of the petals reminds me of a beating heart, while the size could only match the heart of the sender!"[13] A popular pink hydrangea called Vanilla Strawberry has been named "Top Plant" by the American Nursery and Landscape Association. Gallery[edit]

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
macrophylla

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
flowers close up.

Flowers

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
macrophylla, flowers.

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
macrophylla, flowers

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
sp painted by the botanical artist Redouté.

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
quercifolia

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
macrophylla, leaves

Wild Hydrangea
Hydrangea
v. Annabelle Hydrangea
Hydrangea
arborescens

Wild Hydrangea
Hydrangea
v. Annabelle Hydrangea
Hydrangea
arborescens

8" Annabelle Hydrangea
Hydrangea
Bloom. Hydrangea
Hydrangea
arborescens.

Hydrangea aspera
Hydrangea aspera
ssp. sargentiana

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
paniculata

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
flowers from Kerala, India

H. macrophylla, Watermouth Castle, north Devon, England.

Hydrangeas in front of the Office de Tourisme Building in Chartres, France.

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
flowers at the "Cerro El Avila" National Park, Venezuela.

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
flowers, Srinagar, Kashmir, India.

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
flowers blooming at the Kanonji temple (Japan).

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
flowers

Hydrangea
Hydrangea
flowers in Petrópolis, Brazil.

Hydrangeas near the Black Lake of Gramado, southern Brazil.

Purple hydrangea flowers

Hydrangea arborescens
Hydrangea arborescens
leaf

Diseases[edit] Main article: List of hydrangea diseases Notes[edit]

^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607 ^ "The United States National Arboretum: Hydrangea
Hydrangea
FAQ".  ^ University of Georgia: Growing Bigleaf Hydrangea ^ USDA: Hydrangea
Hydrangea
Questions and Answers ^ "Hydrangea". Encyclopædia Britannica 1911. Retrieved 2014-01-17. . ^ " Hydrangea
Hydrangea
Plants".  ^ Hollick, Arthur (1925). "A New Fossil Species of Hydrangea". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 52 (1): 21–22. JSTOR 2479996.  ^ "The Complete Guide to All Hydrangea
Hydrangea
Types Plant
Plant
Addicts". plantaddicts.com. Retrieved 2017-11-20.  ^ PDR for Herbal Medicine 3rd Edition Page 453 ^ ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center ^ Erowid Hydrangea
Hydrangea
Vault ^ High danger hydrangea? The Guardian French police hunt gang peddling 'cheaper weed' ^ Roll Magazine

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hydrangea". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 34. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hydrangea.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Hydrangea

Holland Hydrangea www.hydrangeaworld.com erowid.org Flora of Nepal: Hydrangea
Hydrangea
species list Hydrangea
Hydrangea
– selecting shrubs Hydrangea
Hydrangea
species and hybrids Propagating Hydrangeas Red Listing of Threatened Hydrangeas

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q155997 APDB: 191532 EoL: 40082 EPPO: 1HYEG FloraBase: 44687 FoC: 115977 Fossilworks: 54631 GBIF: 2985983 GRIN: 5889 ITIS: 24194 NCBI: 23109 PLANTS: HYDRA Tropicos: 40028805

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